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THE 

IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 
OF INDIA 



VOL. XXI 

PUSHKAR TO SALWEEN 



NEW EDITION 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S 
_S*RE.TARY OP STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL 



OXFORD 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1908 



HENRY FROWDE, M.A. 

PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY OP OXFORD 

LONDON, EDINBURGH 
NEW YORK AND TORONTO 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

NOTES ON TRANSLITERATION 

Vowel-Sounds 

a has the sound of a in ' woman/ 
a has the sound of a in ' father ' 
e has the vowel-sound in c grey.' 
i has the sound of i m ' pin ' 
I has the sound of / in ' police.' 
o has the sound of o in ' bone,' 
u has the sound of n in * bull.' 
u has the sound of u in ' flute,' 
ai has the vowel-sound in ' mine.' 
au has the vowel-sound m ' house/ 

It should be stated that no attempt has been made to distinguish 
between the long and short sounds of e and o in the Dravidian 
languages, which possess the vowel-sounds in ' bet ' and ' hot ' in 
addition to those giveti^bove ''Nor has it been thought necessary 
to mark vowels as long m cases where mistakes in pronunciation 
were not likely to be made, 

Consonants 

Most Indian languages have different Forms for a number of con- 
sonants, such as d) t, r> &c., marked m scientific works by the use 
of dots or italics. As the European ear distinguishes these with 
difficulty in oidinary pronunciation, it has been considered undesir- 
able to embarrass the reader with them ; and only two notes are 
required. In the first place, the Arabic k, a strong guttural, has 
been represented by k instead of ^, which is often used. Secondly, 
it should be remarked that aspirated consonants are common ; and, 
m particular, dh and th (except in Burma) never have the sound of 
th in 'this' or 'thin,' but should be pronounced as ia ' woodhouse' 
and 'boathook 5 

A 2 



iv INTRODUCTORY NOTES 

Burmese Words 

Burmese and some of the languages on the frontier of China have 
the following special sounds : 

aw has the vowel-sound in ' law.' 
o and u are pronounced as in German. 
gy is pronounced almost like/ in * jewel ' 
ky is pronounced almost like ch in ' church. 7 
th is pronounced in some cases as in l this,' in some cases as in 

i thin.' 

w after a consonant has the force of uw. Thus, ywa and pwe 
are disyllables, pronounced as if written yitwa and 



It should also be noted that, whereas in Indian words the accent 
or stress is distributed almost equally on each syllable, in Burmese 
there is a tendency to throw special stress on the last syllable 

General 

The names of some places e.g. Calcutta, Bombay, Lucknow, 
Cawnpore have obtained a popular fixity of spelling, while special 
forms have been officially prescribed for others Names of persons 
are often spelt and pronounced differently in different parts of India ; 
but the variations have been made as few as possible by assimilating 
forms almost alike, especially where a particular spelling has been 
generally adopted in English books 

NOTES ON MONEY, PRICES, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

As the currency of India is based upon the rupee, all statements 
with regard to money throughout the Gazetteer have necessarily been 
expressed in rupees, nor has it been found possible to add generally 
a conversion into sterling. Down to about 1873 the gold value of 
the rupee (containing 165 grains of pure silver) was approximately 
equal to zs., or one-tenth of a , and for that period it is easy to 
convert rupees into sterling by striking off the final cipher (Rs. 1,000 
= 100). But after 1873, owing to the depreciation of silver as 
compared with gold throughout the world, there came a serious and 
progressive fall in the exchange, until at one time the gold value of 
the rupee dropped as low as is In order to provide a remedy for 
the heavy loss caused to the Government of India in respect of its 
gold payments to be made in England, and also to relieve foreign 
trade and finance from the inconvenience due to constant and 
unforeseen fluctuations in exchange, it was resolved in 1893 to close 
the mints to the free coinage of silver, and thus force up the value of 
the rupee by restricting the circulation. The intention was to laise 



INTR OD UCTOR Y NO TES v 

the exchange value of the rupee to is 4^, and then introduce a gold 
standard (though not necessanly a gold cuirency) at the rate of Rs. 15 
= i. This policy has been completely successful. From 1899 on- 
wards the value of the rupee has been maintained, with insignificant 
fluctuations, at the proposed late of i,?. 4^. ; and consequently since 
that date three rupees have been equivalent to two lupees befoie 1873 
For the intermediate period, between 1873 and 1899, it is manifestly 
impossible to adopt any fixed sterling value for a constantly changing 
rupee. But since 1899, if it is desired to convert rupees into sterling, 
not only must the final cipher be stiuck off (as befoie 1873), DI U 
also one-third must be subtracted from the result. Thus Rs. 1,000 
= 100 -J = (about) 67. 

Another matter in connexion with the expression of money state- 
ments in terms of rupees requires to be explained. The method of 
numerical notation in India differs from that which pievails through- 
out Europe. Large numbers are not punctuated in hundieds of thou- 
sands and millions, but in lakhs and crores. A lakh is one hundred 
thousand (written out as 1,00,000), and a crore is one hundred lakhs 
or ten millions (written out as 1,00,00,000), Consequently, accord- 
ing to the exchange value of the rupee, a lakh of rupees (Rs 1,00,000) 
may be read as the equivalent of 10,000 before 1873, and as the 
equivalent of (about) 6,667 after 1899 ; while a crore of rupees 
(Rs. 1,00,00,000) may similarly be read as the equivalent of 
1,000,000 before 1873, and as the equivalent of (about) 666,667 
after 1899. 

Finally, it should be mentioned that the rupee is divided into 
1 6 annas, a fraction commonly used for many purposes by both 
natives and Europeans. The anna was formerly reckoned as i^d. ; 
it may now be considered as exactly corresponding to id The 
anna is again subdivided into 12 pies. 

The various systems of weights used in India combine uniformity 
of scale with immense vanations in the weight of units. The scale 
used generally throughout Northern India, and less commonly in 
Madras and Bombay, may be thus expiessed : one maund = 40 seers ; 
one seer = 16 chittaks or 80 tolas. The actual weight of a seer 
varies gieatly from District to District, and even from village to 
village., but in the standard system the tola is 180 grains Troy 
(the exact weight of the rupee), and the seei thus weighs 2-057 lb., 
and the maund 82-28 lb. This standaid is used in official leports 
and throughout the Gazetteer. 

For calculating retail prices, the universal custom in India is to 
express them in tenns of seers to the rupee. Thus, when prices 
change, what varies is not the amount of money to be paid for the 



VI 



vi INTR OD UCTOR Y NO TES 

same quantity, but the quantity to be obtained for the same amount 
of money. In other words, prices in India are quantity prices, not 
money prices, When the figure of quantity goes up, this of course 
means that the price has gone down, which is at first sight perplexing 
to an English reader. It may, however, be mentioned that quantity 
prices are not altogether unknown in England, especially at small 
shops, where pennyworths of many groceries can be bought. Eggs, 
likewise, are commonly sold at a varying number for the shilling 
If it'be desired to convert quantity prices from Indian into English 
denominations without having recourse to money piices (which would 
often be misleading), the following scale may be adopted based 
upon the assumptions that a seer is exactly 2 Ib , and that the value 
of the rupee remains constant at i s. 4^. . i seer per rupee = (about) 
3 Ib. for 2s. ; 2 seers per rupee = (about) 6 Ib. for 2S ; and so on. 

The name of the unit for square measurement in India generall} 
is the bigha, which varies greatly m different parts of the country 
But areas ha\e always been expressed throughout the Gazetteer either 
in square miles or m acres. 



MAP 

RAJPUIANA to face p. 154 



vi 



IMPERIAL GAZETTEER 
OF INDIA 

VOLUME XXI 

Pushkar. Town, lake, and place of pilgrimage in Ajmer District, 
Rajputana, situated in 26 29' N and 74 33' E ; 2,389 feet above 
sea-level. Population (1901), 3,831, neaily all Hindus, Pushkar is 
said commonly (but erroneously) to be the only town in India that 
contains a temple dedicated to Brahma, who here performed the sacri- 
fice known as yaj net, \\hereby the lake of Pushkar became so holy that 
the greatest sinner, by bathing in it, earns the delights of Paradise. 
The town contains five principal temples, dedicated to Brahma, Savitri, 
Badn Narayan, Varha, and Siva Atmateswara ; but they are of modern 
construction, as the earlier buildings suffered severely under Aurangzeb, 
Bathing ghats line the lake, and many of the princely families of Raj- 
putana have houses round the margin, No living thing may be put to 
death within the limits of the town, A great fair is held in October 
and November, attended by about 100,000 pilgrims, who bathe in the 
sacred lake. At this time there is a large tiade in horses, camels, 
bullocks, and miscellaneous merchandise. 

Pushpagiri. Village and hill on the Madras-Mysore boidei. See 

SUBRAHMANYA, 

Puttur Subdivision. Subdivision of South Kanaia Distuct, 
Madras, consisting of the UPPINANGADI and KASARAGOD taluks 

Puttur T&hsll.ZamtJidan tahsll in North Arcot District, Madras, 
consisting of the northern half of the KARVETNAGAR samindan. Area, 
542 square miles ; population m 1901, 170,235, compared with 155,546 
in 1891 It contains 340 villages, the head-quarters being PUTTUR. 

Puttur Village. Head-quarters of the Uppmangadi subdivision 
and taluk of South Kanara Distnct, Madras, situated in 12 46' N. 
and 75 12' E Population (1901), 3,999 The surrounding country 
belonged to Coorg, and after the Coorg rebellion of 1837 troops were 
stationed here till 1860. 

Pyapalli. Town in the Pattikonda taluk of Kurnool District, 
Madras, situated in 15 14' N, and 77 44' E,, at the foot of a granite 
hill, on the trunk road from Bangalore and Gooty to Hyderabad, 



2 PYAPALLI 

This is the highest town in the District, being about 1,750 feet above 
sea-level, and is probably the healthiest station. Population (1901), 
3,666. It is the head-quai ters of a deputy-tato/^?-. There is a good 
travellers' bungalow situated in a fine tope planted by Mr, Robertson, 
a former Collector. The representatives of the ancient pohgars who 
built the town and fort still reside here, and draw pensions from 
Government. 

Pyapon. District. A sea-board delta District in the Irrawaddy 
Division of Lower Burma, lying along the Gulf of Martaban, between 
15 40' and 16 41' N. and 95 6' and 96 6' E., with an area of 2,137 
square miles. In shape it is a truncated triangle, the sides being the 
Irrawaddy on the west and the To or China Bakir river on the east, 
while the base is formed by the sea-coast, which has a general south- 
west to north-east direction. It is bounded on the east by Hantha- 
waddy District , on the west b> Myaungmya ; and on the north by 
Ma-ubin. The entire area consists of a vast plain, intersected by tidal 
creeks and waterways. With the exception of some 

aspects very sma11 areas caue(i kondans, the whole of this 
level is subject to inundation at high spring-tides, 
and a good deal is submerged throughout the monsoon period The 
kondans are narrow strips of land, about 4 to 10 feet above the level of 
the plain, on which the soil is dry and sandy. They are supposed to 
be the remnants of old sea-beaches. The rivers are all tidal, and form 
the southeastern portion of the netv\ork of waters by which the Irra- 
waddy finds its way into the Gulf of Martaban. That river, running 
bouthwaids to the sea, bounds the District on the west, except in one 
place where Myaungmya District extends east of the stream. It is 
naugable by river craft at all seasons of the year. The To river (or 
China Bakir) takes off from the Irrawaddy in Ma-ubin District, and 
runs in a south-easterly direction, separating Pyapon from Hantha- 
waddy. Four miles below Dedaye it spreads into a secondary delta, its 
two western branches being called the Donyan and Thandi nveis, both 
wide but of little importance. Into the To river itself (the eastern 
branch), at the extreme south-east cornei of the District, flows the 
Thakutpm or Bassein creek, a tidal waterway which gives river com- 
munication with Rangoon. In Ma-ubin District, about 20 miles below 
the point where the To river leaves the Irrawaddy, the Kyaiklat river 
branches off from the To, and flows in a southerly direction, past 
Kyaiklat and Pyapon, into the sea. In the latter part of its course 
it is called the Pyapon nvei. A few miles below Kyaiklat the Gon- 
nymdan stream takes off from the Kyaiklat river, and flows first south- 
west as far as Bogale, where it is connected by various creeks with the 
Irrawaddy, and thence almost due south into the sea at Pyindaye, 
under the name of the Dala river, Its lower reaches are sepaiated 



PYAPON DISTRICT 3 

from those of the Irrawaddy by two large islands which aie covered 
with fuel reseives. Besides these more important channels, the District 
possesses countless tidal creeks the Uyin, Podok, Wayakaing, and 
others which convert it into a maze of muddy channels 

The geological and botanical features of Pyapon are the same as are 
noticed under HANTHAWADDY DISTRICT. The soil is mainly alluvium 
and the jungle vegetation is largely swamp, 

The tiger and the elephant aie practically confined to the uncleared 
areas in the south, where theie aie also herds of wild buffalo, wild hog, 
and hog deer. Crocodiles are not uncommon in the creeks, and turtles 
abound at certain seasons of the year on the sandbanks along the 
southern coast. 

The climate, though damp and depressing, is healthy, and the 
proximity of the sea renders the temperature equable. The average 
minimum temperature throughout the year is about 65, the average 
maximum 95, and the average mean about 80. One of the results of 
the proximity of the Gulf of Maitaban is that the winds aie decidedly 
stronger than farther inland. The country enjoys a regular and 
copious rainfall, rather in excess of the mean for the delta. The 
annual average is about 95 inches, deci easing towards the north in the 
areas farthest removed from the coast. 

The District as at present constituted is of modern creation, having 
been taken in 1903 from Thong wa (now Ma-ubin) District, which itself 
only dates back to 1875 Until recent times the 
country was a stretch of unreclaimed jungle, the only 
indications of an eailier civilization being in the south-west. The 
village of Eya, from which the Irrawaddy takes its name, is now an 
insignificant hamlet, though it must have been a place of no little 
repute in bygone days. Of historical remains there are practically 
none. The most ancient and reveied pagoda is that known as the 
Tawkyat at Dedaye, and even this is supposed to be not more than 
a hundred years old 

Owing to various minor alterations in the township boundaries, 
exact figures for the population of the area now composing the District 
are not obtainable foi past years In 1881 the whole 
District formed little more than a single township of PU 
Thongwa, with a population of about 97,000. In 1891 this total had 
increased to about 139,000, and in 1901 to 226,443, a rate of growth 
exceptional even for Burma. 

The distribution according to the Census of 1901 is shown in the 
table on the next page. 

The only towns are PYAPON, the head-quarters of the District, 
KYAIKLAT, and DEDAYE The increase in the northern part has been 
normal , but in the two southern townships the giowth of population 



PYAPON DISTRICT 



has been extraordinarily rapid, reaching 350 per cent, in the sea-board 
township of Bogale. Its rapidity is due to immigration into the low- 
lying waste areas, where fresh land is constantly being brought under 
the plough. The influx has been mainly from Hanthawaddy and 
Henzada in Lowei Bui ma, and from Minbu, Myingyan, and Mandalay 
in Upper Burma 3 but Indian immigrants are also numerous. Though 
the inland portions are densely populated, the southern tracts washed 
by the sea have comparatively few inhabitants, large areas in fact being 
absolutely uninhabited. Burmese is spoken by 200,000 of the inhabi- 
tants, and Karen by 15,000 



Township 


u 

It 

C "3 

s 

< 


Number of 


Population 
in IQOI 


Population per 
square mile 


Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
t\\een 1891 
and 1901 


Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
\\ rite 


1 


<u 
afl 
_rt 

> 


Pyapon 
Bogale 
Kjaiklat 
Dedaye 

District total 


431 

T >57 

277 

372 


I 

I 

I 


157 
272 

394 
312 


43,9 22 
43,75 6 
71,770 
66,995 


IO2 
41 
259 
I So 


-r 80 

+ 35 

+ 51 
+ iS 


16,598 
25,680 
20,100 
^SS 2 


2,137 


3 


M35 


226,443 


106 


+ 63 


81,930 



Burmans form 88 per cent of the total population. Karens, num- 
bering about 15,000, inhabit the northern portions, especially the 
Kyaiklat township The Indian population is made up of about 2,100 
Musalmans and 6,600 Hindus, and is increasing steadily. The num- 
ber of persons dependent upon agnculture is 74 per cent, of the total 
population. The number of fishermen is large 

Till recently theie have been no Christian missionaries at \\oik, 
though a considerable body of Karen converts live in the Kyaiklat and 
Bogale townships The number of Christians in 1901 was about 
4,900. Of these 4,800 weie natrve Christians, most of whom were 
Baptists. 

The soil resembles that common to the othei lower delta Districts 
of the Piovmce. It is a stiff homogeneous clay, deficient in lime, but 
admirably adapted to rice cultivation. The greater 
part of the cultivated area is inundated, and a con- 
siderable portion is but seldom systematically ploughed, the long kaing 
grass with which it is covered being cut down and burnt, and the rice 
sown broadcast. As the rivers deposit large quantities of silt, the land 
in the immediate neighbourhood of their channels is at a higher level 
than the interior. During the rains the country consists to a large 
extent of vast lakes, m \\hich patches of higher ground appear as 
islands. Large areas of land between the mam rivers he too low for 
rice cultivation, and remain untilled s \\amps. 



Agriculture. 



FISHERIES 



The mam agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are as follows, aieas 
being sho\\n in square miles . 



1o\\nship 


Total area 


Cultivated 


Forests 


P>apon 
Bogale 
Kyaiklat 
Dedaye 


4SI 

i>57 

2/7 

372 


191 

J55 
219 
270 


553 


Total 


2,137 


35 ' 


558 



Accurate statistics of the area cultivated in yeais previous to 1903-4 
are not available. It is estimated that in 1891 about 350 square miles 
were cropped, and this area had increased to 769 square miles by 
1901. In 1903-4 nce covered 822 square miles of the total. None 
but kaukkyt (wet-season) ncc can be grown A certain amount of 
garden cultivation is earned on neai the liver-banks on the richer 
soil in the northern paits of the District, in Kyaiklat and Dedaye 
The gaidens cover 3,100 acres, the greater part being plantains, though 
coco-nut and betel-nut palms aie also giown The dam palm is cul- 
tivated along the sides of the creeks, in the southern paits of the 
District especially, covering 5,000 acies. The cultivation of tobacco 
is insignificant. 

Little is done to impiove the systems of cultivation. Loans are not 
required for agricultural purposes, although they are taken by the 
cultivating classes from money-lenders for all sorts of extravagances, 
with the result that land is gradually passing into the hands of non- 
resident landlords. The laige aica of cultivable land still unoccupied 
and the scarcity of labour keep lents low at present, but the time is 
not far off when these conditions vull be less favourable 

Domestic animals are not bred in any number: they aie usually 
imported, largely from Upper Bui ma. The moist climate and the 
swampy character of the land cause buffaloes to be used in pieference 
to kine, as a rule Goats are few, and ponies aie rarely kept, o^ing to 
the poveity of land communications. 

The numerous fisheries, which have been described in considerable 
detail in a recent report by Major F. D Maxwell, yielded a revenue of 
more than i-| lakhs in 1903-4. The most impoi- . . 

tant of the inland fisheries he in the north of the Flshenes - 
District, in the area enclosed by the To, the Kyaiklat, and the Podok 
streams A considerable portion of the out-turn leaves Pyapon in the 
shape of ngapt (fish-paste). Tuitle-beds abound along the sea-coast 
in the south, and yield large numbeis of turtle-eggs annually. The 
variety of tuitle found is that known as the loggerhead, the green 
turtle does not frequent the Pyapon banks, of which the two best 
known aie the Thaungkadun and the Kamgthaung, 



6 PYAPON DISTRICT 

A considerable stretch of 'reserved' forests occupies 558 square 
miles in the southern portion of the Bogale township. The forests 
have been reserved chiefly as a precaution against 
scarcity of fuel in the future , they are tidal and 
contain no timber trees of any value. The chief forest trees found in 
them are the kyanan (Xylocarpus Granatuni), the kanazo (Hentiera 
minor), the kanbala (Sonneratia apetala), the pyu (Rhiwphora conju- 
gata), the laba (Bignonia\ and the tamu (Sonneratia acida), all tropical 
mangrove forest trees. The thinbaimg (Phoenix, paludosa)^ a small 
palm, grows freely in the District, and is largely used for building 
purposes. On the coast a common species is the tayaw (Ecccoecaria 
Agallocha\ The dam palm (Nipa fruhcans) and the danon (Calamus 
arborescens) abound, and are extensively used for thatching. The 
receipts from the extraction of cane and othei minor forest products 
amounted in 1903-4 to Rs. 12,700. 

Within recent years attempts have been made to establish rice-mills 
in the District. At present five are working in the neighbourhood of 
the principal towns, but it remains to be seen 
Trade and w h e ther they will prove remunerative. Besides rice- 
milling and the preparation of ngapi no manu- 
factures of importance aie carried on, and no arts are practised. 

Paddy and ngapi are exported, the first mainly to Rangoon, the 
latter principally to Upper Burma, Horns, hides, and firewood are 
sent to Rangoon, the latter in veiy considerable quantities, The 
imports comprise the usual necessaries of an agiicultural population 
silk and cotton goods, kerosene oil, sugar, salt, jaggery, pickled tea, 
areca-nuts, hardware, and crockery. The trade is all carried by water, 
and a large share of it is in the hands of the Iirawaddy Flotilla 
Company, 

The netwoik of rivers a.nd creeks spreading over the District gives 
ample means of communication, both internal and external. Outside 
the towns there are no roads, but a beginning will shortly be made in 
road-making. Launches ply daily between Rangoon and Pyapon via 
Dedaye and Kyaiklat, between Yandoon (in Ma-ubm District) and 
Pyapon via Ma-ubm and Kyaiklat, and between Kyaiklat and Bogale 
via Pyapon Bi-weekly steamers run from Rangoon to Moulmeingyun 
m Myaungmya District through Dedaye, Kyaiklat, Pyapon, and Bogale, 
as well as from Rangoon to Kyaikpi, in Myaungmya District, and to 
Pyindaye in the dry season. All these services are maintained by the 
Irrawaddy Flotilla Company The waterways swarm with native craft, 
and at most of the principal towns ferries across the rivers are con- 
trolled by Government. 

The District is divided into two subdivisions : Pyapon, comprising 
the PYAPON and BOGALE townships , and Kyaiklat, comprising the 



ADMINISTRATION 7 

KYAIKLAT and DEDAYK townships. These are staffed b> the usual 
executive officers, under whom are 393 village headmen and 4 circle 

thugyis. For public works purposes the District forms fc . . . 

, ,,.,-ir j- 1-11 Administration, 

a subdivision of the Myaungmya division, which also 

includes Ma-ubm and Myaungmya Districts, The forests lie within 
the Henzada-Thongwa Forest division, the head-quarters of which are 
at Henzada. 

Pyapon is in the jurisdiction of the Judge of the Delta Division, who 
tries sessions cases. The civil work of the District is dealt with by 
a District Judge, who has his head-quarters at Myaungmya, and also 
has jurisdiction in Ma-ubin District Two officers have been appointed 
judges of the Bogale-^/w-Pyapon and the Kyaiklat-^;-Dedaye town- 
ship courts respectively, to relieve the township officers of civil work. 
Otherwise the local executive officers preside ovei their respective 
courts, civil and criminal. As in other parts of the delta, crime is 
considerable, burglaries, thefts, and serious assaults being common. 
Violent crime, such as dacoity and robbery, is moie rife than in the 
non-delta Districts, but shows signs of diminution. Cattle-thieving, an 
important profession in the Districts noith and east of the delta, is not 
common, the reason being that the conformation of the country does 
not lend itself to the operations of the cattle-lifter. In a large number 
of cases of serious hurt clasp-knives are used, and special efforts are 
being made to bring about a diminution of this form of crime. 

Under Burmese rule the method of assessment was, as in the rest of 
the delta Districts, based on the number of yoke of plough animals 
used by the cultivator, amounting roughly to half the gross out-turn. 
In 1868 acre rates were introduced, varying from R. i to Rs. 2-4 
per acre; and these continued in force till 1891-2, when the greater 
part of the District was brought under settlement, Nearly the whole 
of the Bogale township was omitted from this settlement, the few 
cultivated patches in the huge jungle spreading over this township 
continuing to be taxed at a uniform rate of Rs. 2-4 per acre. Over 
the rest of the District rice land was assessed at rates varying from 
Rs. 1-12 on the poorest inundated lands to Rs. 3 on lands which 
were always certain of good crops, the average being Rs, 2-6. 
Miscellaneous crops were taxed at the uniform rate of Rs. 2, and 
orchards at a uniform rate of Rs. 3 per acre, except in a few restricted 
localities where the rate was only Rs. 2-4. Finally, in 1901-2 the 
Bogale township was brought under settlement, and the following rates 
were fixed : on rice land, from Rs. 2-8 to Rs. 5 per acre } on miscella- 
neous cultivation, Rs. 2-4 ; on orchards, Rs. 2-4 ; on betel-vines, 
Rs. 10 on dani palms, Rs. 5 per acre. 

Rapid as has been the growth of population and cultivation, it 
has been slower than that of the revenue. The following table 



PYAPOX DISTRICT 



shows, m thousands of rupees, the development of the revenue since 
i88o-r 





iS8o-r 


1890-1 


i goo- 1 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


2,00 

7,00 


5,0 

I2 : 00 


12,00 
19,00 


12,27 
20,94 



The total revenue in 1903-4 included Rs. 2,11,000 from capitation 
tax, Rs. 1,86,000 from fisheries, and no less than Rs. 2,86,000 from 
opium and excise. 

The income of the District cess fund, derived mainly from a 10 per 
cent, cess on the land revenue, and applied to various local needs, 
amounted to 1-4 lakhs in 1903-4. The only municipality is PYAPON 
KYAIKLAT is at present under a town committee, but is shortly to be 
constituted a municipality 

The District Superintendent of police has the services of two 
Assistant Superintendents, who are in charge of the subdivisions of 
Kyaiklat and Pyapon. Under these officers are 4 inspectois, 6 head 
constables, 26 sergeants, and 134 constables. No mounted men are 
maintained, but 2 sergeants and 12 men are employed in boats. The 
civil police are distributed in 5 police stations and 4 outposts, as well 
as at head-quarters. The military police number 150, of whom 80 aie 
at head-quarters, 25 at Kyaiklat, 15 each at Dedaye and Bogale, and 
15 at Kyonmange on the To river, about 9 or 10 miles above Dedaye. 
No jail has been built at Pyapon, and prisoners are sent on conviction 
to the Ma-ubin jail. 

The percentages of males and females able to read and write in 1901 
were returned at 52 and 9 respectively, the proportion for both sexes 
being 36 ; but in leahty the condition of education is decidedly back- 
ward, and the people aie apathetic. The \\eakness of the schools is 
particularly marked in the case of the monastic seminaries, and is 
attributed to the loss of influence due to the deterioration in character 
of \hzpongyis The lay schools are at present somewhat disorganized, 
but the recent improvement which has taken place in the position of 
lay teachers will, it is hoped, bring about an improvement m this class 
of education The most important Buddhist lay schools are at Pyapon 
and Kyaiklat ; and the most advanced monastic seminaries are those 
at Bogale, Dedaye, Thegon, and Kyaiklat, which teach up to the 
middle school standards. In 1904 the District contained 6 secondary, 
10 1 primary, and 180 elementary (private) schools, with an attendance 
of 5,ni boys and 991 girls. The public expenditure on education 
amounted to only Rs. 7,000 This total was made up of Rs. 4,800 from 
the District cess fund and Rs. 2,200 from the Pyapon town fund. 

There are three hospitals and a dispensary, with accommodation for 



PYAWBWE 9 

46 in-patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 18,733, 
including 692 m-patients, and 339 operations were performed. The 
income amounted to Rs. 10,500, all but Rs. 500 from subscriptions 
being derived from the District cess fund. 

In 1903-4 the number of successful vaccinations was 1,883, repre- 
senting 9 per 1,000 of the population. 

[H. M. S. Mathews, Settlement Report (1893) ; Major F. D. Maxwell, 
Report on Inland and Sea Fisheries (1904).] 

Pyapon Subdivision. South-western subdivision of Pyapon Dis- 
trict, Lower Burma, comprising the PYAPON and BOGALE townships. 

Pyapon Township. Township of Pyapon District, Lower Burma, 
lying between 15 47' and 10 2$' N. and 95 34 / and 95 47' E , with 
an area of 431 square miles. It is bounded on the north by the 
Gonnymdan river 3 on the east by the Pyapon river ; on the south by 
the sea; and on the west by tidal waterways which separate it from 
the Bogale township It is flat and typically deltaic throughout. The 
population increased by So pei cent, during the decade ending 1901, 
at the close of which period it had reached a total of 43,922, dis- 
tributed in one town, PYAPON (population, 5,883), the head-quarters 
of the District and township, and 157 villages In 1903-4 the area 
cultivated was 191 square miles, as compared with 56 square miles in 
1891. The land revenue was Rs 3,75,000. 

Pyapon Town. Head-quarters of the District of the same name 
in Lower Burma, situated m 16 18' N. and 95 43' E, in low-lying 
country on the right bank of the Pyapon river, one of the numerous 
outlets of the Irrawaddy, about 12 miles from the coast Population 
(1901), 5,883 It was formerly the head-quarters of a subdivision, and 
did not become the District head-quarters till 1903 A fair proportion 
of the inhabitants are engaged m the fishing mdustiy. Pyapon stands 
very little above the level of the river, which here runs between muddy 
banks. Its affairs were managed by a town committee from 1899 to 
1905, when it was constituted a municipality. The revenue of the town 
fund in 1903-4 was Rs. 30,000, and the expenditure was Rs. 33,000, 
half of which was devoted to public works. Pyapon contains the 
usual public buildings, a hospital with 18 beds, and several schools. 

Pyawbwe. Northern township of Yamethin District, Upper Burma, 
lying almost entirely east of the railway, between 20 30' and 2o44'N. 
and 95 $9' and 96 $2' E., with an area of 324 square miles. The 
population was 4i,53 6 m 1891, and 42,495 in 1901, distributed in 211 
villages. The head-quaiters are at Pyawbwe (population, 6,379) on the 
railway. The greater part of the township is level and dry, but in the 
east on the borders of the Shan States there are hills The township 
contained 58 square miles under cultivation in 1903-4, and the land 
revenue and thathameda amounted to Rs 78,000. 



TO PYINDAYE 

Pyindaye. Old township in Pyapon District, Lower Burma See 
BOGALE. 

Pyinmana Subdivision. Southern subdivision of Yamethm Dis- 
trict, Upper Buima, comprising the PYINMANA and LEWE townships 

Pyinmana Township. Township occupying the centre and south- 
east of Yamethm District, Upper Burma, and lying between 19 27' 
and 20 21' N. and 95 43' and 96 39' E., with an area of 1,4)4 square 
miles, The population increased from 46,021 in 1891 to 61,578 m 
1901, distributed in one town, PVINMANA (population, 14,388), the 
head-quarters, and 308 villages. In the hills in the south-east is a 
Karen colony numbering o\er 2,000. The township may be described 
as one large forest, with the exception of the immediate suiroundings 
of Pyinmana town, and small patches of cultivation near the villages 
and streams. The rainfall is heavy, compared with that of the noithern 
subdivision The township contained 76 square miles under cultiva- 
tion m 1903-4, and the land revenue and thathameda amounted to 
Rs. 1,58,000 

Pyinmana Town. Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Yamethm District, Upper Burma, situated in 19 44'' N. and 
96 14' E., on the Ngalaik chaungK&& the Mandalay-Rangoon railway, 
161 miles from Mandalay, 226 from Rangoon, and 49 from the District 
head-quarters at Yamethm. Under Burmese rule the town was called 
Nmgyan. After annexation dacoities weie frequent in the neighbour- 
hood ; in fact for several months dacoits, assisted by abundant covei 
and the deep mud that lay everywhere, practically held part of the 
urban area The town is built on eithei side of the railway and south 
of the Ngalaik Jiaung^ and is well provided with loads The popula- 
tion was 12,926 in 1891, and 14,388 in 1901, the decade haung been 
one of material progiess. The civil station is situated west of the 
native town, on a crescent of small stony hills encircling a piettily 
situated lake. From the high ground near the courthouse and club 
a very picturesque view is to be had of the town, half hidden in tall 
coco-nut palms, and, over the tree-tops, of the to/vgj<3-scored moun- 
tains to the east. The town owes its piospenty mainly to the teak 
industry. The lessees of the valuable teak forests m the neighbourhood 
are the Bombay-Burma Trading Corporation, which at one time had 
a very large number of employes at Pyinmana The town is a flourish- 
ing trade centre, and is noted for its pottery. The clay used m its 
manufacture is of a darkish grey colour, curiously mottled with mst- 
coloured spots, and is found on the banks of the Ngalaik chaung. 
Patches of colour are applied by rubbing the surface of the clay with 
pounded sulphate of copper or blue vitiiol. After the final burning 
the parts so treated appear green on a yellow ground, a colour effect 
which seems to appeal to the aesthetic sense of the Burmans The 



PYUNTAZA 

glaze is obtained by the application of pounded slag that 

mixed with rice-water till a viscid fluid is pioduced. s ^ --- 

Pymmana was constituted a municipality in 1888. The municipal 
income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1901 averaged 
between Rs. 36,000 and Us. 37,000. In 1903-4 the receipts weie 
Rs. 45,700, the principal sources being bazar fees (Rs. 30,000) and 
house and land tax (Rs. 8,000). The expenditure amounted to 
Rs. 38,300, Rs. 6,800 being devoted to conservancy, Rs 6,600 to 
roads, and Rs. 4,800 to the hospital and dispensary 

Pyintha. Hill township in the south-east corner of Mandalay 
District, Upper Burma, lying between 21 42' and 21 57' N. and 
96 15' and 96 32' E., with an aiea of 190 square miles, for the most 
part rugged and jungle-clad. The population was 4,931 in 1891, and 
4,295 m 1901, distributed in 54 villages, Pyintha (population, 235), 
28 miles from Mandalay on the Lashio road, being the head-quarters. 
The thathameda collections m 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 9,000. 

Pykara. River in the Nilgiri District, Madras. See NILGIRIS. 

Pyu Subdivision. Subdivision of Toungoo District, Lower Burma, 
containing the PYU, OKI WIN, and TANTABIN townships, with head- 
quarters at Pyu. 

Pyu Township. South-western township of Toungoo District, 
Lower Burma, lying between 18 15' and 19 9' N. and 95 48' and 
96 41' E., with an area of 1,589 square miles. It is a very large 
township, extending from the Sittang to the Pegu Yoma, and has 
developed at an extraordinary rate, the cropped area having increased 
threefold m ten years. The cultivated plain extends for from one to 
15 miles west of the Sittang, and the railway to Rangoon runs through 
the middle of it, affording easy access to the markets The population 
was 45,201 m 1891, and 85,416 in 1901 (including 6,987 Karens and 
3,697 Shans), distributed in 484 villages, the head-quarters being at 
Pyu (population, 1,127), on tne railway. The area cultivated in 1903-4 
was 250 square miles, paying Rs. 3,78,000 land revenue. Owing to 
its unwieldy size, the township was split up m 1905 into Pyu and 
OKTWIN. The reduced charge has an area of 943 square miles and 
a population (1901) of 74,607 

Pyuntaza. Township in Pegu District, Lower Burma, lying be- 
tween 17 37' and 1 8 2$' N. and 96 o' and 96 53' E., with an area 
of 1,443 square miles. The population, which numbered 23,132 in 
1891, had risen in 1901 to 52,952, thus moie than doubling itself 
during the decade. The western tracts are hilly and, in spite of the 
populous nature of the flat eastern half, the average density in 1901 
was only 37 persons per square mile. The head-quarters are at 
Pyuntaza, a village of 1,273 inhabitants (1901), on the railway which 
passes across the centre of the low-lying area. The total number of 

VOL. xxi. B 



12 PYUNTAZA 

villages is 232. The area cultivated in 1903-4 was 170 square miles, 
paying Rs. 2,58,600 land revenue 

Quetta-Pishin. A highland District of Baluchistan, lying be- 
tween 29 52' and 31 18' N. and 66 15' and 67 48' E , with an area 
of 5,127 square miles. It is bounded on the noith and west by 
Afghanistan , on the east by Zhob and Sibi Districts , and on the 
south by the Bolan Pass and the Mastung nidbat of the Kalat State. 
The District consists of a series of valleys of con- 
i=iderable length but medium width, forming the 
catchment area of the Pishm Lora, and enclosed 
on all sides by the mountains of the TOBA-KAKAR and CENTRAL 
BRAHUI ranges The valleys vaiy in elevation from 4,500 to 5,500 
feet, and the mountains from about 8,000 to 11,500 feet On the 
north he the Toba hills, containing the fine plateau of Loe Toba and 
Tablna. This range sends out the Khwaja Amran offshoot south- 
ward to form the western boundary of the District under the name 
of the Sarlath. On the east a barrier is formed by the mass of 
Zarghun (11,738 feet), with the ranges of Takatu (n,375 feet) and 
Murdar (10,398 feet). Directly to the south lie the Chiltan and 
Mashelakh hills. Besides the PISHIN LORA, \\hich, with its tributaries, 
drains the greater part of the District, the only river of impoitance 
is the Kadanai on the north, which drains the Toba plateau and 
eventually joins the Helmand in Afghanistan. The District is subject 
to earthquakes. Severe shocks occurred in Decembei, 1892, and in 
March, 1902 

Two different systems of hill ranges meet in the neighbourhood 
of Quelta, giving rise to a complicated geological structure. The 
principal rock formations belong to the Permo-Carbomferous , Upper 
Trias; Lia^ Middle Jurassic (masbive limestone), neocomian (belemmte 
beds); Upper Cretaceous (Dunghan) , Deccan trap; middle eocene 
(Khojak shales, Ghazij, and Splntangi) 3 oligocene (Upper Nan) , 
middle and upper miocene (Lower, Middle, and Upper Siwaliks) , and 
a vast accumulation of sub-recent and recent formations. 

Except parts of the Toba, Zarghun, and Mashelakh langes, the hills 
are almost entirely bare of trees. In the valleys are orchards of 
apricot, almond, peach, pear, pomegranate, and apple trees, protected 
by belts of poplar, willow, and slnjid (Elaeagnus angustifoha). The 
plane (chinar) gives grateful shade in Quetta In spring the hill-sides 
become covered for a little while with irises, red and yellow tulips, and 
many Astragali. In the underground water-channels maiden-hair 
fern is found. The valley basins are covered with a scrub jungle 
of Artemisia and Halo\ylon GriffithiL In parts Tamarix gallic a 
covers the ground, and salsolaceous plants are frequent. The grasses 
are chiefly species of Bromus, Poa, and Hordenm. On the Khwaja 



Q UE TTA-PISHIN r 3 

Amran range wild rhubarb (Rheum Euiodi} is found in years of good 
rainfall. 

The 'reserved' forests in Zarghun foim a welcome breeding ground 
for mountain sheep and mdrkhor^ but elsewhere they are decreasing 
in numbers The leopard is found occasionally A few hares are 
met with in the valleys. Wolves sometimes cause damage to the 
flocks in winter, and foxes are fairly abundant. Ducks are plentiful 
in the irrigation tanks in Pishm Chikor and MSI abound in years 
of good lamfall. 

The climate is dry ; dust-storms are common in the spring and 
summer months, especially in that part of the Chaman subdivision 
which borders on the Registan or sandy desert. The seasons are 
well marked, the spring commencing towards the end of March, the 
summer in June, the autumn in September, and the winter in December 
Only in July and August is the day temperature high ] the nights are 
always cool. The mean temperature in summer is 78 and in winter 
40. The higher elevations are covered with snow in winter, when 
piercing winds blowing off the hills reduce the temperature below 
freezing-point. The total annual rain and snowfall vanes from less 
than 7 inches in Chaman to io| in Quetta. Most of it is received 
between December and March. 

In former times Pishm was known as Fushanj and Pashang. The 
ancient name of Quetta was Shal, a term by \\hich it is still known 
among the people of the country, and which Rawhn- 
son traces back to the tenth century. The District 
was held in turns by the Ghazmvids, Ghonds, and Mongols, and 
towards the end of the fifteenth century was conferred by the ruler 
of Herat on Shah Beg Arghun, who, ho\\ever, had shortly to give 
way before the using power of the Mughals. The Aiti-i-Akbarl 
mentions both Shal and Pishm as supplying military service and 
revenue to Akbar. From the Mughals they passed with Kandahar 
to the Safavids. On the rise of the Ghilzai power in Kandahar 
at the beginning of the eighteenth century, simultaneously with that 
of the Brahms in Kalat, Quetta and Pishm became the battle-ground 
between Afghan and Brahui, until Nadir Shah handed Quetta over 
to the Biahuis about 1740. The Durranis and their successois 
continued to hold possession of Pishm and Shorarud till the final 
transfer of these places to the British in 1879 On the advance of 
the Army of the Indus m 1839, Captain Bean was appointed the first 
Political Agent in Shal, and the country was managed by him on 
behalf of Shah Shuja-ul-mulk. In March, 1842, General England 
was advancing on Kandahar with treasure for General Nott when he was 
worsted in an encounter at Haikalzai m Pishin, but the disgrace was 
wiped out at the same place a month later. The country was evacuated 

B 2 



QUETTA-PISffIN 



in 1842 and handed over to Kalat. After Sir Robert Sandeman's 
mission to Kalat in 1876, the fort at Quetta was occupied by his 
escort and the country was managed on behalf of the Khan up to 
1883, when it was leased to the British Government for an annual 
rent of Rs 25,000 It was formed, with Pishln and Shorarud, into 
a single administrative charge in 1883 Up to 1888 Old Chaman was 
the most advanced post on the frontier , but, on the extension of the 
railroad across the Khwaja Amran, the terminus was fixed at its present 
site, 7 miles from that place. The boundary with Afghanistan was 
finally demarcated in 1895-6 

Many mounds containing pottery are to be found throughout the 
District. In the Quetta tahsil the most ancient karez are known to 
the people of the country as Gabri^ i. e. Zoroastrian, While the present 
arsenal at Quetta was being excavated in 1886, a bronze or copper 
statuette of Hercules was unearthed, which was 2\ feet high and held 
in its left hand the skin of the Nemcan lion, 

The number of towns is three, the largest being QULITA, and of 
villages 329 The population was 78,662 in 1891 
and 114,087 in 1901, an increase of 45 per cent. 
The following table gives statistics of area, &c , by tafalls in 1901 . 



Population. 



Tahstl 


Area m 
square 
miles 


Number of 


Population 


Population 
per square 
mile 


Tov, nb 


Villages 


Chaman 


M36 


I 


4 


I( 5,437 


X 3 


Pishln . . 


2,717 


J 


271 


5 r >753 




Quetta 
bhorarud 


540 
634 


I 


47 

7 


44,835 
1,062 


83 

2 


Total 


S,"7 


3 


3^9 


114,087 


22 



More than 84 per cent of the people are Muhammadans of the 
Sunm sect; Hindus number 10 per cent ; and Christians, who are 
chiefly Europeans, about 3 per cent. The language most widely spoken 
is Pashtu ; Brahui is the tongue of about 6 per cent of the people, 
and a little Persian is also used Of the indigenous population 67,600, 
or 78 per cent., are Afghans, rather more than half of them being 
Kakars and a third Tarins. Of the latter, the most numerous are the 
Abdals, repiesented by the Achakzais occupying the Chaman sub- 
division and part of Pishln. The Brahuis, who live in the south of 
the District, form 8 per cent., and Saiyids, who are numerous in the 
Pishln tahsil, about 9 per cent The indigenous population is almost 
entirely engaged in cultivation and flock-owning. The Afghans of 
Pishln, especially the Huramzai Saiyids, carry on a large trade in 
horses. Many of them have made their way as far as Australia, or 
are engaged in trade in parts of India. 



AGRICULTURE 15 

The missions working in Quetta consist of branches of the Church 
Missionaiy Society and of the Church of England Zanana Missionaiy 
Society. They maintain two hospitals and four schools, one of which 
is aided from Local funds A mission church was opened in 1903. 
The efforts of the workers are principally devoted to medical aid and 
education, and few converts have so far been made among the people 
of the country. 

The soil in the centre of the valleys consists of fine clay and sandy 
beds. Along the skirts of the hills loess is found, and higher up 
a fringe of coarse-grained gravel The soil of Shora- . 

rud is impregnated with salt. At Barshor, in the gnc 
Pishin tahsilt cultivation is carried on in terraced fields, Crops are 
assured only on lands which can be permanently irrigated. The ' dry- 
crop' area consists chiefly of embanked land to which flood-water is 
led Irrigated land is allowed to lie fallow for one to three years, 
unless it can be manured ; c dry-crop ' land can be cultivated every 
year, but more than one good crop in five years is seldom obtained. 
The harvest reaped in spring is sown with the help of the winter rains ; 
the autumn harvest, which is small compared with the former, is sown 
in June and July. 

The cultivable area in the two tahsils of Quetta and Pishin, which 
have been cadastially surveyed, is 706 square miles, of which 324 are 
cultivated by rotation. Of this latter total, 221 square miles (68 per 
cent ) are permanently irrigated (dbi) , and the remainder are either 
' flood-crop ' (saildba) or ' dry-crop ' (k/wshkdba). The area under crop 
in 1902-3 was 72 square miles, of which 79 per cent, was under wheat, 
the staple grain of the District ; 4 per cent, under barley; 10 per cent, 
under maize and millets 3 3 per cent, under green vegetables ; and 4 per 
cent, under lucerne Owing to the peace and protection which have 
followed the British occupation, cultivation has increased very largely 
during the past twenty-five years. Potatoes, vegetables, and lucerne are 
profitably cultivated ; fruit orchards and vineyards are extending ; and 
great attention is bestowed on melon growing. The cultivators eagerly 
avail themselves of Government loans, the amount advanced between 
1897 and 1904 being 1-3 lakhs. 

The short-legged breed of Kachhi cattle is imported for the plough. 
Transport is by camel, and these animals are used in the plough in 
Chaman and Pishin. The local breed of horses is excellent, and has 
been much improved by the introduction of imported stallions, of 
which 1 8 are generally stationed in the District in summer. The 
branded mares number 256. A horse-fair and cattle-show is held at 
Quetta in the autumn, which is largely patronized by local breeders 
Sheep impoited from Siahband in Afghanistan are much prized, 

Of the total irugated area in the tahslls of Quetta and Pishin, 14 per 



T 6 QUE TTA-PISHIN 

cent is supplied from Government irrigation works and 66 per cent, 
from 254 karez or underground channels. Water is also obtained 
from 1 8 streams and 854 springs Artesian wells number 24. The 
Government irrigation works aie the Khushdil Khan reservoir and 
the Shebo canal, both situated in Pishin The former, which is fed 
by flood-water from two feeder-cuts, is capable of holding about 750 
million cubic feet of water It commands about 17,000 acies, but the 
average area cultivated by its aid has hitherto been only 3,300 acres 
This area will probably be increased by impiovements effected in 1902. 
Up to 1903 the capital cost incurred was about 10 lakhs The Shebo 
canal takes off from the Quetta Lora and is supplemented by a system 
of tanks. It commands 5,340 acres, but less than half of this is nn- 
gated annually. The capital cost up to 1903 was about 6| lakhs, 
Revenue and water rate aie levied together, on both systems, in the 
shape of one-third of the gross produce, the -\\hole amount being 
credited to the Irrigation department 

In 1903 the District contained four juniper Reserves on the Zarghun 
range, with an area of 52 square miles ; two pistachio forests of 13 
square miles ; and one mixed forest covering 2 square miles. In the 
latter tamansk is the chief tree Experimental plantations, covering 
63 acres, are maintained close to Quetta 

Coal is found in the Soi lange to the east of Quetta The seam 
is narrow, but has been traced foi neaily 20 miles. It is worked in 
different places by fi\e contractors The output, which is entirely 
consumed in Quetta, was 7,148 tons in 1903. Chiomite has been 
discovered in scattered pockets in the serpentines and basic igneous 
intrusions near Khanozai, for woikmg some of which a lease has been 
given to the Baluchistan Mining Syndicate During 1903 about 284 
tons were extracted. 

The manufactuie of felts and of rugs formed by the dart stitch is 
an indigenous industry. Excellent silk embroidery is prepared, espe- 
cially by Brahui women. In Quetta, Kandahans make 

Trade and coppei vessels, which are equal m quality to those 
communications. */ . . _ rnl __^ ^ ^_ 

sold in Peshawar. The Murree Brewery Company 

has a bianch at Kiram, about 5 miles fiom Quetta, the output of which 
was 347,220 gallons of beer in 1903. In 1904 some successful experi- 
ments weie made in sericulture. 

The great increase in trade is lefeired to in the article on QUETTA 
TOWN. The only other marts of importance are Kila Abdullah and 
Chaman, from both of which places trade is carried on with Afghanistan. 
The total value of this trade in 1903 amounted to about 13^ lakhs, 
imports being valued at 6-| and expoits at 7 lakhs. Live animals, ghi, 
asafoetida, fresh and dried fruits, and pile carpets are the principal 
imports from Afghanistan, and food-giams, piece-goods, and metals 



ADMINISTRATION T7 

from India Expoits to India aie chiefly wool, gift, and fruits, and 
to Afghanistan piece-goods, metals, and dyes. 

The Mushkaf-Bolan branch of the North-Westem Railway, on the 
standard gauge, enters the District from the south and runs to Quetta, 
where it meets a branch of the Smd-Pishin section from Bostan. The 
latter line enteis the District near Fullei's Camp and runs across the 
Pishm plain to Chaman The District is well provided with roads, the 
total length of metalled and partially metalled roads being 405, and 
of unmetalled paths 228 miles They are maintained partly from 
Provincial revenues and partly from military funds 

Owing to its large irngated aiea and excellent communications, the 
District is well piotected and actual famine has not been known Some 
distress occurred between 1897 and 1902, owing to 
deficient rainfall and to damage done by locusts. amme. 

Relief was affoided by the suspension and remission of land revenue, 
the grant of advances foi the purchase of seed-grain and bullocks, and 
the opening of relief \\oiks, costing about Rs. 14,000. In years of 
deficient pasturage the railway is used by graziers to transport their 
flocks to more favoured tracts. 

The District is divided into thiee subdivisions and tahsih' CHAMA.N, 
PISHIN, and QUETTA. Of these, Chaman, Pibhln, and Shorarud in 

Quetta form part of British Baluchistan, and the rest . . 

e i r\ ^ j. 7 7 A rn -nu Administration 

of the Quetta tahsllv* Agency Terntoiy. The execu- 
tive head of the District combines the functions of Deputy-Commis- 
sioner for areas included m British Baluchistan, and of Political Agent 
for Agency Territories A Native Assistant is in charge of Chaman, 
an Extra-Assistant Commissioner of Pishln, and the Assistant Political 
Agent of the Quetta subdivision The tahslls of Quetta and Pishin 
each have a tahsildar and a naib-taJmldar foi revenue work The 
superior staff at head-quarters includes a Superintendent of police, 
two Extra-Assistant Commissioners, a Cantonment Magistrate, and 
an Assistant Cantonment Magistrate. 

Civil work at Quetta is disposed of by a Munsif, and four Honorary 
Magistrates assist the ordinary staff m deciding criminal cases. Both 
ci\il and criminal powers are exercised by all the officers mentioned 
in the preceding paragraph The Political Agent is the District and 
Sessions Judge. In 1903 the total number of cognizable cases reported 
was 1,402, conviction being obtained in 1,232. Most of the cases were 
of a petty nature. The total number of criminal cases disposed of 
by the courts m 1903-4 was 3,102, and of civil cases 4,807. Disputes 
were referred to &jirga for award under the Frontier Crimes Regulation 
m 203 cases. 

The District furnished the emperor Akbar with a force of 2,550 
horse and 2,600 foot^ Rs 750 m cash ; 4,340 sheep , 1,280 kharwars 



1 8 QUE TTA-PISHIN 

of grain, and 7 maunds of butter. Nadii Shah assessed Pishm to 
furnish a fixed number of men-at-aims, a system known as gham-i- 
naukar, which was continued by Ahmad Shah Durrani, in whose time 
895 naukars were taken. In the time of Timur Shah some of the 
tribesmen were recalcitrant, and the land of 151 naukars was con- 
fiscated The remaining service giants weie subsequently commuted 
for cash payment. When the Distnct came into the hands of the 
British this cash payment was still in force in some parts of the Pishm 
tahsil) while m others the system had broken down, and batai^ or the 
taking of an actual share of the produce, had been substituted The 
combined system was continued in Pishm up to 1889, the Government 
share of the produce being levied at rates varying from one-third to 
one-sixth. In 1899 a fixed cash assessment on irrigated estates was 
introduced for twenty years. The incidence per irrigated acre ranged 
from a maximum of Rs. 5-0-3 to a minimum of Rs 1-5-3, the average 
being Rs. 2-13-10 In the Quetta valley, the land revenue undei 
native rule was obtained partly from a fixed assessment in cash or 
kind, called zar-i-kalang, partly from appraisement, and partly by 
division of the crops. The system continued up to 1890, when batai 
at a uniform rate of one-sixth of the produce and a grazing tax were 
introduced. A fixed cash assessment was imposed on irrigated lands 
for ten years from 1897, and is now about to be revised. The maxi- 
mum incidence per acre on irrigated area was Rs. 3-9-4, the minimum 
Rs. 1-6-2, and the average Rs. 2-0-4. In Shorarud, revenue was first 
levied in 1882-3 at one-sixth of the produce, and from April, 1897, 
a fixed cash assessment was imposed on irrigated lands. Large revenue- 
free grants are held, especially in Pishm. The estimated annual value 
of the land revenue thus alienated is Rs. 42,700. The total land reve- 
nue of the District in 1903-4 was 1-5 lakhs, and the revenue from all 
sources 3-2 lakhs. The land revenue yielded 47 per cent of the total, 
stamps 12 per cent,, and excise 35 per cent. 

The Quetta municipality was formally constituted in October, 1896. 
Its affairs are managed by a committee, consisting of thirteen nominated 
official and non-official members, with the Political Agent as ex-officio 
president. The only Local fund is the Pishm Sadr and District bazar 
fund, which is controlled by the Political Agent. Its chief source of 
income is octroi, and its expenditure is incurred on objects of public 
utility, principally at Pishm and Chaman. The income in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs, 39,600 and the expenditure to Rs. 34,000. 

QUETTA is the head-quarters of the fourth division of the Western 
Command and has the usual staff. Besides the garrison of Quetta, 
a Native infantry regiment is stationed at Chaman and detachments 
are posted at Pishm and, to guard the Khojak tunnel, at Shelabagh 
and Spmwana. 



QUETTA SUBDIVISION 19 

In 1904 the total force of police amounted to 519 men, of whom 
362 were constables and 53 horsemen. The officers include a Dis- 
trict Superintendent, an Assistant Superintendent, 5 inspectors, and 
ii deputy-inspectors. The force was distributed in 17 stations. The 
Quetta municipality pays for a force of 86 police, the cantonment 
committee for 84, and Local funds for 24 watchmen. The local levies 
number 487, including 170 mounted men. There is a District jail 
at Quetta, and a subsidiary jail at Pishln, with total accommodation 
for 139 male and 10 female prisoners. Convicts whose term exceeds 
six months are generally sent to the Shikarpur jail in Smd. 

In educational, as in other respects, the District is the most advanced 
in the Province. In 1904 the number of Government and aided 
schools was twelve, with 827 pupils, including 148 Indian girls and 
44 European and Eurasian children. The cost amounted to Rs. 23,500, 
of which Rs. 7,700 was derived from fees and subscriptions, and 
Rs. 7,100 from Provincial revenues, the balance being met by the 
North-Western Railway and from Local funds. The three mission 
schools had 85 pupils. About 900 pupils were under instruction in 
mosque schools 

The District possesses one Government-aided hospital, in charge of 
a Civil Surgeon, and seven dispensaries, including a female dispensary 
maintained from the Lady DufTerin fund. They contain accommoda- 
tion for 118 in-patients. The total attendance of patients in 1903 
was 63,310; the daily average attendance in Government institutions 
being 59 in-patients and 211 out-patients. Two of these institutions 
are maintained by the North-Western Railway, at Bostan and Shela- 
bagh, and two receive grants from Local funds; the expenditure of 
the others is met from Provincial revenues. In 1903 the total expen- 
diture from Provincial revenues and Local funds amounted to Rs. 18,109. 
The Church of England Medical Mission maintains two hospitals, to 
which 592 in-patients were admitted in 1902, while the out-patients 
numbered 19,190. 

Vaccination is compulsory in the town and cantonment of Quetta, 
and there are indications that the people are beginning to prefer this 
method to inoculation. The number of successful vaccinations in 1 903 
was 2,660, or about 23 per 1,000 of the population. 

[Settlement Report of the Pishln Tahsll (1899); J. H. Stocqueler, 
Memorials of Afghanistan (Calcutta, 1843), Records, Geological Survey 
of India, vol. xxvi, pt. ii of 1893.] 

Quetta Subdivision. Subdivision and tahsil of the Quetta-Pishm 
District, Baluchistan, lying between 29 $2' and 30 27' N. and 66 
15' and 67 1 8' E. It is held on a perpetual lease from the Khan 
of Kalat For administrative purposes Shorarud, which is British 
territory, is attached to it. The two cover an area of 1,174 square 



20 QUETTA SUBDIVISION 

miles, of which 540 form the Quetta tahsil proper. The population 
in 1901 numbered 45,897, that of Shorarud being 1,062. The only 
town is QUETTA (population, 24,584); and the villages number 54. 
The tahsil occupies a valley about 5,500 feet above sea-level, sur- 
rounded by mountains, Shorarud derives its name from a stream of 
brackish water, which traverses it to join the Pishln Lora ; it consists 
of the river basin and the Sarlath hills, beyond which lies Shorawak in 
Afghanistan. The Sarlath hills afford excellent pasturage. Shorarud 
contains only 7 permanent villages. The land revenue of the whole 
tahsil in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 65,500, of which Rs. 2,000 was 
contributed by Shorarud. Owing to the ready market available in the 
Quetta town and cantonment and the numerous karez, the Quetta 
valley is the best cultivated in Baluchistan, and the extension of fruit 
gardens has been marked. Coal is found in the adjoining Sor range. 
A branch of the Murree Brewery has been worked near Kirani 
since 1886. 

Quetta Town (Kwatah^ locally known as Shal or Shalkot). 
Capital of the Baluchistan Agency and head-quarters of Quetta- 
Pishm District, situated in 30 10' N. and 67 i' E., at the northern 
end of the tahsil of the same name. It is now one of the most 
desirable stations in Northern India. Quetta is connected with India 
by the North-Western Railway, being 727 miles from Lahore and 
536 from Karachi. It was occupied by the British during the first 
Afghan War from 1839 to 1842. In 1840 an assault was made on 
it by the Kakars, and it was unsuccessfully invested by the Brahuis. 
The present occupation dates from 1876. The place consists of the 
cantonment on the north, covering about 15 square miles, and the 
civil town on the south, separated by the Habib Nullah. Population 
has risen from 18,802 in 1891 to 24,584 in 1901. It includes 3,678 
Christians, mainly the European garrison, 10,399 Muhammadans, and 
8,678 Hindus. The majority of the remainder are Sikhs. The ordinary 
garrison comprises three mountain batteries, two companies of garrison 
artillery, two British and three Native infantry regiments, one regiment 
of Native cavalry, one company of sappers and miners, and two com- 
panies of volunteers. The police force employed in the cantonment 
and town numbers 180. 

Municipal taxes have been levied since 1878, but the present muni- 
cipal system dates from 1896. The income in 1903-4 was 2-2 lakhs, 
chiefly derived from octroi; and the expenditure was 2-1 lakhs. The 
committee has obtained loans from Government for carrying out 
drainage and water-works, of which the unpaid balance on March 31, 
1904, amounted to Rs. 31,100. Half of the net octroi receipts is paid 
over to the cantonment fund. The receipts of this fund, from which 
the maintenance of the cantonment is piovided, were i-r lakhs in 



QUILON 21 

1903-4, and the expenditure was 1*3 lakhs. Much attention has been 
paid to sanitation and the prevention of enteric fever, which was at one 
time common. A piped supply of water for the cantonment, civil 
station, and railway was completed in 1891 at a cost of about 7^ lakhs, 
and an additional supply has since been provided for the cantonment 
at a cost of more than 3^ lakhs. The civil station and town lie some- 
what low, and nearly ij lakhs has been expended in providing a system 
of street drainage. The principal buildings are the Residency, the 
Sandeman Memorial Hall, St. Mary's Church, and the Roman Catholic 
Church. The civil hospital is well equipped, and the town also 
possesses a female dispensary, two mission hospitals, a high school, 
a girls' school, and a European school. A mill for grinding flour and 
pressing wool and chopped straw has existed since 1887. The Indian 
Staff College has recently been completed and opened. A feature of 
the station is the gymkhana ground, with its fine turfed polo and cricket 
grounds. The trade of Quetta is continually expanding. Imports by 
rail have increased from 39,200 tons in 1893 to 56,224 tons in 1903, 
and exports from 5,120 to 13,829 tons. 

Quilandi. Seaport in the Kurumbranad taluk of Malabar Dis- 
trict, Madras, situated in 11 27 / N. and 75 42' E. Population (1901), 
5,870, It contains a sub-magistrate's and a District Munsifs court. 
It was close to this place that Vasco da Gama's fleet first cast anchor 
in 1498. 

Quilon (Kollam)* Town and port in the./0/z^ of the same name, 
Travancore State, Madras, situated in 8 53' N. and 76 36' E. Popu- 
lation (1901), 15,691. It is one of the oldest towns on the coast and 
was refounded in A.D. 1019. Its natural situation and consequent 
commercial importance made it coveted by every foreign power, and 
subjected it in its early days to many political vicissitudes. Towards 
the middle of the eighteenth century the State of Quilon, also called 
Desinganadu, was annexed to Travancore. It was formerly one of the 
greatest ports on the west coast, but has now fallen to a very con- 
siderable extent from its high estate. With the opening of the Tinne- 
velly-Quilon Railway, however, Quilon, as the terminal station, now 
finds itself placed in direct communication with the Madras Presidency 
and should revive once more. A railway siding has been made to the 
edge of the backwater. The palace of the Maharaja of Travancore 
is on the borders of the Quilon lake, called by General Cullen the 
Loch Lomond of Travancore, which possesses enchanting scenery. 
The town also contains a Residency, the office of the Diwan Peshkar, 
the District and subordinate courts, high schools, hospitals, and other 
institutions. Cotton-weaving and spinning and the manufacture of tiles 
are the chief industries. A cotton-spinning mill has been opened 
recently. The chief exports are coffee, tea, fish, timber, pepper, and 



22 QUILON 

coir; and the chief imports are salt and tobacco. The customs 
revenue averages about Rs. 10,000. The tonnage of vessels of all 
classes which call annually at the port is 22,000 The sanitation and 
conservancy of the town are attended to by a town improvement 
committee. 

The ancient history of Quiion goes back to the earliest times of the 
old Syrian Church in India. The Nestonan Patriarch Jesujabus of 
Adiabene noted in the seventh century that Quiion was the southern- 
most point of Christian influence, It appears in Arabic as early as 
A.D. 851 under the name Kaulam-Mall, when it was already frequented 
by ships from China. It is the Coilum of Marco Polo, and was an 
important place in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The Portu- 
guese had a factory here, which was captured by the Dutch in 1662. 
From them, it passed to the English East India Company. The 
portion now in the possession of the British Government is known as 
TANGASSERI. 

Rabkavi. Town in the State of Sangh, Bombay, situated in 
1 6 28' N. and 75 9' E., on the right bank of the Kistna. Popula- 
tion (1901), 5,748, consisting almost entirely of bankers, traders, and 
artisans. Local affairs are managed by a municipal body, known as 
the Daiva, with an income of about Rs. 3,800. Rabkavi is an 
important trade centre. Silk is dyed and made up into various articles 
of clothing. Cotton is also dyed to some extent, with the permanent 
dye known as suranji. The town appears to have been named after 
the village goddess Rabbava. It has fine temples, of which that of 
Shankarlmg is the principal, 

Rabkob, Head-quarters of Udaipur State, Central Provinces. See 
DHARMJAYGARH. 

Rabupura. Town in the Khurja tahsll of Bulandshahr District, 
United Provinces, situated in 28 15' N. and 77 37' K, 19 miles west 
of Bulandshahr town. Population (1901), 5,048. The place was 
founded by a Mewatl named Rabu in the eleventh century. The 
Mewatls were ousted by the Jaiswar Rajputs in the time of Prithwl 
Raj, late in the twelfth century. From the days of Shah Alam II 
up to 1857, Rabupura was the centre of an estate comprising 24 vil- 
lages, which was confiscated after the Mutiny for the rebellion of the 
proprietors. The town contains a good brick market, and half the 
houses and shops are also of brick. The American Methodist Mission 
has a branch here, with a small church and dispensary. Rabupura is 
administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 1,300. 
There is a considerable trade in cattle. The primary school contains 
60 pupils. 

Rachna Doab. Doab in the Punjab. See RECHNA DOAB. 

Radhanpur State. State m the Palanpur Agency, Bombay 



RADHANPUR STATE 23 

lying between 23 26' and 23 $8' N. and 71 28' and 72 3' E, 
with an area of 1,150 square miles. Including Sami and Munjpur, 
it is bounded on the north by the, petty States of Morvada and 
Tervada; on the east by Baroda; on the south by Ahmadabad Dis- 
trict and Jhinjhuvada in Kathiawar, and on the west by the petty 
State of Varahi under Palanpur. 

The country is flat and open. Its rivers, three in number, rise near 
Mount Abu and the spurs of the Aravalli range, and fall into the 
Little Rann. They generally dry up during the hot season, when the 
inhabitants are dependent on wells for their supply. Water is found 
at a depth of from 10 to 30 feet, but is sweet only near the surface, 
owing to the proximity of the Rann. From April to July, and in 
October and November, the heat is excessive. If rain falls, August 
and September are pleasant months ; and from December to March the 
climate is cool and bracing. The prevailing disease is fever. The 
mean temperature is 41 in January and 115 in June. 

Radhanpur, now held by a branch of the Babi family, who, since 
the reign of Humayun, have always been prominent in the annals of 
Gujarat, is said to have once belonged to the Vaghelas, and to have 
been called Lunavada, after Vaghela Lunaji of the Sardhara branch 
of that tribe. Subsequently it was held as a fief under the Sultans 
of Gujarat by Fateh Khan Baloch, and is said to have been named 
Radhanpur after Radhan Khan of that family. 

The first Babi entered Hindustan in the company of Humayun. 
Bahadur Khan Babi was appointed faujdar of Tharad in the reign 
of Shah Jahan ; and his son Sher Khan Babi, on account of his local 
knowledge, was sent to aid prince Murad Bakhsh in the government 
of Gujarat. In 1693 his son Jafar Khan, by his ability and local 
influence, obtained the faujdari of Radhanpur, Sami, Munjpur, and 
Tervada, with the title of Safdar Khan. In 1704 he was made 
governor of Bijapur (in Gujarat), and in 1706 of Patan. His son 
Khan Jahan, also styled KhanjI Khan, received the title of Jawan 
Mard Khan, and was appointed governor of Radhanpur, Patan, 
Vadnagar, Visalnagar, Bijapur, Kheralu, &c. His son, again, Kamal- 
ud-dm Khan, usurped the governorship of Ahmadabad after the death 
of Aurangzeb, during the incursions of the Marathas and the sub-' 
sequent collapse of the imperial power. During his rule a branch 
of the family was able to establish itself at Junagarh and Balasinor. 
The founder of the Junagarh house, who was also the first Babi of 
Balasinor, was Muhammad Bahadur, otherwise known as Sher Khan. 
In 1753 Raghunath Rao Peshwa and Damajl Gaikwar suddenly 
appeared before Ahmadabad ; and Kamal-ud-dm Khan, after a bril- 
liant defence, was forced to surrender the city, but was confirmed as 
jaglrddr of Radhanpur, Sami, Munjpur, Patan, Visalnagar, Vadnagar, 



24 RADHANPUR STATE 

Bijapur, Tharad, and Kheralu. It was agreed at the same time that 
the Marathas should give Kamal-ud-din Khan the sum of one lakh, 
besides presenting him with an elephant and other articles of value. 
Damaji Gaikwar, however, wrested from his successors all their 
dominions, excepting Radhanpur, Sami, and Munjpur 

In 1813 Radhanpur, through Captain Carnac, then Resident at 
Baroda, concluded an engagement with the Gaikwar, whereby the 
latter, under the advice of the British authorities, was empowered to 
control the external relations of Radhanpur, and assist in defending 
it from foreign invasion. In 1819, on aid being sought of the British 
Government by Radhanpur against the Khosas, a predatory tribe from 
Sind, Colonel Barclay marched against them and expelled them from 
Gujarat. In 1820 Major Miles negotiated an agreement with the 
Nawab of Radhanpur. Under the terms of this agreement the Nawab 
bound himself not to harbour robbers, or enemies of the British 
Government ; to accompany the British troops with all his forces ; and 
to pay a tribute in proportion to his means On February 18, 1822, 
the tribute was fixed for five years at Rs 17,000. This^tnbute was, 
in 1825, remitted by the British Government, and has never again 
been imposed, the engagement of 1820 remaining in force in other 
respects. The Nawab is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns. The family 
hold a sanad authorizing any succession that may be legitimate accord- 
ing to Muhammadan law, and follow the rule of primogeniture in point 
of succession. ' 

The population in 1901 was 61,548, compared with 98,017 in 1891. 
Hindus numbered 49,887 and Muhammadans 8,019. The State 
contains one town, RADHANPUR ; and 159 villages. The principal pro- 
ducts are cotton, wheat, and the common kinds of grain. Except 
vegetables, no irrigated crops are grown. The only manufacture of 
importance is the preparation of a fine description of saltpetre. 

The chief has power to try his own subjects, even for capital offences, 
without permission from the Political Agent. In 1903-4 the gross 
revenue of the State amounted to nearly 4 lakhs, chiefly derived from 
land (2-7 lakhs) and customs (Rs. 79,000). 

The State maintains a military force of 35 horse and 163 foot. The 
strength of the police in 1903-4 was 771 men. There are 24 schools 
attended by 711 pupils, including 94 girls, The State maintained six 
medical institutions in 1903-4, treating more than 13,400 patients. 
In the same year over 1,500 persons were vaccinated. 

Radhanpur Town. Capital of the State of the same name in 
Bombay, situated in 23 49' N. and 71 39' E. Population (1901), 
11,879. It lies in the midst of an open plain, mostly under water 
during the rains. It is surrounded by a loopholed wall 15 feet high, 
8 feet broad, and about 2\ miles in circumference, with corner 



RAE BARE LI DISTRICT 25 

towers, 8 bastioned gateways, outworks, and a ditch now filled up 
There is also, surrounded by a wall, an inner fort or castle, where the 
Nawab lives. Radhanpur is a considerable trade centre for Northern 
Gujarat and Cutch. The nearest railway station 3 34 miles distant, is 
at Patan. A municipality is maintained from local taxation, which 
yielded Rs. 2,717 in 1903-4, and from a monthly grant of Rs, 750 
made by the State. The chief exports are rapeseed, wheat, grain, and 
cotton; and the chief imports are rice, sugar, tobacco, cloth, and 
ivory. In 1816, and again in 1820, a disease, in many symptoms 
resembling the true plague, visited Radhanpur and caused the death 
of half its population. The name is said to be derived from Radhan 
Khan, a descendant of Fateh Khan Baloch who held the town under 
the Ahmadabad Sultans. Another tradition claims for the town a 
remote origin (A.D. 546), and that it was named after Radan Deo, 
a Chavada chief. Since the defeat of Kamal-ud-din Khan Babi at 
Ahmadabad in 1753, Radhanpur has been the head-quarters of a 
branch of the Babi family. 

Rae Bareli District. South-eastern District of the Lucknow Divi- 
sion, United Provinces, lying north-east of the Ganges, between 25 
49' and 26 36' N. and 80 41' and 81 34' E., with an area of 1,748 
square miles. In shape it resembles a segment of a circle with the 
Ganges as the chord. It is bounded on the north-west by Unao \ on 
the north by Lucknow and Bara Banki \ on the east by Sultanpur and 
Partabgarh ; and on the south-west by the Ganges, which divides 
it from Fatehpur. The general aspect of Rae Bareli 
is that of a beautifully wooded, gently undulating Physical 
plain. It is markedly fertile and well cultivated. 
The principal rivers are the Ganges and the Sai, the former skirting 
the District for 54 miles along its south-western boundary, while the 
latter runs through the centre m a tortuous course from north-west 
to south-east. Both of these rivers flow in deep beds, but the Ganges 
is bordered by a fertile valley of varying width before the upland 
portion is reached. Between the Ganges and the Sai lies a chain of 
jhlls or swamps more or less connected with one another, and probably 
forming an old river-bed. North of the Sai are found many other jhlls ^ 
but these are ordinary shallow depressions and have not the narrow 
deep beds of the southern swamps. The Loni flows across the south- 
west corner of the District to join the Ganges , and there are many 
smaller streams, generally known as Naiya, which carry off water only 
in the rains, and drain the/^/j to some extent. 

The District is entirely composed of Gangetic alluvium, and kankar 
or nodular limestone is the only stone formation. 

The flora presents few peculiarities. Up to the time of the Mutiny 
the stronghold of -every talukddr was surrounded by dense jungle, and 



26 RAE BARELI DISTRICT 

a scrub forest extended for twelve miles on either side of the Sai. 
Only a few patches of dhdk (Butea frondosa) now remain. The 
numerous groves are chiefly composed of mango or mahud (Bassia 
latifolia) and the nlm (Meha Azadirachta). Various kinds of fig, the 
babul (Acacia arabica), and jdmun (Eugenia Jambolana) are also 
common. 

There are a few wolves, but jackals abound. Nilgai and antelope 
are scarce. Some cattle still roam wild near the Ganges and Sai. 
In the cold season water-fowl and snipe are plentiful , other game- 
birds include quail and a few partridge and sand-grouse. Fish are 
caught in the jhils, and also in the rivers. 

The climate is healthy, and the temperature is not marked by 
extremes of either heat or cold. Cool nights are experienced well 
into the hot season. 

The annual rainfall averages a little over 37 inches, the east of the 
District receiving the heaviest fall. As a rule the amount is not less 
than 24 inches; but in 1877, 1880, and 1896 it was only 13 inches. 
On the other hand, in 1867 and 1894 the amount was 60 inches. 

The District has never played a large part in history, and it contains 
few places of importance. Tradition relates that the Muhammadan 
saint, Saiyid Salar, raided it in the eleventh century ; 
ry ' and from similar sources a few details are obtained 
regarding the three clans of Rajputs the Bais, the Kanhpurias, and 
the Amethias who still hold the greater part of the land. The first 
of these occupied a tract m the south and west, which was afterwards 
known as Baiswara. The earliest historical events of which reliable 
accounts have been preserved are, however, connected with the in- 
corporation of the District in the Shark! kingdom of Jaunpur, early 
in the fifteenth century. At that time the Bhars, who still held part 
of the country, were completely crushed. The Rajputs, however, were 
only partially reduced, and warfare was frequent till Akbar estab- 
lished a more settled government. Under that monarch Rae Bareli 
was divided between the two Subdhs of Oudh and Allahabad. After 
Akbar's death the Rajputs appear to have increased greatly in im- 
portance and power j and when Oudh became a separate state in the 
eighteenth century, Nawab Saadat Khan entrusted several of the 
chiefs with the collection of revenue in their own parganas. As 
disorders increased, attempts to assert independence became more 
frequent, and the history of the closing years of Oudh rule is one 
of constant fighting between chief and chief or between the Rajas 
and the court officials. 

At annexation in 1856 a District of Salon was formed, extending 
from Purwa in Unao to Allahabad. A year had hardly elapsed when 
the Mutiny broke out. The sepoys abstained from rebellion longer 



28 



RAE BARELI DISTRICT 



cent. Eastern Hindi is spoken by almost the entire population, the 
dialect in use being Awadhl. 

The Hindu castes most largely represented are Ahirs (graziers and 
cultivators), 129,000; Pasis (toddy-drawers and cultivators), 107,000 , 
Brahmans, 105,000, Chamars (tanners, labourers, and cultivators), 
98,000 ; Rajputs or Chhattris, 67,000 ; Lodhas (cultivators), 64,000 , 
Muraos (market-gardeners), 48,000 ; and Kurmls (agriculturists), 44,000. 
Among Musalmans are Gujars, 13,000, Shaikhs, 9,000 , Pathans, 
9,000 ; and Rajputs, 8,000. Agriculture supports 76 per cent, of the 
total population. Rajputs or Chhattris hold two-thirds of the District, 
the Bais and Kanhpuria clans being the largest landholders. Ahirs, 
Brahmans, and Rajputs or Chhattris are the most numerous cultivators ; 
but Lodhas, Kurmls, and Muraos are the most skilful. 

There were 97 native Christians in 1901, of whom 68 were Metho- 
dists and 10 belonged to the Anglican communion. A branch of the 
American Methodist Mission was opened in 1864 and closed in 1901 ; 
but native catechists are still employed at a few places. 

The low land m the valley of the Ganges, called kachhdr^ varies in 
width from two miles to a few yards. The lowest portion is flooded 
during the rains, but generally bears good crops in 
the spring the higher stretches are very fertile, and 
occasionally autumn crops can be sown in them. The uplands vary 
according to the class of soil. In the south it is a rich firm loam, 
producing wheat and poppy in the spring and millets in the autumn. 
As the /Mr are approached, the soil becomes heavier, and rice is the 
prevailing crop, which is followed in spring by gram and linseed. 
Large patches of barren fisar are common here. The valley of the 
Sai and its tributaries resembles that of the Ganges, but is inferior in 
quality. North of the Sai is another large area of rice land, producing 
also inferior spring crops. 

The tenures by which land is held are those common to the Province 
of OUDH. About two-thirds of the District is included in talukdari 
estates, and 5 per cent, of the total area is sub-settled. Under- 
proprietors also hold about 5 per cent. The mam agricultural statistics 
for 1903-4 are shown below, in square miles : 



Agriculture. 



Taksil 


Total 


Cultivated. 


Irrigated 


Cultivable 
waste 


Rae Bareli 


371 


216 


94 


7 


Dalmau .... 
Maharajganj . 


472 
465 


256 

233 


123 
I2 9 


76 

77 


Salon .... 


440 


241 


123 


58 


Total 


1,748 


946 


469 


281 



Rice 



*,/fj y^ ^y * OJ - 

is the crop most largely grown, covering 268 square miles, 



AGRICULTURE 29 

or 28 per cent, of the net cultivated area. Wheat (176), gram (170), 
barley (139), pulses (gg\jowdr (95), arhar (81), and kodon and small 
millets (64), are also important food-crops. The District is one of 
the largest poppy-growing areas in the United Provinces. In 1903-4 
the area under poppy was 48 square miles, and the price paid to the 
cultivators for their opium has sometimes exceeded the land revenue 
demand on the whole District. 

Immediately after the Mutiny there was a great extension of cultiva- 
tion. The series of bad seasons commencing in 1891 checked the rise 
which had continued since the first settlement; but after 1897 another 
increase took place, and the net cultivated area is now about 7 per cent, 
higher than it was forty years ago, This increase in the area under the 
plough has also been accompanied by an extension of the system of 
double-cropping, and by an increase in the area sown on the banks of 
jhlls with small millet and rice to ripen in the hot season. The most 
important increase has been in the area under poppy, and the general 
tendency has been to cultivate the more valuable crops in place of" 
inferior staples. There has been a little reclamation of land by throw- 
ing dams across ravines to prevent erosion and to collect silt. Advances 
are freely taken, especially under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. The 
total lent by Government during the ten years ending 1900 was 
3-8 lakhs, of which 2-4 lakhs was advanced in the famine year 1896-7. 
In the next four years loans averaged only Rs. 4,000. A few small 
agricultural banks have been started. 

Pasture land is scarce, and the breed of cattle is poor, the best 
animals being all imported. Ponies are still largely used as pack- 
animals , but the breed is very inferior. A stallion is now maintained 
in the District, to introduce a better strain. Sheep and goats are kept 
in large numbers, to provide wool, meat, milk, and manure. 

Rae Bareli is well provided with means of irrigation. In 1903-4 
the irrigated area was 469 square miles, of which 300 were supplied 
from wells, 164 from tanks or jhlh> and 5 from other sources. The 
number and importance of wells is increasing, and the safety of the 
crops is thereby enhanced, z&jtiih fail in dry years, when most needed. 
The larger wells are worked by bullocks t but where the water-level 
is higher, the dhenkll or lever and the pot and pulley worked by hand 
are used. Water is raised from jhils in the swing-basket. "There -are 
very few artificial tanks, and those which exist are 1 ascribed to the 
Bhars. The larger streams are little used for irrigation, as their -beds 
lie deep below the surface of the country. 

Kankar or calcareous limestone is found in both block and nodular 
formations in most parts and is used for making lime and metalling 
roads. Saline efflorescences called reh are collected for making coarse 
glass and for other purposes. 

c z 



30 RAE BARELI DISTRICT 

The only manufacture of any importance is that of coarse cotton 

cloth, which is made in many parts of the District. Finer materials 

are produced at JAIS and RAE BARELI ; but the 

Trade and industry is dying out, as there is little demand for 
communications. , ' , , . - ..... , 

them. Glass bangles and small phials are made in 

a few places. Apart from these industries little is produced in the 
District. 

Under native government the transit dues extorted by the land- 
holders prevented any trade of importance, and as late as 1866 the 
District consumed most of its own produce and hence imported little. 
The improvement of communications and the freedom from imposts 
have caused a great advance in this respect; and the District now 
exports grain, opium, poppy-seeds, hides, bones, oilseeds, and a little 
tobacco and raw sugar, and imports piece-goods, metals, salt, sugai, 
and spices. Rae Barell is the chief trading centre ; but Lalganj, 
Maharajganj, and Bamtl are rising in importance. Much of the trade 
of the south is with Kalakankai in Partabgarh District ; and the trade 
of Dalmau, which was formerly of some consequence, is declining, 
though it is still the site of a large religious fair. 

The main line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway enters the 
north-west of the District and turns east from Rae Bareli town, thus 
passing through the centre. Communications by road are fairly good, 
and have been much improved in recent years. There are 60 1 miles 
of roads, of which 115 are metalled. The whole of the roads are main- 
tained at the cost of Local funds, though the metalled roads and 
some of the unmetalled are in charge of the Public Works department. 
Avenues of trees are maintained on 69 miles. The chief routes are 
the roads from Rae Bareli town to Lucknow, Sultanpur, and Fatehpur. 
An old road from Delhi to Benares, north of the Ganges, passes through 
the south of the District. 

Rae Bareli has suffered from severe scarcity and famine. The 
great desolation of 1784 was long remembered, and there was scarcity 

again in 1810. The records of events under native 
Famine. , , Ar 

government are, however, meagre. After annexation 

distress was experienced in 1864, 1869, and 1873, but does not appear 
to have been acute. In 1877-8 the deficiency in the rainfall was 
followed by widespread scarcity, causing acute distress for a con- 
siderable time, while actual famine prevailed for about two months, 
Relief works were opened both by Government and by the tafakddrs, 
and large sums were spent by the charitable, In 1881 drought again 
resulted in scarcity and the collection of revenue was postponed. 
Excessive and untimely rain in the period 1893-5 caused distress, 
which necessitated the opening of small relief works. The resources 
of the people had thus been seriously affected before the failure of 



ADMINISTRATION 31 

the rains in 1896, which caused the worst famine the District has 
experienced. More than a lakh was advanced for the construction of 
wells, and the revenue demand was suspended to the extent of 3 lakhs. 
In February, 1897, more than 90,000 persons were on lelief works; 
but the liberal advances made enabled a large area of spring crops to 
be sown and food-grains to be imported, and by the end of July, 1897, 
the famine was over. 

The Deputy-Commissioner usually has a staff of four Deputy- 
Collectors recruited in India, and a tahslldar resides . . . 
at the head-quarters of each tahsil Three officers Admimstratlon - 
of the Opium department and an officer of the Salt department are 
stationed in the District 

There are two District Munsifs, four Honorary Munsifs, and a Sub- 
ordinate Judge for civil work. Sultanpur and Partabgaih Districts are 
both included in the Civil Judgeship, and Partabgarh in the Sessions 
Division of Rae Barell. The most common variety of crime is 
burglary, for which the Pasls are especially notorious. Apart from 
this, serious offences are rare, and the people are quiet and law-abiding. 
Infanticide was formerly practised, but is no longer suspected. 

At annexation, in 1856, a summary settlement was made, the records 
of which have perished. The estates of the talnkdars were largely 
reduced, villages being settled direct with the village proprietors. At 
the second summary settlement in 1859 a reversion was made to the 
actual position in 1856, except where estates had been confiscated for 
rebellion. The first regular settlement, preceded by a survey, began 
in 1860 and was earned out in different ways in the three Distncts 
of which portions now make up Rae Bareli. In Rae Bareli itself the 
assessment was for the first time based entirely on the corrected rent- 
rolls, with adjustments for land held at privileged rates. The methods 
adopted in PARTABGARH and SULTANPUR, which will be found m the 
accounts of those Districts, were based partly on the use of corrected 
rent-rolls, and partly on the selection of average rates of rent. The 
result was an enhancement of the revenue fixed in the summary settle- 
ment from 9-5 to 12-4 lakhs. This settlement was revised between 
1892 and 1896, chiefly by the District officer in addition to his own 
duties. There was no resurvey, and the corrected rent-rolls as usual 
formed the basis of the assessment. The result was an increase in 
the demand to 154 lakhs, representing 47 per cent, of the net 
corrected 'assets.' The incidence of land revenue is about Rs. 1-3 
per acre, and varies very slightly in different parts of the District, 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all 
sources are given in the table on the next page, in thousands of rupees. 

The District contains only one municipality, RAE BARELI, and one 
town administered under Act XX of 1856. Local affairs outside of 



RAE BARELI DISTRICT 



these places are managed by the District board, which in 1903-4 had 
an income of 1-2 lakhs, chiefly derived from local rates, and an 
expenditure of 1-3 lakhs, including Rs. 61,000 spent on roads and 
buildings. 





1880-1. 


1890-1. 


i 900- i 


1903-4 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


9,74 
11,62 


12,44 
17,18 


15,02 
21,05 


1540 
22,18 



The District Superintendent of police has under him a force of 
3 inspectors, 76 subordinate officers, and 304 constables, posted in 
13 police stations, besides 41 municipal and town police, and 2,159 
rural and road police. The District jail contained a daily average 
of 448 prisoners in 1903. 

The people of Rae Bareli are moderately well educated compared 
with their neighbours, and 3-2 per cent. (6-2 males and 0-2 females) 
could read and write in 1901. Public schools increased in number 
from 126 in 1880-1 to 166 in 1900-1, and the pupils from 5, 170 to 
7,4i3, In 1903-4 there were 196 such schools with 8,886 pupils, 
including 70 girls, and 35 private schools with 464 pupils. Only 1,000 
pupils had advanced beyond the primary stage. Three schools are 
managed by Government and in by the District and municipal 
boards. The total expenditure on education was Rs. 43,000, of 
which nearly Rs. 32,000 was provided by Local funds and Rs. 7,000 
from fees. 

There are eleven hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation 
for 70 in-patients, In 1903 the number of cases treated was 61,000, 
including 878 in-patients, and 2,600 operations were performed. 
The expenditure in the same year amounted to Rs. 14,000, chiefly 
met from Local funds. 

About 36,000 persons were successfully vaccinated in 1903-4, giving 
a proportion of 35 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is compulsory 
only in the municipality of Rae Bareli. 

[W C. Benett, Clans of the Roy Barettty District , S. H, Fremantle, 
Settlement Report (1898) ; H. R. Nevill, District Gazetteer (1904),] 

Rae Bareli Tahsil. Head-quarters tahsll of Rae Bareli District, 
United Provinces, conterminous with the pargana of the same name, 
lying between 26 4' and 26 26' N. and 81 and 81 2$' E,, with an 
area of 371 square miles. Population increased from 221,875 in 1891 
to 223,505 in 1901. There are 353 villages, but only one town, RAE 
BARELI (population, 15,880), the District and tahsll head-quarters. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,24,000, and for 
cesses Rs. 52,000. This is the most densely populated tahsll in 
the District, supporting 602 persons per square mile. It heb on both 
sides of the Sai, which flows in a tortuous channel, generally from 



RAEKOT 33 

north-west to south-east, and receives numerous small streams. The 
centre is composed of a light soil, which, when well manured and 
watered, is exceedingly fertile. In the north and south a heavier clay 
is found, producing chiefly rice. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation 
was 216 square miles, of which 94 were irrigated. Wells supply three- 
fourths of the irrigated area, and tanks or jhils most of the remainder. 

Rae Bareli Town. Head-quarters of the District and tahsll of 
the same name in the United Provinces, situated in 26 14' N. and 
81 14' E., on the banks of the Sai, on the Oudh and Rohilkhand 
Railway, and on metalled roads to Lucknow, Fatehpur, and Sultanpur. 
Population (1901), 15,880. The town consists of two portions, Rae 
BaielT proper, and a subuib called Jahanabad. The name Bareli is, 
according to some accounts, derived from the Bhars, who are said 
to have founded it, Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur conquered Rae Bareli 
early in the fifteenth century and handed it over to Shaikhs and 
Saiyids, Husam Shah changed the name of the place to Husainabad, 
but the alteration was never popular. Ibrahim Shah added greatly 
to the strength of the fort, using the materials of older buildings which 
were ready to hand. A story relates that when the fort was building 
all that was erected during the day fell down in the course of the 
ensuing night In his perplexity the king had resort to a holy man 
of Jaunpur, Makhdum Saiyid Jafan, who walked over the ground, after 
which no interruption occurred in the work. The saint's tomb stands 
beside the gate of the fort Ibrahim also built the Jama Masjid } and 
a second great mosque was erected by Jahan Khan, the founder of 
Jahanabad, in the reign of Shah Jahan. Jahan Khan's palace and 
tomb still adorn the suburb named after him. A handsome bridge, 
which crosses the Sai, was built by public subscription soon after 
annexation. Besides the usual Government courts and buildings, the 
town contains male and female hospitals and a saraL Rae Bareli has 
been a municipality since 1867. During the ten years ending 1901 
the income and expenditure averaged Rs 26,000 and Rs. 25,000, 
respectively, In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 32,000, derived chiefly 
from octroi (Rs. 18,000) and market dues and rents (Rs. 7,000) , and 
the expenditure was also Rs. 32,000. The town is the chief com- 
mercial centre in the District, and its trade has increased considerably 
since the opening of the railway in 1893. Two large markets, called 
Capperganj and Bailheganj, after former Deputy-Commissioners, absorb 
much of the trade, the latter being a bonded warehouse within octroi 
limits. Cotton cloth is woven to some extent, and muslins of good 
quality are also produced. Two secondary schools, six primary schools, 
and a small Sanskrit pathshala are attended by more than 500 pupils, 

Raekot. Town in the Jagraon tahsil of Ludhiana District, Punjab. 
See RAIKOT. 



34 RAEWIND 

Raewind. Junction on the North-Western Railway in the District 
and tahsll of Lahore, Punjab. See RAIWIND. 

Raghugarh (Raghogark}. Mediatized chiefship of the Central 
India Agency, under the Resident at Gwalior. The State lies between 
24 6' and 24 34' N, and 77 7' and 77 25' E., about 17 miles south- 
west of Guna, in the Khichiwara district of Malwa, It takes its name 
from the fort of Raghugarh, founded by Lai Singh KhichI in 1677, and 
called after a statue of Vishnu alleged to have been dug up on the 
spot. It has an area of about 1 1 2 square miles, between the Khlchi 
estates of Dharnaoda on the north and Garha on the south, and the 
Sironj and Chhabra parganas of Tonk State on the east and west. 
The territory is situated in the Deccan trap area and is much cut up 
by small hills, but the soil in the valleys is very fertile and bears 
excellent crops of all the ordinary grains, and of poppy. The Parbati 
river, which flows along the western border, gives a perennial supply of 
water. The flora and fauna are the same as elsewhere in Malwa, 
The climate is temperate, and the annual rainfall averages about 
30 inches. 

Though this State is now a small one, considerable interest attaches 
to its chief as the recognized head of the Khlchi Chauhans, once 
a powerful branch of the great clan to which the famous Pnthwl Raj, 
the last Hindu ruler of Delhi, belonged. The branch is represented 
in Central India by the chiefs of Raghugarh, Dharnaoda, MAKSUDAN- 
GARH, KHILCHIPUR, and GARHA. The Khichl section of the clan 
is descended from Aje Rao, second son of Manik Rai of Sambhar. 
The Khichls appear to have settled first in the Sind-Sagar doab in the 
Punjab, migrating south after the defeat of Pnthwi Raj by Muizz-ud- 
dm m 1192. They then settled at Gagraun, now in the Jhalawar 
State, In 1203 Deo Singh of Gagraun received a grant of land from 
the Delhi emperor, which was extended by further grants to his 
successors, bo that by the seventeenth century the KhichI domains 
comprised most of the country between Guna, Sarangpur, Shujalpur, 
and Bhilsa, the tract receiving the name of Khichiwara or 'the land 
of the Khichls.' In 1697 Gagraun was taken from them by Bhini 
Singh of Kotah, and Bajranggarh became their stronghold, the palace 
and fort of Raghugarh being built seven years later. The fortunes 
of the Raghugarh chiefs began to wane about 1780, when they were 
harassed by Mahadaji Sindhia, who imprisoned Raja Balwant Singh 
and his son Jai Singh. The feud thus commenced lasted till 1818, 
being carried on principally by a Khlchi Thakur, Sher Singh, who 
systematically devastated the Khlchi territory so as to render it value- 
less to Sindhia. In 1816 Sindhia's general, Jean Baptiste Filose, 
granted the district of Maksudangarh, till then a part of this State, 
to Ben Sal, a member of the same family, whose descendants still 



RAGHUGARH 



35 



hold it. On the death of Jai Singh in iSrS disputes arose as to 
the Raghugarh succession, which were settled by the intervention of 
the British authorities, who mediated an agreement between Sindhia 
and the Raghugarh chief, by which he received the fort and town 
of Raghugarh and land in the vicinity, supposed then to be worth 
1-4 lakhs yearly, with the proviso that any revenue derived from these 
lands exceeding Rs. 55,000 should be paid over to the Gwalior Darbar, 
who on its side was to make good any deficiency. The State was 
never able to make up the stipulated sum , and in 1828 the Gwalior 
Darbar ceased its payments on the ground that the State could, if 
under proper management, produce the required minimum. Disputes 
in the family complicated matters still further; and in 1843, with the 
consent and mediation of the British Government, it was arranged that 
the original agreement should be replaced by separate agreements with 
the principal members of the family. In accordance with this, Bijai 
Singh received 52 villages forming the GARHA estate, and Chhatar Sal 
32 villages forming the thakurat of Dharnaoda, while Ajit Singh 
continued at Raghugarh, holding it under the agreement of 1818. 
Ajit Singh was succeeded by Jai Mandal Singh in 1857. Bikramajit 
Singh, who succeeded in TQOO, was deposed in 1902 for maladminis- 
tration. The present chief is Bahadur Singh, who was adopted by 
Bikramajit Singh from a collateral branch and is still a minor, having 
been born in 1891. He bears the hereditaiy title of Raja. 

The population has been: (1881) 16,920, (1891) 18,123, and (1901) 
19,446. Hindus number 13,968, or 72 per cent. , and Animists, 
4,080, or 21 per cent., mostly Sahanas. The population has increased 
by 7 per cent, during the last decade, and the density is 173 persons 
per square mile. The language commonly spoken is the Rangri 
dialect of Rajastham. Only 1-5 per cent, of the inhabitants are 
literate. The population is almost entirely supported by agriculture. 
Of the total area, 42 square miles, or 37 per cent., are under cultivation, 
of which 3 square miles are irrigable. About 23 square miles are 
cultivable but not cultivated. Of the cropped area 2 squaie miles are 
under poppy, the rest being sown with cereals and other crops. The 
total revenue is about Rs. 52,000, of which Rs. 37,000 is derived from 
the land. Till forty years ago the State had its own silver coinage, 
but the British rupee is now current. The chief being a minor, the 
State is at present managed by a superintendent under the direct 
supervision of the Resident at Gwalior. 

The capital, Raghugarh, is situated in 24 27' N. and 77 12' E. 
Population (1901), 3,866. The chief feature of the place is the old 
palace-fort, which stands on a low hill about 1,800 feet above the level 
of the sea. Round it lie the remains of the city wall, which formerly 
enclosed a circuit of about 4 miles, within which the ruins of the 



36 RAGHUGARH 

old town can still be seen, the modern town lying outside it. It has 
a school, a hospital, and a post office. 

[R. Burn, 'The Bajranggarh Mint and Corns? Journal, Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, 1897, part i.] 

Raghunathpur. Town in the head-quarters subdivision of Man- 
bhum District, Bengal, situated in 23 31' N and 86 40' E. Population 
(1901), 4,171. Raghunathpur was constituted a municipality in 1888. 
The income during the decade ending 1903-4 averaged Rs. 2,900, 
and the expenditure Rs. 2,450. In 1903-4 the income and expendi- 
ture were Rs. 3,000, the chief source of income being a tax on persons 
(or property tax). Raghunathpur is a centre of the tasar silk industry. 

Raghurajnagar (or Satna). Tahsil of the Rewah State, Central 
India, lying between 24 4' and 25 o' N. and 80 48' and 81 18' E., 
with an area of 977 square miles. It is situated wholly on the alluvial 
plateau north of the Kaimur range, and is watered by the Tons and its 
tributaries. Population fell from 154,705 in 1891 to 144,312 in 1901, 
the density being 148 persons per square mile. The tahsil contains 
487 villages and one town, SATNA (population, 7,471), the head-quarters. 
The land revenue is 2-5 lakhs. 

Rahimatpur. Town in the Koregaon tdluka of Satara District, 
Bombay, situated in 17 36' N. and 74 12' E., 17 miles south-east of 
Satara town, on the Southern Mahratta Railway. Population (1901), 
6,735- A weekly market is held on Thursday and Friday. Rahimat- 
pur is a large tiadmg centre. Bombay and English piece-goods, twist 
and silk, salt, coco-nuts, dates, and spices are imported ; raw sugar, 
turmeric, earth-nuts, and coriander seed are exported. The chief 
objects of interest are a mosque and a mausoleum. The mausoleum 
seems to have been built m honour of Randullah Khan, a distinguished 
officer \\ho flourished in the reign of the seventh Bijapur Sultan, Muham- 
mad (1626-56). About a hundred yards south-east of the mosque is 
an elephant water-lift a tower about 50 feet high, with an inclined 
plane on the west, which supplied power for the mosque fountain. The 
municipality was established in 1853. During the ten years ending 
1901 the income averaged Rs. 3,700. In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 3,100. The town contains a Sub-Judge's court and a dispensary. 

Rahman Garh. Conspicuous hill-fort, 4,227 feet high, in the 
middle of Kolar District, Mysore, situated in 13 21' N. and 78 i' E. 
A large boulder on the western side is covered with belts of a brown 
colour, and from a crevice in the side a liquid resembling blood is said 
to issue at the beginning of the hot season, which kites and crows 
eagerly devour. The place surrendered to the British in 1791. 

Rahon. Town in the Nawashahr tahsil of Julmndur District, 
Punjab, situated in 31 4' N. and 76 V E. Population (1901), 8,651. 
It is said to have been founded before the Christian era by one Raja 



RAHURI VILLAGE 37 

Raghab, who gave it the name of Raghupur, which is still used by 
Hindu scholars. It was captuied by the Ghorewaha Rajputs in the 
time of Muhammad of Ghor, whose leader renamed it Rahon after 
a lady called Raho. It is still considered unlucky to use the name 
Rahon before breakfast ; till then it is called Zanana Shahr or ' woman 
town. 3 It was seized by the Sikh chief Tara Singh, Ghaiba, in 1759, 
and annexed on his death by Ranjlt Singh. The principal manufactures 
are imitation gold and silver braid and cotton cloth, and there is 
a considerable trade in sugai. The municipality was created in 1867. 
The income and expenditure during the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 11,200, In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 10,500, chiefly 
from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 10,700. The town possesses 
an Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the municipality, 
and a Government dispensary. 

Rahuri Taluka. Central taluka of Ahmadnagar District, Bom- 
bay, lying between 19 15' and 19 37' N. and 74 23' and 74 51' E., 
with an area of 501 square miles. It contains one town, VAMBORI 
(population, 6,191), and 112 villages, including RAHURI (5,681), 
its head-quarters. The population in 1901 was 83,494, compared 
with 64,862 m 1891. The increase was due to the large num- 
bers (19,000) "employed m 1901 upon relief works opened during 
famine. This raised the density to 167 persons per square mile, which 
is, with the exception of Ahmadnagar taluka^ the highest in the District. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was 1*8 lakhs, and for cesses 
Rs. 12,000. Rahuri forms part of an extensive plain country drained 
by the rivers Mula and Pravara, tributaries of the Godavari. The 
south-eastern boundary is a well-marked range of hills dividing Rahuri 
from the more elevated taluka of Ahmadnagar, which forms the water- 
shed between the Godavari and the BhTma. The highest point, the 
hill of Gorakhnath, has an elevation of 2,982 feet above sea-level, or 
about 1,200 feet above the level of Rahuri. The taluka is scantily 
wooded, and, with the exception of a few mango and tamarind groves 
on the banks of rivers near villages, is entirely bare of trees. The 
prevailing soil is a deep black, requiring much ram to enable it to yield 
good crops. Towards the hills and on the ridges between the rivers, 
the soils being lighter and more friable are better adapted for the early 
crops. Four miles of the Ojhar canal and 17 miles of the Lakh canal 
traverse the taluka. Early and late crops are grown m about equal 
proportions : the early crops chiefly in the hill villages, and the late 
crops in the plains. The Dhond-Manmad chord railway traverses the 
taluka from north to south. 

Rahuri Village. Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
m Ahmadnagar District, Bombay, situated in 19 23' N. and 74 39' E., 
on the north bank of the Mula river, 25 miles north of Ahmadnagar 



38 RAHURI VILLAGE 

town, and 3 miles from a station on the Dhond-Manmad chord 
railway. Population (1901), 5,681, including Khurd Rahuri (203). 
Marwari traders are numerous in the town, which contains a Sub- 
Judge's court and a dispensary. 

Raibag. Village in Kolhapur State, Bombay. See RAYBAG. 

Raichur District 1 . District in the Gulbarga Division of Hydera- 
bad State, adjoining Mahbubnagar and Gulbarga, which bound it east 
and north, and the Madras Districts of Bellary and Kurnool in the 
south, from which it is separated by the river Tungabhadra. Before 
the extensive changes made in 1905, referred to below, it lay between 
15 50' and 16 54' N. and 76 50' and 78 15' E., and had an area 
of 3,604 square miles, khalsa lands covering 2,319 square miles and 
the rest being samasthans and jagirs. A range of hills traverses the 
Yadgir taluk from west to east for a length of 20 miles, and enters 
the Seram and Kodangal taluks of Gulbarga District 
Physical m the nort h_ east> There are three other ranges, 
one extending from the north-west of Raichur 
towards Yergara for 15 miles, another in the Raichur and Manvi taluks 
10 miles long, and the third 19 miles long in the south of the District 
in the Raichur and Alampur taluks. These really form a single range, 
extending for nearly 60 miles from the north-west of Raichur to Alam- 
pur, with two breaks. The general slope of the country is from the 
north-west towards the south-east. 

The most important river is the Kistna, which enters the Deodrug 
taluk and flows for a distance of 130 miles in a south-easterly direction. 
The Tungabhadra forms the southern boundary up to the point of its 
confluence with the Kistna in the Alampur tatuk. The Bhlma enters 
the Yadgir taluk^ and falls into the Kistna 16 miles north of Raichur. 

The District is occupied principally by Archaean gneiss, including, 
near its western boundary, some bands of crystalline schists known as 
the Dharwar series, which contain auriferous quartz veins. At the 
extreme east, the triangular area above the confluence of the Kistna 
and Tungabhadra is occupied by rocks of the Kurnool series. The 
Dharwars and the Kurnools are fully described in the publications of 
the Geological Survey of India, the former by R. B. Foote (Records^ 
vols. xxi, part n, and xxii, part i), the latter by W. King (Memoirs, 
vol. viu, part i). 

The most important trees are teak, ebony, byasal (Pterocarpus Mar- 
supium), nalldmaddi (Terminalia tomentosa\ eppa (Hardwickia binata\ 
tarvar (Cassia auriculata), mango, tamarind, nim, and species of JFtcus. 

No large game is found, owing to the absence of forests ; but m the 
hills leopards, bears, hyenas, and wolves are met with occasionally. 

1 This article, except where otherwise stated, describes the District as it btood before 
the changes made in 1905, 



RAICHUR DISTRICT 



39 



Among game-birds, partridge and quail, and neai the tanks and on 
the rivers wild duck, teal, and other water-fowl, may be seen. 

The District is generally healthy from October to the end of May, 
but during the rains ague and fever prevail. The parts bordering the 
rivers are damp. The temperature in May rises to in , but the nights 
are cool, and in December it falls to 70 F. The annual rainfall during 
the twenty-one years ending 1901 averaged 25-37 inches. 

Before the Muhammadan conquest, Raichur was part of the Warangal 
kingdom, and it became subject to Vijayanagar when that power was 
established early in the fourteenth century. After 
Muhammad bin Tughlak's death, it fell to the Bah- Histor y- 
manis, then to the Adil Shahis of Bijapur. After the conquest of 
Bijapur by Aurangzeb, it was united to Delhi, but was separated from 
the empire on the foundation of the Hyderabad State. Under the 
treaty of 1853 it was assigned to the British, but was restored to the 
Nizam in 1860. 

The principal antiquities are found in or near the fort of Raichur, 
which is said to have been built by Gore Gangaya Ruddivaru, the 
minister of the Raja of Warangal between 1294 and 1301. The 
District also contains the old forts of DEODRUG, YADGIR, Alampur, 
and Malhabad, besides numerous temples and mosques. 

The number of towns and villages in the District, including jdglrs 
and two large samasthans^ is 899. The population at the last three 
enumerations was: (1881) 398,782, (1891) 512,455, 
and (1901) 509,249. The chief towns are now * 

RAICHUR, GADWAL, KOPPAL, MUDGAL, DEODRUG, KALLUR, and MANVI. 
Hindus form 90 per cent, of the total population; 51 per cent, of the 
people speak Telugu, 37 per cent. Kanarese, and 9 per cent. Urdu. 
The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 1901 : 





t 


Number of 




S,j 


*Q B i 







|jj 




s 


ge 


U " Os w 

bee goo o 

rt O Q, 


O^TJ 






Taluk. 


5*3 


c 


S 




is fi 


g *3 -3 H 


"a all 




3 


1 


I 





'il 


|f|H 




Raichur . 


441 


I 


no 


88,741 


201 


+ 5-6 




Yadgir , 


268 


I 


50 


36,075 


134 




3 


Alamptir 


179 




42 


29,294 


163 


+ 10.8 


d 
^ 


Yergara . 
Manvi . 


358 
559 


I 

I 


77 
137 


59,463 
69,306 


166 
124 


+ 9.1 

+ 203 




Deodrug 


514 


I 


151 


76,491 




+ 2.5 


"o 


Jagirs, &c. 


1,285 


I 


326 


149,879 


116 


+ 2.9 


521 


Total 


3.^04 


6 


893 


509,249 


141 


- 0,7 


10,872 



In 1905 Yergara was divided between the adjoining taluks of Manvi, 
Raichur, and Deodrug, and YadgTr was transferred to Gulbarga District. 



40 RAICHUR DISTRICT 

On the othei hand, Lingsugur, Gangawati, Kushtagi, and Sindhnur 
were added to Raichur from the broken-up Lragsugflr District. In its 
present form the District comprises eight taluks Raichur, Lingsugur, 
Manvi, Alampur, Deodrug, Gangawati, Kushtagi, and Sindhnur besides 
the samasthans of Gadwal and Amarchmta, and the two jagir tahtks 
of Koppal and Yelbarga belonging to the Salar Jang family. 

The most numerous caste in the District is that of the cultivating 
Kapus, numbering 72,900, of whom 53,300 are Lmgayats. Almost 
equal to them are the hunting Bedars, numbering 72,600. The 
number of persons supported by agriculture is 56 per cent, of the total. 
Of the 276 Christians in 1901, 237 were natives. 

Raichur is situated in the metamorphic and trap legions, and its 
soils are composed of regar> masab, milwa, and reddish soils. The 
reddish or lateritic soil is much prized, and so are 
gncu e. a j go t ^ e regar and milwa^ but the masab is a very 
poor soil and needs water and heavy manuring. Regar predominates 
in the Raichur, Manvi, and Deodrug taluks^ where rabi crops are exten- 
sively raised, while reddish and milwa soils are used for kharlf crops. 
In the reddish and milwa soils a moderate fall of 12 to 15 inches of rain 
is sufficient to mature the crop, while regar needs 25 to 30 inches. 

The tenure of land is mainly ryotwari. In 1901, 1,670 square miles 
were cultivated, out of a total area of 2,319 square miles of khalsa land, 
The remainder included 127 square miles of cultivable waste and 
fallows, 120 of foiest, and 402 not available for cultivation. Only 
36 square miles were irrigated. 

The staple food-crops are jowar and bajra, produced from 781 and 
141 square mile/ of land respectively, or 47 and 8 pei cent, of the net 
area cropped. vCotton was grown on 285 square miles, distributed over 
all the taluks, while rice and oilseeds covered 33 and 77 square miles. 

Since the settlement in 1891, the value of land has increased, and 
almost the whole of the available area has been taken up, and little 
extension is now possible. No steps have been taken to improve 
cultivation by the introduction of new varieties of seed or better agii- 
cultural implements. 

The cattle are of the ordinary kind, but are strong and well suited 
for deep ploughing. There is no special breed of ponies, sheep, 01 
goats. In the town of Raichur, a weekly bazar is held, where cattle, 
ponies, and sheep are sold. At the annual fair at Gadwal, a large 
trade is done in cattle. The District contains numerous grazing areas. 

The total irrigated aiea is only about 36 square miles, which is 
supplied by 234 tanks and 4,804 wells, all in good repair. In the 
Yergara taluk^ a channel 9 miles long from the Tungabhadra river 
supplies most of the tanks. Estimates amounting to Rs. 60,000 for 
improving this channel are awaiting sanction, and, when completed, it 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 41 

will irrigate a very large extent of land. The largest tank is at Kanj- 
palli, 2 miles from Yergara, the dam of which is 2 miles long and about 
40 feet high. 

A small 'reserved' forest, 70 square miles in area, is situated in the 
Yadgir taluk, and about 50 square miles aie covered with protected 
and unprotected forests, making a total of 120 square miles. Teak, 
ebony, rosewood, bljasal (Pterocarpus Marsupium\ nallamaddi (Ter- 
minalia tomentosd), eppa (Hardunckia btnata\ sandal-wood, sendra 
(Acacia Catechu), and bamboos are found in the * reserved ' tract. 

The most important mineral is the auriferous quartz, found in the 
Manvi and Deodrug taluks, near the villages of Topaldodi and Wan- 
dalli, which was worked by the Deccan Mining Company. Operations 
have recently diminished at Wandalli and altogether stopped at Topal- 
dodi. Laminated limestone like the Shahabad stone is also found in 
Yadgir, and talc in the Deodrug taluk. 

There is no important hand industry in the District. Coarse cotton 
dhotis and sorts are woven everywhere. In the Alampur taluk shatran- 
jls and printed floorcloths are manufactured, while in 

the Yadgir taluk printed screens and tablecloths arid Trad e and 

, , , .~ . , communications, 

furniture and wooden toys are made. Raichur town 

is noted for its gilt and coloured soft native slippers, which are 
exported far and wide, and also for its fancy earthen goblets and 
drinking vessels. 

Four cotton-presses, three at Raichur and one at Yadgir, employed 
275 hands, and pressed 7,426 tons of cotton in 1901, and an oil and 
another ginning and pressing factory are under construction. A tannery 
at Raichur turns out 500 skins per day, and employs 60 persons. The 
skins and hides are sent to Bombay, Madras, and Cawnpore. Nitre 
and salt are prepared in small quantities by lixiviating saline earth ; 
the salt is bitter and is used in making pickles. There is also a 
distillery at Raichur. 

The principal exports consist of jowdr and other food-grains, lin- 
seed, castor-seed, sesamum, leather and hides, bones and horns, 
taroar bark, and cotton. The chief imports are salt and salted fish, 
opium, coco-nuts, refined sugar, kerosene oil, sulphur, camphor, spices, 
mill-made cloth, yarn, raw silk, and silk and woollen stuffs. 

Raichur town is a centre of commerce, and since the opening of 
the railway in 1871 it has grown in importance and supports a large 
commercial population. The trading castes consist of Baljawars, Lin- 
gayat Komatis, and Marwaris, who also do a large banking business. 

The town of Raichur is the junction of the Great Indian Peninsula 
and the Madras Railways, which cross the District from north to south 
for 62 miles, having seven railway stations in the District, besides 
Raichur, 



42 RAICHUR DISTRICT 

There are altogether 182 miles of roads, of which 84 miles are 
gravelled, and are maintained by the Public Works department, the 
others being ordinary fair-weather roads. The latter lead from Raichur 
town to Alampur (60 miles), to Deodrug (34), and to Manvi (24). The 
metalled roads are the Deosugur road (13), Raichur to Wandalli gold- 
mines (43), the Yergara road (10), and the Raichur-Lingsugur road 
(18 miles). Most of these roads now serve as railway feeders. There 
are 32 fords and ferries on the Kistna, the Tungabhadra, and the 
Bhima, at some of which boats are kept, while at others coiacles are 
used for carrying people and goods across. 

From old records it appears that this District was the scene of much 
distress during 1804, 1819, 1833, 1846, 1856, and 1877-8. The effects 
. of the famine of 1846 were felt beyond the borders , 

but the severest disaster was that of 1877-8, which 
devastated many villages and caused immense distress both in Raichur 
and in the surrounding Districts of the Hyderabad State and of the 
Bombay and Madras Presidencies. The khanf and rabi crops failed 
during these two years and grain could not be obtained. As an indica- 
tion of distress, it is reported that gold sold at Rs. 6 or Rs. 7 per tola, 
i. e. at one-fourth its usual price, and many people sold their children. 
The State spent large sums of money on relief works and poor- 
houses to alleviate the distress; but notwithstanding this, many perished, 
and numerous villages were depopulated, while cattle died by thou- 
sands for want of fodder and water. In 1897 some distress prevailed, 
but timely rain in June relieved the pressure by cheapening the food- 
grains. 

The District is divided into three subdivisions : one comprising the 

taluks of Lingsugur, Gangawati, and Kushtagi, under a Second Taluk- 

. . dar ; the second, comprising the taluks of Sindh- 

nur, Deodrug, and Manvi, under a Third Talukdar ; 

and the third, comprising Raichur and Alampur, under another Third 

TalukdSr. The First Talukdar exercises a general supervision over 

the work of his subordinates. Each taluk is under a tahslldar. 

The District civil court is piesided over by the Ndzlm4~Dlwdni^ or 
the District k Civil Judge, and the tahslldar s sit as subordinate civil 
courts. The Nazim-i-Dlwdni is a joint-magistrate, exercising his magis 7 
terial powers during the absence of the First Talukdar from head- 
quarters. The Second and Third Talukdars and the tahsilddrs exercise 
second and third-class magisterial powers. Serious crime is not heavy 
in ordinary years, but cattle-thefts and dacoities fluctuate according to 
the degree of severity of the season. 

The revenue system of Malik Ambar appears to have been adopted 
in the beginning of the seventeenth century. Subsequently villages, 
were let on contract, after fixing the revenue according to the nature 



ADMINISTRA TION 



43 



of the lands, and the contractors received i-| annas per rupee as com- 
mission. The ryotwan system, with cash payments, was introduced 
in 1866. In 1888 the Deodrug and Manvi taluks were surveyed and 
settled for fourteen years; and the remaining taluks were settled in 
1891, also for the same period. From the survey it was found that 
the cultivated area had increased by 271 square miles, or 19-6 per 
cent., and the enhancement of revenue was Rs. 53,821, or 5-6 per cent. 
The average assessment on 'dry' land is R. 0-12 (maximum Rs. 3, 
minimum R. 0-2), and on wet' land Rs. 5 (maximum Rs. 12, mini- 
mum Rs. 2). 

The land revenue and the total revenue of the District are given 
below, in thousands of rupees 























Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


11,51 
15,01 


12,23 
2 3,34 


ir,6o 
19,82 


11,94 
22,62 



Owing to changes of area made in 1905, the land revenue demand is 
now about 18-4 lakhs. 

The District board, in addition to its own work, manages the Raichur 
municipality and also supervises the working of the taluk boards, which 
have been formed in every taluk except Raichur. Of the total cess, 
five-twelfths are set apart for local and municipal works, yielding 
Rs. 25,000 in 1901. In addition, a sum of Rs. 33,000 was contributed 
from other miscellaneous sources to meet the expenditure in that year, 
which was Rs. 58,000. 

The First Talukdar is the head of the police, with a Superintendent 
(Mohfamwi) as his executive deputy. Under the latter are 7 inspectors, 
53 subordinate officers, 398 constables, and 25 mounted police, distri- 
buted among 25 thanas and an equal number of outposts. Besides 
the regular police, there are 1,696 rural policemen. The District jail 
is at Raichur, and lock-ups are maintained in the five outlying taluks. 
The District jail can accommodate only 100 convicts, but prisoners 
whose terms exceed six months are transferred to the Central jail at 
Gulbarga. 

In 1901 the proportion of persons in the District able to read and 
write was 2-1 per cent. (4-1 males and 0-15 females). The total num- 
ber of pupils under instruction in 1881, 1891, 1901, and 1903 was 269, 
1,255, 2 j77 z J an d 2,679 respectively. In 1903 there were 31 primary 
and 2 middle schools, and the number of girls under instruction was 
94. The amount expended on education was Rs. 16,600, of which the 
State contributed Rs. 10,700 and the remainder was met by the local 
boards. About 53 per cent, of the total was devoted to primary schools. 
The total fee receipts amounted to Rs. 1,119. 

VOL. xxi. D 



44 RAICHUR DISTRICT 

The District has 5 dispensaries, with accommodation for 14 in- 
patients. The total number of cases treated during 1901 was 30,535 
out-patients and 124 in-patients, and 1,153 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 14,800, of which Rs. 13,500 was paid by 
the State and the balance from Local funds. There are two dispen- 
saries in the two samasthdns of Gadwal and Amarchinta on the model 
of the State dispensaries. 

During 1901 five vaccmators were engaged in the work of vaccina- 
tion, and 3,096 persons were successfully vaccinated, or 6 08 per 1,000 
of the population. 

RaicMr Taluk. Taluk in Raichur District, Hyderabad State. 
The area in 1901 was 526 square miles, including jagzrs, and the popu- 
lation was 94,695, compared with 89,782 in 1891. It had one town, 
RAICHUR (population, 22,165), tne head-quarters of the District and 
taluk-, and 128 villages, of which 18 vrerejdgtr. In 1905 the taluk was 
enlarged by the addition of part of Yergara. The Kistna river separates 
it from Mahbubnagar District in the north. The land revenue in 1901 
was 2-6 lakhs, The soils are chiefly alluvial, regar, and sandy. The 
two samasthans of GADWAL and AMARCHINTA lie to the east and north- 
east of this taluk, with populations of 96,491 and 34,147, areas of about 
864 and 190 square miles, and 214 and 68 villages respectively. The 
former contains one town, GADWAL (population, 10,195) 

Raichur Town. Head-quarters of the District and taluk of the 
same name in Hyderabad State, situated in 16 12' N. and 77 21' E. 
Population (1901), 22,165, of whom 16,249 were Hindus, 5,664 Musal- 
rnans, and 186 Christians. According to an inscription in the fort on 
a huge stone 42 by 3 feet, it was built by Gore Gangaya Ruddivam 
in 1294. The country round Raichur was the battle-ground of the 
ancient Hindu and Jain dynasties, as well as of the Mu&alman and 
Hindu kingdoms of Gulbarga and Vijayanagar, After the decline 
of the Bahmani power towards the close of the fifteenth century, it 
formed part of the Bijapur kingdom. Upon the subjugation of Bijapur 
and Golconda by Aurangzeb, Raichui was garrisoned by the Mughals. 
A short distance from the west gate of the fortress are the remains of 
a strongly built palace, now utilized as a jail. The town is the junction 
of the Madras and the Great Indian Peninsula Railways, 351 miles 
from Madras and 444 miles from Bombay. The fortifications form 
a square of large stones 12 feet long by 3 feet thick, laid on one 
another without any cementing material. They consist of two walls, 
an inner and an outer, and are surrounded on three sides by a deep 
ditch, while on the fourth or southern side there is a hill. The outer 
fortifications and the gateways were constructed by Ibrahim Adil Shah 
about 1549. The inner fort has two gateways and the outer three. 
Outside the eastern gate i& an old mosque having a single minaret 



RAIGARH STATE 45 

So yards high and 10 yards in circumference, with a winding staircase, 
which was built in 1503 during the reign of Mahmud Shah Bahmani. 
A good view of the surrounding country is obtained from the top of 
this minaret. The Jama Masjid in the town was built in 1618. The 
fort also contains an old gun over 20 feet long. Raichur has three 
cotton-presses, a tannery, and a distillery, and is a rising commercial 
centre. 

Raidrug. Taluk and town in Bellary District, Madras. See RAYA- 
DRUG. 

Raiganj. Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Dmajpur 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25 37' N. and 88 
9' E,, on the Kulik river. Population (1901), 901. Raiganj is an 
important trade centre, exporting a large quantity of jute. 

Raigarh State. Feudatory State in the Central Provinces, lying 
between 21 42' and 22 33' N. and 82 57' and 83 48' E., with an 
area of 1,486 square miles. Bilaspur and Sambalpur Districts enclose 
it on the west and east, while the northern portion of the State projects 
into the territories of Chota Nagpur. Along the southern border flows 
the Mahanadi river. The head-quarters, Raigarh town, is a station 
on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The northern half of the State running 
up to the Chota Nagpur plateau consists mainly of forest-clad hills. 
The Chauwardhal range runs from west to east across its centre, and 
south of this lie the open plains of Raigarh and Bargarh divided by 
the Mand, a tributary of the Mahanadi. The Kelo, another affluent, 
passes the town of Raigarh. The ruling family are Raj Gonds, who 
say they came originally from Wairagarh in Chanda, and obtained 
some villages and settled in this locality about the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. Jujhar Singh, the fifth Raja, concluded a sub- 
sidiary treaty of alliance with the East India Company about 1800, on 
the annexation by the Marathas of Sambalpur, to which Raigarh had 
hitherto been feudatory. In 1833 his son Deonath Singh crushed 
a rebellion raised by the Raja of Bargarh, and as a reward obtained 
that part of his territories which now constitutes the Bargarh pargana. 
He subsequently did good service in the Mutiny, and his son was made 
a Feudatory chief in 1867. The present chief, Bhup Deo Singh, was 
born in 1869 and installed in 1894, without special restrictions as to 
the methods of his administration. He speaks English, and exercises 
a personal control over public business. The population of the State 
in 1901 was 174,929, having increased by 4 per cent, during the pre- 
vious decade. The State contains one town, RAIGARH (population, 
6,764), and 721 inhabited villages. The density of population is 117 
persons per square mile. Raigarh lies on the border-line dividing 
Chhattisgarh and the Onya country,, 80 per cent, of its residents speak- 
ing the ChhattisgarhJ dialect and 15 per cent. Oriya. Its population 

D 2 



46 RAIGARH STATE 

is mainly aboriginal, Kawars numbering 30,000 and Gondb 16,000. 
Next to these, Gandas and Rawats are the most numerous castes. 

Black soil is found in small quantities towards the Bilaspur border, 
but the yellow rice land of Chhattlsgarh extends over most of the 
State, About 470 square miles, or 32 per cent, of the total area, were 
occupied for cultivation in 1904, of which 375 square miles were under 
crop. About 80 per cent, of the cultivated area is under rice, and 
next to this the most important crops are pulses (28,000 acres), /// 
(9,000), and kodon (8,000). The cropped area has increased by n per 
cent, since 1881. More than 1,800 tanks have been constructed for 
irrigation, which supply water to 7,000 acres under normal circum- 
stances. About 500 square miles, or a third of the whole area, are 
under forest. The principal timber trees are sal (Shorea robusta\ sdj 
(Terminaha tomentosd)^ and bydsal (Pterocarpus Marsufium). Iron 
ore and coal have been found in the State j the former is worked by 
native methods, and agricultural implements are exported to the neigh- 
bouring territories. Tasar silk cloth of a superior quality is made 
at Raigarh. Among the local products may be noted cucumber seeds, 
which are exported to a considerable extent. The main line of the 
Bengal-Nagpur Railway passes through the centre of the State, with 
stations at Raigarh, Naharpali, Khursia, and Jamgaon. Four miles 
of metalled and 212 miles of unmetalled roads have been constructed. 
The principal routes are those from Raigarh to Sarangarh, Padampur, 
and Lailanga, and from Khursia to Dhabra 

The total revenue in 1904 was Rs 1,50,000, of which Rs. 68,000 
was derived from land, Rs. 34,000 from forests, and Rs. 30,000 from 
excise. A cadastral survey has been carried out, and the system of 
land revenue assessment is based on that in force in British territory. 
The revenue is settled with the headmen of villages, who are allowed 
to retain a portion of the * assets,' but have no proprietary rights. The 
incidence of land revenue is less than 4 annas per occupied acre. 
The total expenditure in 1904 was Rs. 1,31,000, the principal items 
being Government tribute (Rs. 4,000), expenses of the ruling family 
(Rs. 34,000), administration in all departments (Rs. 55,000), and 
public works (Rs. 31,000). The tribute is liable to periodical revision. 
The expenditure on public works since 1893, under the supervision 
of the Engineer of the Chhattlsgarh States division, has amounted to 
Rs 1,36,000, including the construction of the roads already men- 
tioned, a number of tanks, various buildings for public offices and 
schools, and a residence for the chief. The educational institutions 
comprise 24 schools with 1,786 pupils, including English and vernacu- 
lar middle schools and two girls 3 schools. The expenditure on education 
in 1904 was Rs. 7,800. In 1901 the number of persons returned as 
literate was 2,963, the proportion of males able to read and write 



RAIGARH 47 

being 3*3 per cent. A dispensary is maintained at Raigarh town, 
at which 37,000 persons were treated in 1904. A Political Agent 
under the supervision of the Commissioner, Chhattlsgarh Division, 
controls the relations of the State with Government. 

Raigarh Town. Head-quarters of the Feudatory State of the 
same name, Central Provinces, situated in 21 54 / N. and 83 24' E , 
on the Kelo river, and on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, 363 miles from 
Calcutta. Population (1901), 6,764. The town contains an old foit 
built at the time of the Maratha invasions. Raigarh is a centre for 
local trade, and is increasing in importance. The principal industry 
is the manufactuie of tasar silk cloth, considerable quantities of which 
are exported. Glass bangles are also made. Raigarh possesses an 
English school, a pnmaiy school, a girls' school, and a dispensary, 

Raigarh (or *The Royal Fort,' originally called Rain, and known 
to the early European traders as ' the Gibraltar of the East ') Hill 
fort in the Mahad tdhika of Kolaba District, Bombay, situated 
in 1 8 14' N. and 73 27' K, 32 miles south-west from Poona, It 
stands on the Western Ghats, and was regarded in the last century 
as one of the greatest strongholds of India. Its scarped sides and 
long top form a great wedge-shaped block, cut off fiom the Western 
Ghats by a deep valley about a mile broad at the base and 2 miles 
across from crest to crest. The hill-top, 2,851 feet above sea-level, 
stretches about a mile and a half from east to west by a mile from 
north to south. On the west, south, and east, the hill-sides are so 
steep that, excepting the gateways in the west and south faces, there 
are no artificial defences, The north-west face is protected by a main 
line of masonry and two upper walls or portions of walls where the 
natural scarp is imperfect. Its size, strength, and its easy communica- 
tion with the Deccan and with the sea must from early times have 
made Raigarh an important fortress. But its time of magnificence 
as the capital of a great sovereign was from 1664 to 1680, the last 
sixteen years of Sivajfs reign. 

In the twelfth century Rairi was the seat of a family of petty 
Maratha chiefs. In the fourteenth century these chiefs acknowledged 
the Vijayanagar princes as their overlords. About the middle of the 
fifteenth century, Ala-ud-din Shah Bahmani II compelled the Rairi 
chief to pay tribute. In 1479 Rairi passed to the Nizam Sbahi Sultans 
of Ahmadnagar, and was held by them till 1636, On the final con- 
quest of Ahmadnagar, the Mughals made Rain over to the Adil Shahi 
Sultans of Bijapur. Under the name of Islamgarh, it was then made 
over to the Sldi of Janjira, and garrisoned by a body of Marathas. In 
1648 Rain fell into the hands of SivajT, who in 1662, after diligent 
search, chose the hill for his capital, changing the name to Raigarh. 
The royal and public buildings are said to have numbered three 



48 RAIGARH 

hundred stone houses, including palaces, mansions, offices, a mint, 
granaries, magazines, quarters for a garrison of 2,000 men, a market 
nearly a mile in length, and a number of rock-cut and masonry cis- 
terns. While the hill-top was being covered with these buildings, care 
was taken to complete its defences. In 1664 Sivaji enriched Raigarh 
with the plunder of Surat, and made it the seat of his government. 
In the same year, after the death of his father Shahji, he assumed 
the title of Raja, and struck coins in his own name. In 1674 Sivaji 
was crowned with much splendour as an independent prince at 
Raigarh, and died here six years afterwards in 1680. A description 
of the coronation, as reported by an English eyewitness, is given by 
Fryer. In 1690 Raigarh was taken by Aurangzeb \ but having reverted 
to the Marathas during the decay of the Muhammadan power, it was 
invested by a British force in April, 1818, and surrendered after a 
bombardment from the hill spur called Kal-kai lasting fourteen days. 
A tieasure of 5 lakhs in coin was discovered among the ruins of 
the fort. 

Raika. Petty State in REWA KANTHA, Bombay 

Raikot (jRaekot] Town in the Jagraon tahsil of Ludhiana District, 
Punjab, situated in 30 39' N. and 75 36' E., 27 miles from Ludhiana 
town. Population (1901), 10,131. In the seventeenth century it was 
made the capital of the Rais of Raikot, whose palaces are still standing ; 
but it declined rapidly after their overthrow, and is now of no com- 
mercial importance. The municipality was created in 1867. The 
income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 6,800, and 
the expenditure Rs. 6,500. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 7,700, 
chiefly derived from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 7,400. Raikot 
possesses a vernacular high middle school maintained by the munici- 
pality, and a Government dispensary. 

Raingarh. One of the Simla Hill States, Punjab. See RAWAIN. 

Raipur District 1 . District in the Chhattlsgarh Division of the 

1 In 1906 the constitution of Raipur District was entirely altered by the formation 
of the new Drug District, in which the western portion of Raipur, with an area of 
3 ,444 square miles and a population of 545,235 persons, was included This aiea 
comprised the whole of the Drug tdhsil and portions of the Simga and Dhamtari 
tdfisih At the same time an area of 706 square miles, with a population of 99,402 
persons, was transferred to Raipur from Bilaspur, the line of the Seonath and Maha- 
nadi rivers becoming the boundary of the new District. The new Raipur District was 
divided into the four taksils of RAIPUR, DHAMTARI, MAHASAMUND, and BALODA 
BAZAR, the old Simga tahsil being abolished, while Drug was included in the new 
District of that name On the transfer of Sambalpur District to Bengal, the Phuljhar 
zammddri, with an area of 842 square miles and a population of 102,135 persons, was 
added to the Mahasamund tahsTL The area of the reconstituted Raipur District is 
9,831 square miles, and the population of that area in 1901 was 1,096,858 persons, 
compared with 1,125,019 in 1891. The decrease in population during the decade 
was 2 1 per cent. The density is 112 persons per square mile. The District contains 



RAIPUR DISTRICT 49 

Central Provinces, lying between 19 50' and 21 53' N. and 81 25' 
and 83 38 / E., with an area of 11,724 square miles. The District 
occupies the southern portion of the Chhattisgarh plain, or upper basin 
of the Mahanadi, and includes also tracts of the hilly country surround- 
ing it on all sides except the north. It was the largest District in the 
Province up to 1906, but since its reconstitution it has a smaller area 
than Chanda. 

On the north-western border a narrow strip of the Satpura range 
enters the District, and after a break of open country comprised 
in the Nandgaon and Khairagarh States the hills 

again appear on the south-west. On the south Physical 
, , i_ i i aspects, 

and west they occupy a much larger area, stretch- 
ing almost up to the Mahanadi and extending over 5,000 square miles 
of more or less broken country. The greater part of the hilly tract 
is included in the three groups of estates known as the north-western, 
south-western, and south-eastern zamindaris^ the third being much 
the largest and most important The plain country, covering an area 
roughly of 5,000 square miles, lies principally to the north-west of the 
MahanadI, with a few isolated tracts to the south. The Government 
forests consist practically of two large blocks in the south and east 
of the District, but extensive areas in the zamtnddris are also covered 
with jungle. The hills are generally of only moderate elevation, most 
of the peaks having an altitude of a little over 2,000 feet, while only 
a few rise above 2,500, and one peak between Bindra-Nawagarh and 
Khariar reaches 3,235 feet. The general slope of the plain is to the 
north-east, Nandgaon, just beyond the western border, having an 
elevation of 1,011 feet, and Bhatapara, beyond the eastern boundary 
in Bilaspur, of 888. The two main rivers are the Mahanadi and the 
Seonath. The Mahanadi flows in a north-easterly direction for about 
125 miles in the District, its principal tributary being the Pain, which 
joins it at Rajim. The Sondhal, which borders the Bindra-Nawagarh 
zamlndari and flows into the Pain, is also a stream of some importance. 
The Seonath enters the District on the south-west, and flows north 
and east in a very tortuous course for about 125 miles, until after 
a short bend into Bilaspur it joins the Mahanadi on the border of the 
two Districts. The Kharun river, which flows by Raipur town, is 
a tributary of the Seonath. The general character of the Mahanadi 
and the rivers in the east of the District is very different from that 

three towns RAIPUR, DHAMTARI, and ARANG and 4,051 inhabited villages. It 
includes n zamind&ri estates with a total area of 4,899 square miles, of which 2,382 
are forest. Outside the zammdarts. Government forest covers 1,337 square miles. 
The approximate land revenue demand in 1902-3 on the area now constituting the 
District was 6-80 lakhs. The article refers almost throughout to Raipur District 
before its reconstitntion, material not being available for the treatment of the new 
area. 



50 RATPUR DISTRICT 

of the Seonath and its tributaries. The latter generally flow over 
a rocky or gravelly bottom, and consequently letam watei for the 
whole or the greater part of the year ; while the beds of the former 
are wide wastes of sand, almost dry for more than half the year, and 
at no time, except during high flood, containing much water. The 
open country is an undulating plain, poorly wooded, especially in the 
black-soil tracts, but thickly peopled and closely cultivated. 

The plains are occupied by Lower Vindhyan rocks, consisting of 
shales and limestones with subordinate sandstones, resting upon thick, 
often quartzitic, sandstones, which form low hillocks fringing them on 
all sides except the north Beyond these, the bordering hills are com- 
posed of gneiss and quartzite, and of sandstone rocks intersected with 
trap dikes. The blue limestone crops out in numerous places on the 
surface, and is invariably found in the beds of the livers. The stratum 
below the subsoil is a soft sandstone shale, covered generally by a layer 
of laterite gravel \ and in many places the shale has been converted 
into a hard, vitrified sandstone, forming an excellent building material. 

Teak occurs in the western forests of the District, but is never 
abundant. In the east and south the forest consists of sal (Shorea 
robu$ta\ but it is often of a scrubby character. With the sal are 
associated the usual species of Woodfordia^ Indigofera, Casearia^ 
PhyUanthuS) BauUnia, Grewia, Zizyfkits, Flueggea, and other shrubs 
and small trees. The remaining forests are of the usual Central 
Provinces type, teak being associated with saj (Terminalia tomentosa), 
Undid (Lagerstroemia parviflora}> karrd (Cleistanthus coUinus)^ and 
bijdsdl (Pterocarpus Marsupium) Babul (Acacia arabicct) is very 
common m the open country. Mahua (Bassia latifolid) and mango 
are plentiful m the south of the District, but not so common in the 
west and north, where in places the country is markedly bare of trees. 
The heavy climbers include Butea superba, Spatholobus Roxburghii, 
and Milkttia auriculata. The herbaceous vegetation, consisting of 
grasses and of species of Compositae, Leguminosae, Acanthaceae, and 
other orders, though conspicuous during the rainy season, withers away 
in the hot weather. 

In proportion to their extent the forests are now only sparsely 
inhabited by game. Buffalo and bison are found in small numbers 
in the east and south-east. Tigers and leopards are fairly common, 
but deer of all kinds are rare, and good heads are seldom obtained. 
Wild dogs are numerous and are very injurious to the game. 

The heat is especially great in the summer months, on account of 
the red gravel soil and the closeness of rock to the surface Fever is 
very prevalent in the autumn, and epidemics of cholera have been 
frequent. This may be attributed to the universal preference of tank 
to well water for drinking purposes. 



HISTORY 51 

The annual rainfall averages 55 inches. The supply is fairly regular, 
but its distribution is capricious. It is noticeable that certain tracts of 
the Simga tahsll^ which have been entirely denuded of forest, appear to 
be especially liable to a deficient rainfall. 

Chhattlsgarh seems to have been inhabited in the earliest times by 
Bhuiyas and other Munda races ; if so, they were conquered and driven 
to the hills by the Gonds, by whom the first regular 
system of government was founded. Traditions 1 ory * 

describe the Gond conquest of Bindra-Nawagarh, and the victories of 
their heroes over the barbarian giants. It is impossible to say when 
Raipur became pait of the dominions of the ancient Haihaivansi 
dynasty; but it appears to have been cut off from the Ratanpur 
kingdom, and separately governed by a younger branch of the reigning 
family, about the eleventh century. Raipur probably continued from 
this period to be administered as a separate principality, in subordina- 
tion to the Ratanpur kingdom, by a younger branch of the Haihaivansi 
family; but nothing is known of the separate fortunes of the Raipur 
house until shortly before the invasion of the Marathas in the eighteenth 
century. In 1741 the Maratha general, Bhaskar Pant, while on his way 
to attack Bengal, took Ratanpur and annexed the kingdom ; and in 
1750 Amar Singh, the representative of the younger branch ruling in 
Raipur, was quietly ousted. Between 1750 and 1818 the country was 
governed by the Marathas, whose administration was of the most 
oppressive kind, having the sole end of extracting the largest possible 
amount of revenue from the people. Insurrections were frequent, 
and the eastern tracts of Raipur were laid waste by the incursions of 
Binjhals from the neighbouring hills of Sonakhan. Between 1818 and 
1830 the Nagpur territories were administered by the British Resident. 
From 1830 to 1853 the District was again administered by Maratha 
Subahs on the system organized by the British officers, and on the 
whole successfully. In 1853 Chhattlsgarh became British territory by 
lapse, and Bilaspur was separated from Raipur and made a separate 
District in 1861. During the Mutiny Chhattlsgarh was almost undis- 
turbed. The commencement of disaffection on the part of the native 
regiment stationed at Raipur was promptly quelled by the three Euro- 
pean officers, who hanged the ringleaders on parade with their own 
hands. 

Archaeological remains are numerous, showing that the early Hindu 
civilization must have extended over most of the District. Those of 
ARANG, RAJIM, and Sirpur are the most important. There are also 
interesting temples at Sihawa, Chipti, Deokut, and Balod in the 
Dhamtan tahsll> at Khalari and Narayanpur in the north-east of the 
District, and at Deo Baloda and Kunwara near Raipur town. Some 
Buddhist remains have been discovered at Drug, Rajim, Sirpur, and 



RAIPUR DISTRICT 



Turturia. The line of one of the most important roads of ancient 
times may be traced through this part of the country, leading from 
near Bhandak, formerly a large city, towards Ganjam and Cuttack. 

The population of the District at the last three enumerations was 
as follows : (1881) 1,405,171 ; (1891) 1,584,427 , and (1901) 1,440,556. 
Between 1881 and 1891 the increase was TO per cent. 
Population. ^ the m aig UZ ari area, the decade being generally 
prosperous, and 24 per cent, in the zarnindaris^ but the latter figure 
must be attributed partly to greater accuracy of enumeration* In the 
last decade the loss of population was 9 per cent., the District having 
been severely affected in both famines. The District contains three 
towns RAIPUR, DHAMTARI, and ARANG and 4,051 inhabited villages. 
Statistics of population of the reconstituted District, based on the 
Census of 1901, are shown below: 








Number of 




Uj 


u. 4 


2 




S 




c 


cu u 


01 Ch H 


o-*S 




* 






8 


Se 


^o I 8* 


ft-a 


TahsiL 


Area in 
mile 


B 


1 


& 


ii 


IP 


^ MT3 ^ 

||* 

^^ 


Raipur . 
Mahasamund 
Baloda Bazar . 
Dhamtari 


1,016 

5,284 

1,933 

',598 


2 
I 


493 
2,042 

975 
54 1 


246,514 

398,075 
264,063 
188,206 


243 

75 
i?8 


- 2.6 

+ 105 
-17.1 
- 2.5 


7.254 
3,831 
3,603 

4433 


District total 


9,83i 


3 


4,051 


1,096,858 


112 


- 2.5 


19,121 



Nearly 88 per cent, of the population speak the Chhattlsgarhi dialect 
of Eastern Hindi, 6 per cent. Oriya, 4 per cent. Hindi, and rather less 
than 6 per cent. Marathl. Only about 8,000 Gonds are returned as 
speaking their own language. The Oriya speakers live principally in 
the Khariar zamlndari adjoining Sambalpur. In 1901, 90 per cent, of 
the people were Hindus and 8 per cent. Animists. There were 
rather less than 18,000 Muhammadans, of whom 6,000 lived in towns. 
Members of the KabTrpanthi sect of Hindus numbered 162,175, and 
the Satnamis 224,779 persons. The Kabirpanthis are mainly Pankas 
or Gandas who have adopted the tenets of the sect, but several other 
castes also belong to it. The main distinction of a Kabirpanthi in 
Chhattisgarh is that he abstains from meat and liquor. The Satnamis 
are practically all Chamars. 

The most important castes numerically are Chamars (245,000), form- 
ing 1 7 per cent, of the population ; Gonds (216,000), 15 per cent.; and 
Ahirs or Rawats (145,000), 10 per cent. The principal landholding 
castes are Brahmans (26,000), Kurmis (66,000), Banias (5,000), Telis 
(232,000), and Marathas (3,000). The Brahmans are both Maratha 
and Chhattisgarhl. The former are said to have settled in Raipur 



AGRICULTURE 



S3 



after the return of ChimnajT Bhonsla's expedition to Cuttack, when 
they obtained grants of land for their maintenance. 

Christians number 3,499, including 3,294 natives, of whom the large 
majority belong to the Lutheran Church. There are stations of the 
German Evangelical Church at Raipur and Bisrampur, of the American 
Mennonite Mission at Dhamtan, and of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church at Raipur. A large number of Chamars have been converted 
by the Bisrampur mission. 

In the north-west of the malguzari area, and round Dhamda and 
Deorbija, lies a rich black-soil tract, which is well adapted to the 
growth of wheat and other spring crops, but owing . 

to its undulating surface does not lend itself readily *"* "^ 
to embankment, and is in consequence relatively unsuitable for rice. 
In the Dhamtan, Balod, and Rajim farganas the soil is likewise black, 
but here the country is quite flat, and is therefore all embanked. Rice 
is the chief crop, and most of the land is double cropped. To the 
east of the Mahanadi black soil is almost unknown, and yellow and red 
soils prevail ; the surface is fairly even. Ordinarily the amount of land 
left fallow is very small, consisting of the pooiest soil, for which periodi- 
cal resting fallows are required. Old fallow land was almost unknown 
at the last regular settlement, though it has increased in recent years. 
Rice is manured to as large a degree as the cultivator can afford, but 
rarely any other crop. The silt from the beds of tanks is frequently 
dug up and placed on the fields, and is of considerable advantage. 

Of the total area of the District, 50 per cent, is included in the 
zaminddri estates, 20 square miles have been allotted on the ryotwari 
system, 106 square miles are held wholly or partially free of revenue, 
and 4,340 acres have been sold outright under the Waste Land Rules. 
The remainder is held on the ordinary malguzdri tenure. In 1963-4 
the classification showed 1,366 square miles of Government forest, 
549 square miles not available for cultivation, and 2,440 square miles 
of cultivable waste other than fallow \ The remaining area, amounting 
to 5,002 square miles or 62 per cent of the total (excluding Government 
forest), was occupied for cultivation. Except in the zaminddri estates, 
the area of forest land available for cultivation is small. The total 
cropped area was 4,759 square miles, of which 713 square miles were 
double cropped. Rice is the staple crop of the District, being grown 
on 2,022 square miles. Its cultivation is conducted almost wholly on 
the bidsi system : that is, of ploughing up the young plants when they 
are a few inches high. Kodon occupies 985 square miles, wheat 264, 
the pulses urad, mung, and moth 531, gram 97, linseed 237, and til 
157 square miles. Wheat is usually sown in unembanked black-soil 

1 From these statistics 2,366 square miles of waste land in the zammddris, which 
have not been cadastrally surveyed, are excluded. 



54 RAIPUR DISTRICT 

fields, and if the winter rams fail is frequently damaged by white ants. 
Though the area under linseed is small in comparison with the total, 
Raipur is one of the most important Districts in the Province for 
this crop. 

The practice of raising second crops in rice-fields has sprung up 
within the last forty years, double crops being grown on as much as 940 
square miles when the autumn rains are favourable, The methods 
of cultivation have hitherto been very slovenly and backward ; but 
with the rise in the prices of agricultural produce, an improvement 
is being manifested, and the advantages of manure and irrigation have 
begun to be appreciated. An experimental farm has been instituted 
at Raipur by the Agricultural department. During the decade ending 
1904 Rs. 47,000 was advanced under the Land Improvement Loans 
Act and 19 lakhs under the Agriculturists' Loans Act. A consideiable 
proportion of this latter sum, however, consisted of grants and loans 
to mdlguzars on special terms for the construction or improvement of 
tanks in the famine of 1900 and the scarcity of 1903. 

The cattle of the District are small and underfed, and no care is 
exercised in breeding. Animals imported from Nagpur or Bastar are, 
as far as possible, used for spnng-crop cultivation. Buffaloes are kept 
only by the malguzars and better-class tenants. They are especially 
useful for ploughing the rice-fields when flooded, carting grain, and 
drawing timber from the forests. They are principally imported from 
the northern Districts by the caste of Basdewas. Very few ponies are 
kept, and they are scarcely bred at all. Landowners and tenants who 
have carts for agriculture use them if they have to make a journey, and 
others go on foot. Light carts with trotting bullocks from Nagpur have 
been introduced into the Dhamtarl tahsil^ but are not much used as 
yet. The number of goats and sheep is not large in proportion to 
the size of the District. The former are kept for food, the latter for 
their wool used m the manufacture of country blankets. Members of 
the professional shepherd caste are not numerous. 

Irrigation is not at present a feature in the agriculture of the District. 
In a normal year, until recently, only a little more than 30 square miles 
received this aid. The statistics for 1903-4 show nearly 15 square 
miles as irrigated, of which 3 were supplied from tanks and 7 from 
wells. But in a favourable season 50 square miles can now be irrigated. 
It is estimated that the tanks constructed during the famine of 1900 
afforded protection to an additional area of about 36 square miles. 
There are now 3,200 tanks in the District, or less than one to each 
village on an average. The distribution, however, vanes greatly, the 
number rising to four and five per village in certain tracts. Until 
recently tanks have generally been constructed primarily to afford 
a water-supply to the villagers, and have only been used for irrigation 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 55 

when it was essential to save the crops from complete failure. Schemes 
have been prepared by the Irrigation department for canals in the tracts 
between the Mahanadi and Kharun, and the Kharun and Seonath, 
which promise to yield substantial results. There are about 11,000 
irrigation wells in the District, most of them temporary, supplying on 
an average about an acre each. Well-irrigation is practically confined 
to garden crops and sugar-cane. 

The Government forests cover 1,366 square miles, or 20 per cent, 
of the District area, excluding the zamlndans. Two main types may be 
distinguished, one consisting of sal (Shorea robusta), 
and the other of mixed forest. The sal forests con- res s ' 
stitute about a quarter of the total, being situated m the east and south. 
There is at present little demand for produce from them, owing to the 
difficulties of transport. Bamboos are found mainly in the sal forests ; 
they are cut in the Sihawa range and floated down the Mahanadi to 
Dhamtari Only a few small patches of teak forest exist. The mixed 
forest consists of the usual species, saj (Terminaha tomentosd) and 
bljasal (Pterocarfus Mars upturn) being the principal timber trees. 
Dhdman (Grewia vestitd) is found in the sal forests, and is used by 
the Gonds for the manufacture of bows and spear handles. In 1903-4 
the forest revenue amounted to Rs. 48,000. 

No mines are worked at present. Iron ores are found in abundance 
in the western and southern parts of the District, and some of these 
are very rich A sample from Dhalh in the Dondi-Lohara zamtnddn 
yielded on assay nearly 73 per cent, of metallic iron. Copper and lead 
ores have been found at Chicholl. Lithographic stones of a serviceable 
kind have been obtained from the Lower Vindhyan rocks. Red ochre 
is found m the Gandai zamtndari, and chalk in one or two villages 
near Dhamda. 

There are no important industries. Tasar silk is woven, but to 
a very much smaller extent than in Bilaspur or Sambalpur. Most 
of the larger villages contain a number of cotton- 
weavers belonging to the Panka, Mehra, and Koshta Trade and 

i i i i * n i T communications. 

castes, who produce coarse cloth. Mill-spun thread 

has entirely supplanted the home-spun article , and cloth woven in 
Indian mills is rapidly gaining in popularity at the expense of that 
woven locally, the former being produced in the same patterns as the 
latter and being cheaper. Ornaments and vessels of bell-metal are 
made at Diug, Dhamda, Nawapara, and Raipur, and glass bangles at 
Simga, Neora, and Kurra. A little iron is smelted by native methods 
m the Deorl and Dondi-Lohara zamlndaris, but it cannot compete 
with English iron. Raipur has one factory owned by a Cutchi Muham- 
madan, which contains four cotton-gins and a mill for pressing linseed 
and castor oil. 



56 RAIPUR DISTRICT 

The most important export is rice, which goes to the northern Dis- 
tricts of the Central Provinces, to Berar, Hyderabad, and Bombay. 
Wheat, til, and linseed are also exported. Til oilcake is sent to Berar 
from the factory at Raipur town. Of forest products, teak, sal, and 
btjasdl timber are exported in considerable quantities from the zamln- 
daris. Lac is sent to Mirzapur, and mahua flowers occasionally to 
Nagpur and Kamptee for the manufacture of liquor. Myrabolams are 
exported to Bombay. As in other Districts in the Central Provinces, 
a considerable trade has recently sprung up in the export of dried meat 
Sea-salt from Bombay is generally used, though small quantities are 
also brought from Ganjam. Sugar comes principally from the Mau- 
ritius, that from Mirzapur being slightly more expensive. Gur or unre- 
fined sugar is chiefly imported from Bengal and Bombay, and a small 
amount is obtained from Bastar. Cotton thread is received principally 
from the Hmganghat, Pulgaon, and Badnera mills, and cotton cloth 
from Cawnpore, Nagpur, and Nandgaon English cloth and metals, 
such a.* iron, brass, and copper, aie also imported. Brass vessels come 
from Mirzapur and Cuttack, and leathern shoes from Cawnpore, Ex- 
cluding a European firm which has an agency at Raipur town, the 
gram trade is in the hands of CutchI Muhammadans. Hardware and 
stationery are imported and retailed by Bhatias, while Marwari Banias 
trade in cloth and thread, and carry on business in money-lending and 
exchange. Baloda Bazar near Simga has a large weekly cattle market. 
The other leading bazars are at Baronda and Barekel in the Raipur 
tahsll) Utai, Ranitarai, Arjundah, and Gandai in Drug, Kurud in 
Dhamtari, and Neora in Simga. 

The direct line of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway passes through the 
District, with a length of 60 miles and 8 stations within its limits. From 
Raipur town a branch narrow-gauge line leads to Dhamtari, distant 46 
miles, and from Abhanpur, a station on this line, there is also a branch 
of i o-| miles to Rajim. The chief routes for cart traffic are the Lawan- 
Bhatapara, Raipur-Khariar, Tilda-Bemetara, and Dhamtarl roads. The 
total length of metalled roads in the District is 69 miles, and of un- 
metalled roads 665 miles ; the annual cost of maintenance is Rs. 88,400, 
practically all the roads being m charge of the Public Works depart- 
ment. There are avenues of trees on 185 miles. The zammddri 
estates also contain 109 miles of roads constructed from their private 
funds. 

Raipur District has suffered from failures of crops on many occa- 
sions. Information about any except the recent famines is of the 
Famine scantiest, but distress is recorded as having occurred 

in the years 1828-9, 1834-5, and 1845-6. In 1868-9 
the rains failed almost as completely as in 1899-1900. There was 
severe distress, accompanied by migration and desertion of villages. 



ADMINISTRA TION 



57 



The famine of 1868-9 was followed by a period of twenty-five years 
of prosperity, broken only by a partial failure of the rice crop in 1886. 
In 1895 the monsoon failed prematurely, and there were no cold- 
season rains, with the result that both the autumn and spring crops 
were poor. This was followed in 1896 by a complete cessation of the 
rains at the end of August, and a total failure of the rice crop, only 
slightly relieved by a moderate spring harvest on a reduced area, 
Relief operations extended throughout the year 1897, the numbers rising 
to over 100,000 persons, or nearly 7 per cent, of the population, at 
the end of April; and the total expenditure was 18-5 lakhs. The year 
1897 was succeeded by two moderate harvests; and in 1899 the mon- 
soon again completely failed, the total out-turn being only one-sixth 
of the normal. More than 700,000 persons, or 44-^ per cent, of the 
population, were in receipt of some form of assistance in August, 1900, 
and the total expenditure was 126-5 lakhs. In 1902-3 the rice crop 
again failed partially, and distress occurred in certain areas of the 
District. The numbers on relief rose to 60,000 in April, 1903, and 
the total expenditure was about 5 lakhs. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is aided by four Assistant and Extra- 
Assistant Commissioners. For administrative purposes the District is 
divided into four tahsils, each of which has a tahsil- .... 
dar and a naib-tahsllddr, while additional tahsllddrs 
have been posted to Raipur and Mahasamund. The forests are in 
charge of an officer of the Forest seivice. 

The civil judicial staff consists of a District and two Subordinate 
Judges, and a Munsif for each of the Raipur, Baloda Bazar, and Dham- 
tari tahslls. The Divisional and Sessions Judge of the Chhattibgarh 
Division has jurisdiction in the District, and the zamlndars of Khariar 
and Fingeshwar are entrusted with civil powers. Of important civil 
litigation, suits on mortgage-deeds with condition of foreclosure are 
noticeably frequent. The commonest forms of serious crime are cattle- 
theft and cattle-poisoning by arsenic. 

When the country first came temporarily under British administra- 
tion in 1818, the whole revenue of Chhattisgarh amounted to 
Rs. 2,90,000. Under the beneficent rule of the Superintendent, 
Colonel Agnew, the prosperity of the country rapidly increased, and 
the revenue, which was then settled annually, rose by 21 per cent in 
eight years. On the termination of this period, British officials were 
replaced by Maratha Subahs ; but the methods laid down by Colonel 
Agnew were on the whole adhered to, and prosperity continued. In 
1868 the revenue of the District had increased to 3-18 lakhs. The 
first long-term settlement was made in 1868 for a period of twenty 
years, and under it the revenue was raised to 5-52 lakhs, still, however, 
giving an incidence per cultivated acre of only 5 annas 2 pies foj the 



RAIPUR DISTRICT 



area held in ordinary proprietary right. The extreme lowness of the 
assessments in Chhattisgarh may be attributed to the patriarchal 
system of the Haihaivansi kings, the absence of any outside demand 
for produce, and the payment of rents in kind, the rents themselves 
being entirely free from any economic influences, and being regarded 
as contributions for the support of the central administration. The 
settlement of 1868 was the first in which the assessment was based on 
a regular survey, and at this time also proprietary rights were conferred. 
During its currency a great transformation took place in the conditions 
of agriculture. The District was brought within reach of the railway, 
exports of gram rose with a bound, the value of land rapidly increased, 
and prices doubled. About two-fifths of the mdlguzart area, consisting 
of the Drug tahsil, with parts of the others, was summarily lesettled in 
the years 1884-7 ; and a regular settlement of the rest of the mdlguzart 
area, with a revision of revenue in the zamlndaris^ was effected between 
1885 and 1889. The term of settlement was fixed at nine or ten years 
in the summarily settled and at twelve yeais in the regularly settled 
tracts, the revenue being raised to 8-61 lakhs, or by 56 per cent. The 
average rental incidence per acre was R. 0-10-3 (maximum R. 0-14-5, 
minimum R. 0-3-11) and the corresponding revenue incidence was 
R. 0-5-8 (maximum R. 0-8-4, minimum R 0-2-6). Preparations for 
a fresh regular settlement began in 1896; but owing to famine and 
serious agricultural deterioration, only the Drug tahsll was resettled for 
eight years, while summary abatements were proposed in some of the 
worst affected tracts. A fresh settlement was commenced in 1904. 

The collections of land and total revenue in recent years are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees : 





1880-1 


1890-1 


i goo- 1 


1903-4 


Land reveftue 
Total revenue 


6,48 
i,34 


8,62 
15,18 


7,68 
12,76 


9;5 

14,98 



Local affairs outside municipal areas are managed by a District 
council and six local boards, having jurisdiction over the four iahsils and 
the eastern and western zamtnddri estates respectively. The income of 
the District council in 1903-4 was Rs. 97,000, while the expenditure 
on education was Rs 48,000, on public works Rs. 26,000, and on 
medical relief Rs. 13,000. RAIPUR and DHAMTARI are municipal 
towns. 

The force under the District Superintendent of police consists of 
737 officers and men, including a special reserve of 25, and 8 mounted 
constables, besides 4,340 watchmen for 4,051 inhabited towns and 
villages. The District possesses a second-class Central jail, with 
accommodation for 911 prisoners, including 41 female prisoners. 



RAIPUR TOWN 59 

The daily average numbei of prisoners in 1904 was 591. The in- 
dustries carried on in the jail comprise cloth-weaving and the manu- 
facture of mats from aloe fibre. 

In respect of education Raipur stands last but two among the Dis- 
tricts of the Province. In 1901 only 3-7 per cent, of the male population 
could read and write, and only 929 females were returned as literate. 
The percentage of children under instiuction to those of school-going 
age is 9. Statistics of the number of pupils under instruction are 
as follows- (1880-1) 14,054; (1890-1) 14,364; (1900-1) 18,766; and 
(1903-4) 18,644, including 2,612 girls. The educational institutions 
comprise a high school at Raipur town, a Rajkumai College for the 
sons of Feudatory chiefs and zamlndars^ three English middle schools, 
four vernacular middle schools, and 215 primary schools. The ex- 
penditure on education in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,06,000, of which Rs, 
80,000 was derived from Provincial and Local funds, and Rs. 16,000 
from fees. 

The District has 12 dispensaries, with accommodation for 125 in- 
patients. In 1904 the number of cases treated was 162,653, of whom 
1,340 were in-patients, and 2,134 operations were performed. The 
total expenditure was Rs. 22,000, chiefly met from Provincial and 
Local funds. Two leper asylums, at Raipur town and Dhamtari, are 
supported by allotments from Local funds and charitable subscriptions. 
They contain 195 patients, and the annual expenditure is about 
Rs. 19,000. Raipur town has a veterinary dispensary. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in the municipality of Raipur. The 
number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 32 per 1,000 
of the District population. 

[L. S. Carey, Settlement Report (1891). A District Gazetteer is being 
prepared.] 

Raipur Tahsil. Tahsil of the District of the same name, Central 
Provinces, lying between 20 56' and 21 30' N. and 81 2%' and 
82 i2 /< E. In 1901 the area was 5,802 square miles, and the popula- 
tion 564,102 persons. By the redistribution of areas consequent on 
the formation of the new Drug District, the constitution of the Raipur 
tahsil was radically altered; and it is now a small open plain lying 
between the Mahanadi and the border of Drug District, thickly popu- 
lated and closely cultivated, with an area of 1,016 square miles. The 
population of this portion in 1901 was 246,514, compared with 253,058 
in 1891, the density being 243 persons per square mile. The tahsil 
contains two towns, RAIPUR (population, 32,114), the head-quarters 
of the District and tahsil, and ARANG (6,499) ; and 493 inhabited 
villages. The land revenue demand in 1902-3 on the area of the new 
tahsil was approximately 1-73 lakhs. 

Raipur Town, Head-quarters of the Chhattlsgarh Division and of 

VOL. xxi. E 



60 RAIPUR TOWN 

the District of the same name, Central Provinces, situated in 21 14' 
N. and 81 39' E., on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, 513 miles from 
Calcutta and 188 miles from Nagpur, in an open plain about 4 miles 
from the Kharun river. Raipur is the junction for the branch narrow- 
gauge line to Rajim and Dhamtarl. It is the sixth largest town in the 
Province, and had a population in 1901 of 32,114 persons, the increase 
during the decade having been 35 per cent. The population at 
previous enumerations was (1872) 19,119, (1881) 24,946, and (1891) 
2 3i758. In 1901 there were 25,492 Hindus, 5,302 Muhammadans, 
and 592 Christians, of whom 88 were Europeans or Eurasians. 

Raipur was made the head-quarters of Chhattlsgarh in 1818 The 
town is believed to have existed since the ninth century, the old site 
being to the south-west of the present one and extending to the river 
The most ancient building is the fort, said to have been constructed 
in 1460, on two sides of which are large tanks, while within it are 
numerous temples of comparatively little interest. The unfinished 
Dudhadan temple is probably unrivalled as an instance of modern 
elaborate carving in the Central Provinces, but it is disfigured by 
sculpture of the most indecent type. A number of fine tanks have 
been constructed. Raipur is the head-quarters of the Commissioner 
and Divisional Judge, Chhattlsgarh Division, the Political Agent of the 
Chhattisgarh Feudatory States, an Inspector of Schools, a Superin- 
tendent of Post Offices, and Executive and Irrigation Engineers. It 
contains one of the three Central jails in the Province. Raipur was 
created a municipality in 1867. The municipal receipts during the 
decade ending 1901 averaged Rs. 1,22,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 99,000, chiefly derived from octroi (Rs. 50,000) and water 
rate, while conservancy and water-supply constitute the principal 
items of expenditure, which amounted to Rs. 89,000. Half a bat- 
talion of native infantry was stationed here until 1902. The town is 
supplied with water from the Kharun river by the Balram Das water- 
works, which were opened in 1892 and cost 3*38 lakhs, 2 lakhs being 
contributed by Raja Balram Das of Raj-Nandgaon, after whom they 
are named. Water is drawn from an infiltration gallery in the river, 
and pumped into a service reservoir m the town 120 feet above the 
level of the gallery. The maintenance charges amount to Rs. 1 7,000, 
of which Rs. 13,000 is realized from a water rate. Raipur is the 
leading commercial town of Chhattisgarh, having supplanted Raj- 
Nandgaon, which for many years occupied that position. The local 
handicrafts include brass-working, lacquering on wood, cloth-weaving, 
and the manufacture of gold and silver ornaments. In the Central 
jail cotton cloth is woven and mats are made from aloe fibre. A com- 
bined oil-mill and cotton-ginning factory has been opened, which 
pressed oil to the value of Rs, 90,000 in 1904. There are two printing 



RAIRAKHOL 6r 

presses, using English, Hindi, Urdu, and Oriya types. Among the 
local institutions are a museum constructed in 1875, a leper asylum 
supported by private contributions, and an enclosed market-place. 
The educational and medical institutions comprise a high school 
with an average attendance of 98 pupils, and a Rajkumar College 
for the sons of Feudatory chiefs and landholders, besides several other 
schools, four dispensaries, and a veterinary dispensary. 

Raipur Village. Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Noa- 
khali District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 23 2' N. and 
90 47' E,, on the left bank of the Dakatia river. Population (1901), 
3,738. It is a busy trading mart. 

Rairakhol. Feudatory State in Bengal, lying between 20 56' 
and 21 24' N. and 83 59' and 84 53' E., with an area of 833 square 
miles. Up to 1905 political control was exercised by the Central 
Provinces Administration. It lies to the south-east of Sambalpur Dis- 
trict, and is bounded by the Bamra and Sonpur States on the north 
and south. The head-quarters are at Rampur, a village of 1,416 
inhabitants, 44 miles from Sambalpur by road. The greater part 
of the State consists of hilly country covered with dense forests, but 
there are some open tracts on the north and south. Wild elephants, 
buffalo, and bison are found in the forests, and also, it is said, a special 
variety of light-coloured wild hog. The ruling family claim to be 
Kadambansi Rajputs, and to be a branch of the Bonai Raj family. 

The State was formerly subordinate to Bamra, but was freed from 
its dependence and constituted one of the Garhjat cluster by the 
Rajas of Patna in the eighteenth century. The traditions of the ruling 
house relate that there used to be constant war between Bamra and 
Rairakhol, and on one occasion the whole of the Rairakhol family was 
destroyed, with the exception of one boy who was hidden by a Butka 
Sudh woman. She placed him in a cradle supported on four uprights, 
and when the Bamra Raja's soldiers came to seek for him, the Sudhs 
swore, ' If we have kept him either in heaven or earth, may our God 
destroy us.' The Bamra people were satisfied with this reply and the 
child was saved, and on coming to manhood he won back his kingdom. 
In consequence of this incident, the Butka Sudhs are considered by the 
Rairakhol house as relations on the mother's side ; they have several 
villages allotted to them, and perform sacrifices for the ruling family. 
In some of these villages nobody may sleep on a cot or sit on a 
high chair, so as to be between heaven and earth, in the position in 
which the child was saved. The late Raja Bishan Chandra Janamuni 
died in 1900 after having occupied the gaddi for seventy-five years. 
His grandson Raja Gauro Chandra Deo, then thirty years of age, 
was installed in the same year, subject to certain conditions, the obli- 
gation to accept a Government Diwan during a probationary period 

E J? 



62 RAIRAKHOL 

being one. The relations of the State with Government are in charge of 
a Political Agent who is subordinate to the Commissioner of Orissa, 
The population in 1901 was 26,888, having increased by 32 per cent, 
during the previous decade. The number of inhabited villages is 319, 
and the density of population 32 persons per square mile. Oriya is the 
language of 90 per cent, of the population, and the Oraon and Mun- 
dari dialects are spoken by a few hundred persons each. Chasas are 
the most numerous caste in the State, and next to them Gonds, 
Gandas, and Sudhs. 

The soil is generally light and sandy. A regular survey has been 
carried out in only about half of the total number of villages, the 
assessments for the smaller villages being made summarily. As nearly 
as can be ascertained, about 64 square miles, 01 8 per cent, of the total 
area, were cropped in 1904. Rice occupies 37 square miles, and the 
crops next to this jn importance are til, urad, and kulthi. There are 
376 tanks, from which 3,400 acres can be irrigated. About 470 square 
miles are covered with forest. Sal (Shorea robusta) is the principal 
timber tree, and a considerable revenue is derived from the sale of sal 
sleepers. The rearing of tasar silk-cocoons in the State forests is 
a local industry, as is also the extraction of catechu. There are 
extensive deposits of iron ore, which are worked by the Khonds, a few 
manufactured implements being delivered to the Raja as a cess. The 
State contains 3 miles of gravelled and 35 of embanked roads. The 
principal routes are from Rampur to Sambalpur, Sonpur, Bamra, and 
Cuttack. Exports of produce are taken to Sambalpur railway station. 

The total revenue in 1904 was Rs. 55,000, of which Rs. 13,000 was 
derived from land, Rs. 13,000 from forests, and Rs. 7,000 from excise. 
Land revenue is still partly paid in kind in certain tracts, while in 
others, called paikl parganas and situated on the frontiers of the State, 
the cultivators formerly lay under an obligation of military service, 
which has now shrunk to that of escort duty to the Raja. In twelve 
years since 1893, Rs. 93,000 has been expended on public works under 
the supervision of the Engineer of the Chhattisgarh States division- 
Besides the roads already mentioned, a palace for the chiefs family and 
State offices have been constructed at Rampur. The total expenditure 
in 1904 was Rs. 56,000. The tribute paid to the British Government 
is Rs. 800, and is liable to revision The State supports five primary 
schools, with 250 pupils, the expenditure being about Rs. 1,000. 
At the Census of 1901 only 281 persons were shown as literate, all 
in Oriya. A dispensary has been established at Rampur, at which 
14,000 persons were treated in 1904. 

Rai-Sankli. Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay. 

Raisen, Head-quarters of the Nizam at-i-Mashrik or eastern district 
of Bhopal State, Central India, situated in 23 20' N. and 77 47' E u 



RAJAHMUNDRY TALUK 63 

i2| miles by metalled road from Salamatpur station on the Indian 
Midland section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population 
(1901), 3,495. Raisen always played an important part m the history 
of Eastern Malwa, especially during the Muhammadan period. The 
fort stands on the northern end of a spur of the Vindhyas, the town 
lying at its foot. Nothing is known of the foundation of the fort, which 
is said to have been built by Hindus, but its name appears to be 
a corruption of Rajavasim or the ' royal residence. 3 The wall is built 
of massive sandstone blocks and is pierced by nine gates. Inside are 
numerous ruins and a few buildings in a state of fair preservation, 
including three Hindu palaces and a mosque. In the sixteenth century 
Raisen was the stronghold of Silharl, a Gahlot Rajput. After his death 
the fort was held by Puran Mai, as guardian to Pratap Singh, the infant 
grandson of Silhari. In 1543 Puran Mai incurred the enmity of Sher 
Shah, and the fort was attacked. After a prolonged and strenuous 
resistance Puran Mai surrendered on a promise of honourable treat- 
ment, but was promptly murdered and his family sent into slavery. 
Raisen then became a part of Shujaat Khan's territory, and sub- 
sequently under Akbar was the chief town of a sarkdr in the Subah of 
Malwa A British and State post office and a school are maintained 
in the town. 

Raisingpur. Estate in Khandesh District, Bombay. See MEHWAS 
ESTATES. 

Raiwind (Rdewind}. Junction on the North- Western Railway, in 
the District and tahsil of Lahore, Punjab, situated in 31 15' N. and 
74 1 6' E., where the line from Delhi via Bhatmda joins that from 
Multan to Lahore. Population (1901), 1,764. Before the Ferozepore- 
Bhatinda Railway was opened, it was an important centre of the local 
trade in agricultural produce; and it possesses two cotton-ginning 
factories and a cotton-press, which give employment to 203 hands 

Rajagriha. Ruins in Patna District, Bengal See RAJGIR. 

Rajahmundry Subdivision. Subdivision of Godavari District, 
Madras, consisting of the RAJAHMUNDRY and AMALAPURAM taluks 
and the NAGARAM ISLAND. 

Rajahmundry Taluk. Inland taluk in Godavari District, Madras, 
lying between 16 51' and 17 27' N. and 81 36' and 82 5' E., along 
the left bank of the Godavari river, with an area of 350 square miles. 
The population in 1901 was 161,070, compared with 145,789 in 1891. 
It contains two towns, RAJAHMUNDRY (population, 36,408), the head- 
quarters, and DOWLAISHWERAM (10,304); and 85 villages. The 
demand on account of land revenue and cesses in 1 903-4 amounted 
to Rs. 3,20,000. Some tracts of very fertile black cotton soil occur, 
but much of the area is rocky and covered with scrub jungle. The 
principal crops are rice, pulses, tobacco, and oilseeds. At Korukonda 



64 RAJAHMUNDRY TALUK 

in the north is a large temple, which is resorted to by a great number 
of pilgrims throughout the year. 

Rajahmundry Town (Rdjamahendravarani). Head-quarters of 
the subdivision and taluk of the same name in Godavari District, 
Madras, situated in 17 i' N. and 81 46' E., on the left bank of the 
Godavari, 360 miles from Madras by the East Coast Railway, which 
here crosses the river by a girder-bridge of 56 spans, with a total length 
of 9,000 feet between abutments. The population in 1901 was 
36,408, of whom 33,680 were Hindus, 2,073 Muhammadans, and 631 
Christians. 

The founding of Rajahmundry has been variously ascribed to either 
the Orissa or the Chalukyan kings, but it was almost certainly founded 
by the latter. Being the key to the passage of the Godavari, it at once 
became a fortress of importance. It passed in turn to the Chola kings 
and theGanpatis of Warangal; and Muhammadan influence must have 
been felt early, as the inscription over the gateway of the principal 
mosque records its erection in 1324. With the decline of the Warangal 
power, Rajahmundry came into the possession of the Gajapatis of 
Orissa. From them in 1470 it was wrested by Muhammad II of the 
Bahmani line. Not long afterwards, however, the Raja of Orissa made 
a determined attempt to regain the lost provinces, and Muhammad's 
general was besieged in Rajahmundry. He was relieved by the Sultan 
in person, and the latter remained three years at Rajahmundry settling 
the country. The place was soon, however, reoccupied by the Gaja- 
patis. In 1512 the great Krishna Deva of Vijayanagar captured the 
city, but restored it to Orissa. It was not till 1572, after two protracted 
sieges had failed, that it yielded to the Muhammadans under Rafat 
Khan. Rajahmundry was Bussy's head-quarters from 1754 to 1757, 
and it was hither that Conflans 3 army retreated after its defeat at 
Condore. The place was taken by the English without any difficulty 3 
but after Forde's departure to attack Masulipatam, the French recap- 
tured it, only to evacuate it almost immediately. Portions of the fort 
ramparts still remain, giving a picturesque appearance to the town. 

Rajahmundry is the head-quarters of the District and Sessions Judge, 
the Superintendent of police, and the Civil Surgeon. One of the seven 
Central jails of the Presidency is located here. It was begun in 1864, 
and is constructed on the radiating principle, with accommodation for 
1,052 criminal and thirteen civil prisoners. The articles manufactured 
in it include carpets, coarse woollen rugs, sandals, and woodwork. The 
town also contains a museum and public garden. Owing to its favour- 
able position with regard to the mam lines of communication in the 
District, it is an important distributing centre, and the principal de'pdt 
for the timber floated down the river. 

Rajahmundry was constituted a municipality in 1866. The muni- 



RAJANPUR TOWN 65 

cipal income and expenditure daring the ten years ending 1902-3 
averaged Rs. 44,000 and Rs. 43,000 respectively. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 48,000, derived principally from the house and land 
taxes and tolls. The mam items of expenditure, which amounted 
to Rs. 53,000, are conservancy and communications. A municipal 
hospital has accommodation for 32 in-patients. 

The principal educational institution in the town is the first-grade 
college. Established as a Zila school in 1853, college classes were 
opened in 1873 , m 1877 it was raised to its present grade, and in 1904 
had 216 students in the upper classes. The town also contains 
a teachers' training college, with 103 students \ a practising school 
attached to the training college, with 429 pupils; and a high school 
managed by the American Evangelical Lutheran Mission, with 295 
pupils. 

Rajakhera. -Head-quarters of the district of the same name in the 
State of Dholpur, Rajputana, situated in 26 54' N. and 78 n / E., 
24 miles north-east of Dholpur town and about the same distance 
south-east of Agra. Population (1901), 6,609. The town is said to 
have been built by Raja Man Singh, Tonwar, during his occupation of 
the country towards the end of the fifteenth century, and to be called 
after him c the village of the Raja.' The mud fort was built by the Jat 
Raja Suraj Mai of Bharatpur, and is still in fair preservation. The 
town contains a post office, a vernacular school attended by 50 boys, 
and a dispensary. 

Rajampet. Town in Cuddapah District, Madras. See RAZAMPETA. 

Rajanpur Tahsil. Subdivision and southernmost tahsil of Dera 
Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, lying between 28 25' and 29 2$' N. 
and 69 19' and 70 38' E, with an area of 2,019 square miles. 
It is bounded by the Indus on the east and south-east, and by in- 
dependent territory on the west. The elevation of the Sulaiman 
Hills in this tahsil diminishes from north to south, forming a low 
range with only one prominent peak, Giandan (4,160 feet). South 
of this the range turns westward, and the tahsil is intersected by hill- 
torrent beds, while the lowland along the river is subject to inundation. 
The population in 1901 was 93,676, compared with 90,225 in 1891, 
It contains the towns of RAJANPUR (population, 3,917), the head- 
quarters, and MITHANKOT (3,487); and 179 villages. The land 
revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to i-i lakhs. 

Rajanpur Town. Head-quarters of the Rajanpur subdivision and 
tahsil of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, situated in 29 6' N. and 
70 19' E., about 9 miles from the west bank of the Indus, on the road 
from Bannu to Jacobabad. Population (1901), 3,917. It was founded 
in 1732-3 by Makhdum Shaikh Rajan, who ousted the original Nahar 
possessors, and made himself master of their estates. Rajanpur was 



66 RAJANPUR TOWN 

an unimportant village until 1862, when the town of Mithankot was 
washed away by the Indus, and the head-quarteis of the Assistant 
Commissioner were transferred thence. It does a considerable trade 
in gram and cotton with Sukkur, and in opium and indigo with 
Amntsar and Multan. The municipality was created in 1873. The 
income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs, 5,400, and 
the expenditure Rs 5,700. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,100, 
chiefly from octroi , and the expenditure was Rs. 5,000. Rajanpur 
has an Anglo-vernacular middle school, maintained by the District 
board, and a dispensary. 

Rajaona. Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Monghyr 
District, Bengal, situated in 25 12' N. and 86 5' E, 2 miles north- 
west of Luckeesarai railway station Population (1901), 388. Accord- 
ing to Cunningham, Rajaona is the site of the Lo-in-ni-lo monastery 
visited by Hmen Tsiang. Some fine Buddhist sculptures found here 
have been removed to the Indian Museum at Calcutta. 

[Archaeological Survey of India^ vol. i, pp. 151-6, and vol. xv, 

PP I3-5-] 

Rajapalaiyam. Town in the Siivilhputtur taluk of Tmnevelly 
District, Madras, situated in 927 / N. and 77 33' E., 8 miles from 
Srlvilhputtur town. It is a Union, with a population (1901) of 25,360, 
of whom 24,095 are Hindus, 1,014 Musalmans, and 251 Christians. 
It is mostly inhabited by Razus, a class of people who originally came 
from Vijayanagar and claim to be Rajputs. Their language is Telugu, 
and they have many peculiar customs. There is also a colony of 
blacksmiths who turn out good work, such as iron safes, vessels, &c. 
Most of the Razus live by agriculture, and they also rear cattle which 
are considered superior to the ordinary breeds. 

Rajapur Taluka. Central taluka of Ratnagiri District, Bombay, 
lying between 16 30' and 16 55' N. and 73 18' and 73 52' E., with 
an area of 616 square miles. It contains one town, RAJAPUR (popula- 
tion, 5,178), the head-quarters ; and 181 villages. The population in 
1901 was 153,808, compared with 140,941 in 1891. The density, 
250 persons per square mile, is much below the District average. The 
demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 96,000, and for cesses 
Rs 7,000. The coast line stretches from the Vijayadurg creek to the 
Machkandi river, a distance of 20 miles. The soil is poor, except 
in the valleys. The principal passes across the Western Ghats are 
the Anaskura and Kajirda. The Vijayadurg creek has no bar, and is 
navigable throughout its course in the taluka. The annual rainfall 
averages about 131 inches. 

Rajapur Town (i). Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Ratnagiri District, Bombay, situated in 16 34' N. and 73 31' E., 
at the head of a tidal creek, 30 miles south-by-east of Ratnagiri town 



RAJAPUR TOWN 67 

and about 15 miles from the sea. Population (1901), 5,178. Rajapur 
is the oldest-looking and best preserved town in the Konkan; its 
streets are steep and narrow, and the market paved and roofed. The 
old English factory, a massive stone building with an enclosure leading 
to the creek, now used as a Government office, gives the town a special 
inteiebt. It is also peculiar as the only Ratnagiri port to which Arab 
boats still trade direct, though vessels of any size cannot approach 
within 3 miles of the old stone quay. Since the opening of the 
Southern Mahratta Railway the trade of Rajapur has greatly declined* 
In 1903-4 the exports amounted to 1-3 lakhs and the imports to 
1-6 lakhs. On the south point of the bay stands a lighthouse; erected 
in 1873, the light of which is visible for 9 miles. Jaitapur, situated 
ii miles lower down, is the outlet for sea traffic and the place of 
call for coasting steamers. The municipality, established in 1876, had 
an average income during the decade ending 1901 of Rs. 7,500. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,600. The water-supply of the town 
is from a lake, upwards of half a mile long, with an average breadth 
of 250 feet, containing about 60,000,000 gallons of water, which has 
been formed by damming the Kodavli river at a point 3 miles above 
the town. The present supply is about 39,000 gallons a day, which 
is insufficient for the needs of the town, and most of the pipes are in 
serious need of repair. The town contains two Subordinate Judges 1 
courts, two dispensaries, of which one is private, and eight schools, 
including one for girls. 

At the time of the first Muhammadan conquest (1312), Rajapur was 
the chief town of a district. In 1660-1, and again in 1670, Sivaji 
plundered the town, sacking the English factory. In 1713 Rajapur 
was handed over to Angna. In 1756 it was taken by the Peshwa 
from Angria; and in 1818 it came into British possession, together 
with the rest of the Peshwa's domimonb. 

A hot spring, about a mile from the town, is much frequented on 
account of its virtue in curing rheumatic and skin diseases. About 
a mile from this spring is another which flows at uncertain intervals. 
The flow lasts for periods varying from one or two days to three 
months. It is held in great reverence and called a Ganga. Immedi- 
ately the flow begins, Hindus come from long distances to bathe in it. 
In the middle of the town is a temple of Vithoba, where fairs are held 
in honour of the god twice a year. 

Rajapur Town (or Majhgawan) (2). Town in the Mau taksll of 
Banda District, United Provinces, situated in 25 23' N. and 81 9' E., 
on the bank of the Jumna, 1 8 miles north-east of Karwi. Population 
( I 9 OI )> 5J49 1 - Rajapur is the name of the town, and Majhgawan that 
of the mauza or village area within which it is situated. According 
to tradition the town was founded by Tul&I Das, the celebrated author 



68 RAJAPUR TOWN 

of the vernacular version of the Ramayana, and his residence is still 
shown, He is said to have established several peculiar restrictions, 
which are scrupulously observed ; no houses (except shrines) are built 
of stone, and potters, barbers, and dancing-girls are rigorously excluded. 
The only public buildings are the police station, post office, school, 
and dispensary. Rajapur was for a time the chief commercial centre 
of the District, owing to its position on the Jumna; but many of its 
merchants have migrated to Karwl, and the place is declining. Besides 
<the export of country produce, there is a small manufacture of shoes 
"and blankets. The school has 90 pupils. 

Rajauli. Village in the Nawada subdivision of Gaya District, 
Bengal, situated in 24 39' N. and 85 30' E., on the left bank of the 
Dhanarji river. Population (1901), 1,509. Rajauli is a large mart, 
and is connected with the towns of Nawada and Bihar by a metalled 
road. 

Rajbari. Head-quarters of the Goalundo subdivision of Fandpur 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 23 46' N. and 
89 39' E. It consists of a group of villages with a population (1901) 
of 4,573- Rajbari is a station on the Eastern Bengal State Railway, 
and contains the usual public offices, the sub-jail having accommoda- 
tion for 22 prisoners. 

Rajgarh State (i).~ A mediatized State in Central India, under the 
Bhopal Agency, lying between 23 27' and 24 u' N. and 76 36' and 
77 I 4 / E., with an area of 940 square miles. It is situated in the 
section of Malwa called Umatwara, after the Umat clan of Rajputs 
to which the chiefs of Rajgarh and Narsinghgarh belong, bounded 
on the north by Gwalior and Kotah States, on the south by Gwalior 
and Dewas, on the east by Bhopal, and on the west by Khilchipur. 
The northern portion is much cut up by hills, but the southern and 
eastern districts lie on the Malwa plateau. The chief rivers are the 
Parbati, which flows along the eastern border, and its tributary the 
Newaj, which flows by the chief town. In the southern and eastern 
parts the country is covered with Deccan trap, but in the hills along 
the northern section the Vmdhyan sandstones are exposed. 

The Umat Rajputs claim descent from the Paramara clan, who 
held Malwa from the ninth to the thirteenth century. Accounts of 
their rise are conflicting, but they trace their origin to Rana Umaju 
Later on they entered Malwa, their leader Sarangsen settling at 
first in Dhar, the ancient seat of the Paramara clan. He subse- 
quently acquired land in the dodb between the Sind and Parbati rivers, 
and obtained the title of Rawat. Rawat Krishnajl, eleventh in descent 
from Sarangsen, died in 1583, and was followed by Dungar Singhji. 
Dungar Singhjl's eldest son, Udaji, succeeded and established his 
capital at Ratanpur. His younger brother, Dudaji, held the post 



RAJGARH STATE 69 

of dlwdn or minister to his brother, a position which was inherited 
by his descendants. The two branches were distinguished as the 
Udawats and Dudawats. Chhatar Singh, who followed Udajl, died 
in 1 66 1, his son Mohan Singh succeeding as a minor, and the State 
being administered by Diwan Ajab Singh of the Dudawat branch. He 
died in 1668, and was succeeded as minister by his son Paras Ram. 
The new minister was suspected of having designs on the State, which 
gave rise to endless disputes. In 1681 these differences became acute, 
and a division was effected, by which Paras Ram received the territory 
that now forms the Narsmghgaih State. In the disturbances caused 
by the Maratha and Pmdari inroads of the eighteenth century, Rajgarh 
and Narsmghgarh became tributary to Sindhia and Holkar respectively. 
At the settlement of Malwa by Sir John Malcolm in 1818, a treaty was 
mediated between Sindhia and the Rajgarh chief Newal Singh, by 
which Talen and several other villages were made over to Sindhia in 
payment of his claims for tribute against the Rawat, while a written 
agreement was executed by the chief, giving to the British Government 
alone the right to intervene in the affairs of the State, Talen and the 
other villages were, however, returned by Sindhia in 1834. In 1880 
transit duties on salt were abolished, for which a compensatory payment 
of Rs. 618-12 is made annually by the British Government, and four 
years later all similar dues except those on opium were done away 
with. Banne Singh, the present chief, succeeded in 1902. He bears 
the hereditary titles of His Highness and Raja, and is entitled to a 
salute of n guns. He was created K.C.I.E. in 1908. 

The population of the State was: (1881) 122,641, (1891) 119,489, 
and (1901) 88,376, giving a density of 94 persons per square mile. 
During the last decade there has been a decrease of 26 per cent., owing 
to the severe famine of 1899-1900. The State contains two towns, 
RAJGARH (population, 5,399), the capital, and BIAORA (5,607); and 
622 villages. Hindus number 78,343, or 89 per cent,, Musalmans, 
4,925, or 6 per cent; Ammists (chiefly Bhils), 4,788, or 5 per cent. 
The Malwi dialect of RajasthanI is the most prevalent. The most 
numerous castes are Chamars (10,000), Rajputs (7,800), Dangis (3,800), 
and Gujars and Balais (each 3,000). Of the total population, 46 per 
cent, are supported by agriculture and 2 1 per cent, by general labour. 

About 234 square miles, or 25 per cent, of the total area, are under 
cultivation, of which 17 square miles are irrigable. Of the unculti- 
vated area 88 square miles are cultivable, 336 under forest, and the 
rest is waste. Wheat occupies 101 square miles, or 43 per cent, of 
the area under cultivation, jowdr 47 square miles, maize 35, cotton 
20, gram 16, and poppy 4. 

The most important articles of trade are grain and opium. The 
principal road is that from Rajgarh to Sehore, 57 miles in length, by 



70 RAJGARH STATE, 

which most of the traffic passes to the railway. Other roads connect 
Rajgarh with Khilchipur and Pachor with Shujalpur, giving a total of 
114 miles of metalled roads in the State. Combined British post and 
telegraph offices are maintained at Rajgarh and Biaora, and a branch 
post office at Talen. 

For administrative purposes the State is divided into bevtnparganas 
Biaora, Karanwas, Talen, Kotada, Kalipith, Newalganj, and Sivagarh 
each under a tahslldar. The chief has full powers in all revenue, civil 
judicial, and general administrative matters. In criminal matters he 
exercises the powers of a Sessions Court, but all heinous crimes are 
tried by the Political Agent. The British codes are followed generally. 

The normal income from all sources is 4-5 lakhs, of which 3-8 lakhs 
are derived from land revenue, Rs. 17,000 from customs dues (including 
Rs. 15,000 from opium), Rs. 30,000 from excise, and Rs. 39,000 from 
interest on Government securities. The lands alienated in jaglrs yield 
approximately Rs. 47,000 annually. The total expenditure amounts to 
about 4 lakhs, the mam heads being general administration (Rs. 70,000), 
chiefs establishment (Rs. 36,000), police (Rs. 28,000), collection of 
land revenue (Rs. 15,000), tribute (Rs. 55,600), and public works 
(Rs. 54,000). The State pays a tribute of Rs. 54,000 to Smdhia for 
Talen, and Rs. 600 to the Rana of Jhalawar for Kalipith. It also 
receives a tanka (cash payment) of Rs. 2,335 a vear ^ rom Sindhia. 
The British rupee has been legal tender since 1896. 

The land is leased out to cultivators on a fixed assessment, the 
revenue being collected through farmers (mustdjtrs\ who are respon- 
sible for the amount assessed and receive a commission. No regular 
settlement has been made, The rates are fixed in accordance with 
the quality of the soil, higher rates being levied on irrigated land. The 
fertile lands in the south and east are assessed at R&. 4-12-10 to 
Rs. 1-9-7 per acre, and the less productive area in the hilly tract at 
R. o-j2~io to R 0-6-5. These rates give an incidence of Rs, 3-9-5 
per acre on the cultivated area, and of 14 annas per acre on the total 
area. 

No regular army is maintained, but 200 footmen and 30 sowars form 
the chiefs guard. A regular police force of 357 men is being organized, 
and there is a Central jail at Rajgarh town. 

In 1901, 1-5 per cent, of the population were able to read and write. 
Three State schools and eight private establishments contain 280 pupils. 
The total cost of education is Rs. 3,000. The two hospitals in the 
State cost Rs, 5,000 yearly. 

Rajgarh Town (i). Capital of the State of the same name in 
Central India, situated in 24 i' N. and 76 44' E., on the left bank 
of the Newaj river, a tributary of the Parbati, 85 miles by road from 
Bhopalj and 57 from the Shujalpur station on the Ujjain-Bhopal branch 



RAJGARH TOWN 71 

of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Population (1901), 5,399 
The town was founded about 1640 by Rawat Mohan Singh, who also 
erected the battlemented wall by which it is surrounded. Besides the 
chiefs residence, a State guesthouse, a school, a dispensary, a sarat, 
and British combined post and telegraph offices are situated in the 
town. 

Rajgarh State (z) t Thakurat in the BHOPAWAR AGENCY, Central 
India. 

Rajgarh Town (2). Head-quarters of a tahsil of the same name in 
the State of Alwar, Rajputana, situated in 27 14' N. and 76 38' E., 
22 miles south of Alwar city, and about a mile south of Rajgarh station 
on the Rajputana-Malwa Railway. Population (1901), 11,008, It was 
built about 1767 by Pratap Singh, the founder of the Alwar State, and 
contains several fine buildings, notably the palace in the fort, the 
frescoes in which are curious. The town wall and ditch were added 
by Maharao Raja Banni Singh. The town possesses a post office, an 
Anglo-vernacular school, and a hospital with accommodation for 8 in- 
patients. A municipal committee looks after the lighting and sanitation 
of the place, the average income, derived mainly from octroi, being 
about Rs. 7,600 a year, and the expenditure somewhat less. About 
half a mile to the east are the remains of the old town of Rajgarh, 
which is said to have been founded in the middle of the second century 
by Raja Bagh Singh of the Bargujar clan of Rajputs, and the Baghola 
tank close to it is attributed to the same chief. On the embankment 
of this tank General Cunningham found three life-size Jain figures, all 
standing upright and naked, and two jambs of a highly ornamented 
doorway of a temple, besides numerous broken figures, all apparently 
Jain. They were said to have been dug up when the new town was 
being built. Situated on a lofty range of hills some 1 8 miles to the 
west is Paranagar, the old capital of the Bargujar Rajas, chiefly 
remarkable for the holy temple of Nllkanth Mabadeo, which is the 
most famous place of pilgrimage in this part of the country. This 
temple is said to have been built by a Bargujar Raja, Ajai Pal ; and 
an inscription under a figure of Ganesha bears the date of A.D. 953, 
which was most probably the date of the construction of the build- 
ing, as its general style belongs to that period. In one of the ruined 
temples in the vicinity is a colossal Jain figure 13 ft. 9 in. high, 
with a canopy of 2 \ feet overhead which is supported by two elephants. 

Rajgarh Town (3). Head-quarters of a taksil of the same name 
in the Reni nizamat of the State of Bikaner, Rajputana, situated in 
28 39' N. and 75 24' E., about 135 miles east by north-east of 
Bikaner city. Population (1901), 4,136. The town was built by 
Maharaja Gaj Singh about 1766, and was named after his son Raj 
Singh. It possesses an Anglo-vernacular school attended by 74 boys, 



72 RAJGARH TOWN 

a post office, and a hospital with accommodation for 7 in-patients. 
The tahsll contains 187 villages, and more than 36 per cent of the 
inhabitants are Jats. As most of them belong to the Puniya clan, the 
tract used to be called locally the Puniya pargana. The Kath river 
sometimes flows in the south for a few miles. 

Rajgir. Ruined town in the Bihar subdivision of Patna District, 
Bengal, situated in 25 2' N. and 85 26' E. Population (1901), 1,575. 
It was identified by Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton with Rajagriha, the resi- 
dence of Buddha and capital of the ancient Magadha , and by General 
Cunningham with Kusa-nagara-pura ('the town of the kus grass'), 
visited by Hiuen Tsiang and called by him Km-she-lo-pu-lo. Rajagnha, 
meaning the royal residence/ was also known as Ginbraja, ' the hill 
surrounded ' ; and under this name the capital of Jarasandha, king of 
Magadha, is mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 
It is also described by Fa Hian and Hiuen Tsiang, the Chinese 
pilgrims, the latter of whom gives an account of the hot springs found 
at this place. The five hills surrounding the town 3 mentioned in the 
Mahabharata and in the Pali annals, have been examined by General 
Cunningham. The first, Baibhar, is identified with the Webhars moun- 
tain of the Pali annals, on the side of which was the famous Sattapanni 
Cave, where the first Buddhist synod was held in 543 B.C. The second 
hill, Ratnagiri, is that called by Fa Hian ' The Fig-tree Cave/ where 
Buddha meditated after his meals, and is identical with the Rishigin of 
the Mahabharata, and the Pandao of the Pali annals. A paved zigzag 
road leads to a small temple on the summit of this mountain, which 
is still used by Jains. The third hill, Bipula, is clearly the Wepullo 
of the Pali chronicles and the Chait-yaka of the Mahabharata. The 
other two hills have Jain temples. 

Traces of the outer wall around the ancient town of Rajagriha may 
still be seen, about 4 miles in circumference. The new Rajgir is about 
two-thirds of a mile north of the old town. According to Buddhist 
records, it was built by Srenika or Bimbasara, the father of Ajatasatru, 
the contemporary of Buddha. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton stated that the 
town stood upon the north-west corner of a fort, which is an irregular 
pentagon in form and apparently of great antiquity. At the south-west 
extremity are traces of a more modern fort, with stone walls, which 
might have been a kind of citadel. It occupies a space of about 
600 yards. The eastern and northern faces had no ditch, but there 
is a strong stone wall about 18 feet thick, with circular projections at 
intervals. The eastern approach to Rajagriha was protected by a stone 
wall, 20 feet in width and running zigzag up the southern slopes of the 
hills. A watch-tower on the extreme eastern point of the range 
corresponded with a similar tower immediately over the town. One 
tower still exists, and also the foundations of the second tower. South 



RAJKOT STATE 73 

of the ancient town of Rajagriha are found inscriptions on huge slabs 
of stone, which form a natural pavement. So far as is known, the 
characters have never been deciphered. 

{Archaeological Survey of India, vol. i, pp 16-34, and vol. viii, 
pp. 85-100.] 

Rajim. Village in the District and tahstl of Raipur, Central Pro- 
vinces, situated in 20 58' N. and 81 53' E , 27 miles from Raipur 
town, on a branch of the Raipur-Dhamtari narrow-gauge railway. The 
town stands on the right bank of the river MaMnadl at its junction 
with the Parr!, Population (1901), 4,985. This figure, however, was 
in excess of the normal number of residents, as it included visitors 
to the fair. Rajim contains a fine group of temples dedicated to 
Vishnu, thg principal of which is that of Rajivlochan (' the lotus-eyed ? ) } 
which is visited by all pilgrims on their way to Jagannath. It is 
a handsome building, 59 by 25^ feet, standing on a platform 8 feet 
high. Another temple of Kuleshwar is situated on a small island in 
the Mahanadl. A large annual farr takes place at Rajim, lasting for 
about six weeks in February and March. It is principally a cattle-fair, 
but much tasar silk from Bilaspur is also sold. Rajim is the centre of 
a considerable amount of general trade, principally in lac and myra- 
bolams. It has a primary school. 

Rajkot State. State in the Kathiawar Political Agency, Bombay, 
lying between 22 3' and 22 27' N. and 70 46' and 71 9' E , with an 
area of 282 square miles. It is an undulating country, with a stony 
soil watered by several streams, of which the Aji is perennial. The 
climate, though hot in the months of April, May, and October, is 
generally healthy. The annual rainfall averages from 20 to 25 inches. 

Rajkot is an offshoot of Navanagar. The founder of the house was 
Kunwar Vibhoji, younger son of Ajoji, a great-grandson of Jam Raval. 
In 1807 the ruler executed the usual engagements. The family follows 
the rule of primogeniture in matters of succession, and holds a sanad 
authorizing adoption. The chief is entitled to a salute of 9 guns, and 
is addressed as Thakur Sahib. 

The population at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 36,770, 
(1881) 46,5403 (1891) 49*958, and (1901) 49,795. Hindus number 
40,153, Musalmans 6,251, and Jains 3,352. The only town is RAJKOT, 
the capital, and there are 60 villages. 

The total area under cultivation is 175 square miles, of which 
14 square miles are irrigated. There is no uniform and fixed revenue 
system in the State, for 28 villages fall under the bhdgbatai or share of 
produce system and 3 under the vighoti or cash assessment system. 
The chief irrigational work is the Lalpuri tank, which supplies 3 square 
miles. Horse-breeding is carried on in a State paddock, contain- 
ing 2 stallions and 30 mares and costing about Rs. 5,000. Cattle- 



74 RAJKOT STATE 

breeding also receives some attention. The common kinds of grain, 
sugar-cane, and cotton are the principal crops. They are exported from 
Gogha and Jodiya, and to a certain extent by rail from Wadhwan The 
Jetalsar-Rajkot, Morvi, and Jamnagar Railways pass through the State. 
Carts are the chief means of transport, but pack-bullocks and horses 
are also employed. Cotton and woollen cloth are the principal manu- 
factures, and there is one ginning factory. Exports, consisting chiefly 
of cotton yarn, molasses, and hides, were valued at 3 lakhs in 1903-4 ; 
and imports, chiefly timber, cotton, silk, and ivory, at 10 lakhs. 

The State ranks as a second-class State in Kathiawar. The chief has 
power to try his own subjects foi capital offences. The estimated gross 
revenue is 3 lakhs, chiefly derived from land (2 lakhs). A tribute of 
Rs. 21,321 is paid jointly to the British Government and the Nawab 
of Junagarh. The State contains 3 municipalities, and 19 schools with 
a total of 1,875 pupils, of whom 359 are girls. It maintains an armed 
police force of 153 men, of whom 15 are mounted (1905). There are 
two dispensaries affording relief annually to 27,815 patients, and 
a travelling hospital assistant is engaged to carry medical relief to 
outlying villages. In 1903-4 the number of persons vaccinated was 
1,122. 

Rajkot Town. Capital of the State of the same name in Kathi- 
awar, Bombay, situated in 22 18' N. and 70 50' E., at the junction 
of the Bhavnagar-Gondal-Junagarh-Porbandar, the Jamnagar, and the 
Morvi Railways. Population (1901), 36,151, including the civil and 
military stations. Hindus number 25,927, Musalmans 6,637, and Jains 
3,071, Rajkot is the residence of the Agent to the Governor in 
Kathiawar, and contains several central institutions. Among these is 
the Rajkumar College, which owed its inception to the foresight of 
Colonel Keatinge, V.C., Political Agent from 1863 to 1867, and was 
opened by Sir Seymour FitzGerald, Governor of Bombay, in 1870, and 
for many years presided over by the late Mr. Chester MacNaghten. 
This institution provides a suitable education and training not only for 
the sons of chiefs of Kathiawar but also for cadets of other States in 
the Bombay Presidency, The college itself is a fine building in the 
Venetian Gothic style, amply equipped with a gymnasium, a racquet 
court, a rifle range, and a cricket pavilion. The Jubilee Memorial 
Institute, an imposing building consisting of the Connaught Hall, the 
Lang Library, and the Watson Museum, is situated in a picturesque 
public garden. The Rasulkhanji Hospital for Women and Children, 
built at the expense of the Nawab of Junagarh, and maintained jointly 
by the chiefs of Kathiawar, is a well-equipped institution in charge of 
a European lady doctor. The West Hospital, built conjointly by 
Government and the chiefs of Kathiawar, is a fully equipped hospital 
in charge of the Agency Surgeon, who has at his disposal the services 



RAJMACHI 75 

of a qualified Assistant Surgeon and a trained English nurse. The 
Male Tiaining College and the Barton Female Training College are 
also maintained by the chiefs of KSthiawar. In the military limits 
are a church and a clock-tower, the latter built by the late Jam of 
Jamnagar. In the civil station are the lines of the Kathiawar Agency 
police, and the Rajkot Central prison. In the neighbourhood are the 
Rajkot State stud farm and dairy, and two large artificial tanks 
which supply Rajkot with water and also irrigate a few square miles of 
country. There is one cotton-ginning factory in Rajkot, but the prin- 
cipal trade is in grain and a local building stone, The river Aji, which 
washes the walls of the town, is spanned by two bridges and an 
aqueduct. The bridge used for foot traffic was built by the late 
Maharaja of Bhaunagar. The high school was attended in 1903-4 by 
2 93 pupils. The Irish Presbyterian Mission has a central station here. 
The income of the cantonment funds in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,714. 

Rajmachi (or ' the royal terrace '). An isolated double-peaked 
fortified hill on the main line of the Western Ghats, in the Maval 
tdluka of Poona District, Bombay, situated in r85o'N. and 7324 X E., 
about 6 miles north of the Bor Pass. It can be visited from Khandala 
or Lonauli. From the Konkan, thickly wooded at the base, its sides 
rise about 2,000 feet in steep rock slopes which, as they near the crest 
of the hill, grow gradually treeless and bare. Above the crest from 
the flat hill-top towers a rocky neck about 200 feet high with at either 
end a short fortified tower-like head, the inner, Srivardhan (Muck's 
increase'), high and pointed, the outer, Manranjan ('heart gladdener'), 
lower and flat-topped. A tongue of land about 300 yards broad joins 
Rajmachi to the rough plateau that runs along the crest of the Ghats 
north from Khandala. Across this tongue of land, half a mile from 
the foot of the central hill-top, is a strong stone wall 1 7 feet high and 
8 thick, with a parapet loopholed for musketry, and with bastions at 
intervals pierced for cannon. A wide stretch of tilled land within this 
line of wall ensured the garrison a full supply of gram, grass, and fuel. 
From this upland, at a safe distance from the neighbouring heights, 
the central hill-top rises 300 to 400 feet high, a sheer, black, over- 
hanging cliff crowned by a battlemented peak, and towards the west 
strengthened by a double line of encircling walls. On the crest of 
the neck that joins the two peaks, fronting a small temple of Bhairav, 
stand three old stone lamp-pillars or dipmals, and two small, quaintly 
carved stone chargers ready saddled and bridled for the god. The 
temple, which is little more than a hut, has three pairs of small, black 
stone images of Bhairav and his wife Jogeshvari, presented, according 
to tradition, by SivajT, Sahu, and Baji Rao Peshwa. Srivardhan, the 
eastern and higher fort, less sheer to the south than to the north, is in 
places strengthened by a triple line of wall. On the south side, through 

VOL. XXI. F 



76 RAJMACHI 

the ruined gateway, is reached a chamber cut m the rock, once used 
as a granary or storehouse, and close by is a large rock-cut reservoir* 
On the north, in a narrow ledge of the steep cliff, hollowed into the 
hill and always sheltered from the sun, is a cistern with an unfailing 
supply of pure water. The inner fortification, with a few ruined 
dwellings, encloses the central peak, thegadti or 'stronghold.' Man- 
ranjan, the outer hill, less completely protected by nature, is very 
carefully fortified with two high strong lines of wall. The outer line, 
running along the crest of the cliff, encloses some cisterns and reser- 
voirs of cut stone \ the inner, encircling the flat hill-top, has within 
it the powder magazine, a long, low, tomb-like, roofless building of 
very closely fitting cut stone, and close to it the ruins of the com- 
mandant's house and a cistern. The western wall commands the 
delightful prospect that gives the fort its name. Below lies the royal 
terrace, wooded and stream-furrowed to the north, bare and well-tilled 
to the west, and to the south laid out in fields with a small lake and 
a shady hamlet of Koli huts, North and south, beyond the plateau, 
stretches the main line of the Western Ghats, their sides rising from 
deep evergreen forests in bare black cliffs, to the rough, thinly wooded, 
part-tilled terrace that extends eastwards into the Deccan plain and 
along the crest, broken by wild, rocky peaks and headlands, from 
Hanschandragarh 50 miles to the north to Bhojya 18 miles to the 
south. Westwards stretch outlying spurs and ranges with deep, water- 
worn valleys and steep, well-wooded sides. Far off to the right rise 
Mahuii, Gotaura, Tungar, and the Salsette hills , in front, beyond the 
long flat backs of Matheran and Prabal, lie the harbour, island, and 
city of Bombay, and to the left s\\eeps the long range of hills that 
passes by Nagothna and Sagargarh from the Western Ghats to the 
extreme west of Alibag. 

The first notice of Rajmachi is in 1648, when it was taken by 
Sivaji. In 1713 the fort surrendered to Angna, and was ceded by him 
in 1730 to the second Peshwa Baji Rao (1721-40). In 1776 the 
impostor Sadoba, a Kanaujia Brahman who called -himself Sadashiv Rao 
Bhau, took the greater part of the Konkan and came to the Bor Pass. 
Here he was opposed for a time, but eventually carried the Pass, and 
received offers of submission from Rajmachi. The Poona ministers 
then occupied his attention with pretended overtures of submission, 
until two of the Peshwa's officers suddenly fell on him in the neighbour- 
hood of Rajmachi, and drove him and his force to the Konkan. In 
the last Maratha War of 1818 the fort surrendered without resistance. 

Rajmahal Subdivision. North-eastern subdivision of the Santal 
Parganas District, Bengal, lying between 24 43' and 25 18' N. and 
87 27' and 87 57' E , with an area of 741 square miles. The sub- 
division contains a narrow strip of alluvial soil along the banks of the 



RAJMAHAL VILLAGE 77 

Ganges, which forms its eastern boundary, but the greater part is hilly 
country stretching southwards from Sahibganj. The population in 1901 
was 276,703, compared with 276,395 in 1891, the density being 373 
persons per square mile. It contains one town, SAHIBGANJ (population, 
7j558), an important centre of trade; and 1,292 villages, of which 
RAJMAHAL is the head-quartet s. A large part of the Daman-i-koh 
Government estate lies within the subdivision. 

Rajmahal Hills. Hilly tract in the Santal Parganas District of 
Bengal, lying between 24 30' and 25 rs'N. and 87 21' and 87 49' E., 
and estimated to cover an area of 1,366 square miles. The height 
nowhere exceeds 2,000 feet above sea-level, and the average elevation 
is considerably less. Among the highest ridges are Mori and Sund- 
garsa. The narrow valleys in these hills belong to the Government 
estate known as the Daman-i-koh, which extends 24 miles north and 
south, with an average width of 5 miles, and is surrounded by hills on 
every side. The Rajmahal Hills were long regarded as a continuation 
of the Vindhyan range of Central India; but Mr. V. Ball, of the 
Geological Survey, after a detailed examination of these hills, came to 
the conclusion that they form an isolated group, the noith-eastern 
extremity of which constitutes the turning-point of the Ganges. The 
Rajmahal Hills consist of overflowing basaltic trap of comparatively 
recent date, resting upon coal measures and metamorphic rocks of 
gneissose character, forming part of the Lower Gondwana system. 
The hills leave only a narrow passage between their northern flank 
and the Ganges channel } and in Mughal times this pass; known as 
TELIAGARHI, was of great strategic importance, and was defended by 
a large stone fort, the ruins of which are still to be seen. The loop- 
line of the East Indian Railway follows this route. The hills are 
inhabited by the Pahana races, who are described in the article on the 
SANTAL PARGANAS. A peculiar feature of these hills is the chain of 
level plateaux which are found upon the crests of the ridges. Upon 
these small plateaux the Pahanas have built their houses } and they 
are cultivated with the ordinary plains crops, millets, sarguja (Gutzotia 
oleifera), pulses and even rice covering the hill-tops, while mangoes, 
jack-fruit trees, and palm trees thrive luxuriantly, The approach from 
the plains below to each plateau is jealously guarded by a steep ladder 
of boulders, The slopes of the hills yield large quantities of bamboos 
and firewood, and spiked millet is grown in patches everywhere. 
A large trade has recently sprung up in sabai grass (Ischaemum angusti- 
fotium}) which is grown in the hills near Sahibganj, where it is baled 
and dispatched by rail to the paper-mills in the neighbourhood of 
Calcutta. 

Rajmahal Village. Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in the Santal Parganas District, Bengal, situated in 25 3' N. 

F 2 



78 RAJMAHAL VILLAGE 

and 87 50' E. 5 on the right bank of the Ganges. Rajmahal is now 
a mere collection of mud huts, interspersed with a few respectable 
houses, The ruins of the old Muhammadan city, buried in rank 
jungle, extend for about 4 miles to the west of the modern village. 
After his return from the conquest of Onssa in 1592, Man Singh, 
Akbar's Rajput general, selected Rajmahal (formerly Agmahal) as the 
capital of Bengal on account of its central position with respect to that 
Province and to Bihar, and because it commanded the Ganges and 
the pass of Tehagarhi. The chief antiquities of Rajmahal are the 
Jama Masjid of Man Singh, the palaces of Sultan Shuja and Mir 
Kasim All, Nawab of Bengal, the Phulbaii or flower garden, and 
numerous mosques and monuments. In the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton estimated that the town con- 
tained from 25,000 to 30,000 persons, In the Census of 1901 the 
population was returned at 2,047. In 1860, when the loop-line of the 
East Indian Railway was opened to Rajmahal, an arm of the Ganges 
ran immediately under the station, forming a navigable channel for 
steamers and boats of all sizes. In 1863-4 the river abandoned this 
channel, leaving an alluvial bank in its place. Rajmahal was till 1879 
3 miles distant from the main stream of the Ganges, and could be 
approached by large boats only during the rains. In that year the 
Ganges returned to its old bed, but in 1882 it showed indications 
of again deserting it. In consequence of these changes the bulk of 
trade has been transferred to Sahibganj, though Rajmahal still retains 
the local traffic across the Ganges with Malda District. 

Rajnagar Town. Head-quarters of a pargana of the same name 
in the State of Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 25 4' N. and 73 52' E., 
about 36 miles north by north-east of Udaipur city, and about a mile 
to the west of the lake called Raj Samand. Population (1901), 2,311. 
The town was founded by, and named after, Rana Raj Singh in the 
latter half of the seventeenth century. It contains a primary school 
attended by about 30 boys, and the marble quarries in the neighbour- 
hood are famous. 

Rajnagar Village (or Nagar). Village m the head-quarters sub- 
division of Birbhum District, Bengal, situated m 23 57' N. and 87 
19' E. Population (1901), 3,845. Rajnagar was the capital of the 
Hindu princes of Blrbhum prior to the conquest of Bengal by the 
Muhammadans in 1203. In 1244 it was plundered by the Oriyas 
The site is now covered with crumbling houses, mouldering mosques, 
and weed-choked tanks ; the ancestral palace of its Rajas has fallen 
into ruins. North of the town and buried in dense jungle are the 
remains of an ancient mud fort, said to have been built in the 
eighteenth century as a defence against the Marathas. The famous 
Nagar wall or entrenchment, extending in an irregular and broken line 



RAJPIPLA 79 

around the town for a distance of 32 miles, is now rapidly decaying. 
The ghats or gateways have long ceased to be capable of defence, and 
many parts of the wall have been washed almost level with the ground 
by the annual rains. The place is locally famous for its mangoes. 

[Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. vni, pp. 146-7.] 

Raj-Nandgaon State, Native State in the Central Provinces. See 
NANDGAON. 

Raj-Nandgaon Town. Capital of the Nandgaon Feudatory State, 
Central Provinces, situated in 21 5' N. and 81 3' E., with a station 
on the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, 666 miles from Bombay. Population 
(1901), 11,094. The large group of buildings forming the Raja's 
palace covers more than five acres of land, surrounded by a garden 
with a maze. Another large and handsome garden contains a guest- 
house for European visitors and a menagerie. The affairs of the town 
are managed by a municipal committee, whose receipts average about 
Rs. 33,000. The water-supply is obtained from the Seonath river, 
z\ miles distant. Filtration wells have been sunk in the river, and 
water is pumped into a service reservoir in the town. The works were 
opened in 1894 and cost 1-25 lakhs. Raj-Nandgaon is the centre of 
trade for the surrounding area. The principal exports are gram and 
oilseeds. The Bengal-Nagpur Spinning and Weaving Mills were 
opened in 1894, with a capital of 6 lakhs, a large portion of which was 
contributed by the chief. They contain 208 looms and 15,176 spindles, 
employ 1,112 operatives, and produced 34,975 cwt. of yarn and 7,468 
cwt. of cloth in 1904. A cotton-ginning factory is under construction. 
A station of the American Pentecostal Mission has been established in 
the town. Raj-Nandgaon possesses an English middle school with 
88 pupils, a girls' school, three other schools, and a dispensary. 

Rajpar. Petty State in REWA KANTHA, Bombay. 

Rajpara (i). Petty State in the Gohelwar Prant, Kathiawar, 
Bombay. See KATHIAWAR. 

Rajpara (2). Petty State m the Halar Prant, Kathiawar, Bombay. 
See KATHIAWAR. 

Rajpipla. State in the Political Agency of Rewa Kantha, Bombay, 
lying between 21 23' and 21 59' N. and 73 5' and 74 E., with an 
area of 1,517-! square miles. It is bounded on the north by the Nar- 
bada river and the Mehwasi estates of Rewa Kantha ; on the east by 
the Mehwasi estates of the District of Khandesh ; on the south by the 
State of Baroda and Surat District ; and on the west by Broach 
District. Its extreme length from north to south is 42 miles, and its 
extreme breadth from east to west 60 miles. 

Two-thirds of the State are occupied by a continuation of the 
Satpura range, known as the Rajpipla hills, nowhere exceeding 3,000 
feet in height above the sea, which form the watershed between the 



8o RAfPIPLA 

Narbada and Tapti rivers. Towards the West the hills gradually 
subside into gentle undulations. The principal rivers of Rajpipla are 
the Narbada, skirting the territory north and west for nearly a hundred 
miles ; and the Karjan, which rises in the hills of the Ntochal/<wy00, 
and, flowing north into the Narbada, divides the State into two equal 
portions. The signs of disturbance in the lines of trap and the great 
number of dikes seem to show that Rajpipla was, during the time 
when trap rocks were poured out, a great centre of volcanic action. 
Except in the rich western lands, the whole of the State is covered with 
trees, the chief being teak, black-wood, and khair. The climate is 
exceedingly unhealthy, malarial fever being prevalent from September 
to February. The rainfall in 1903-4 was 46 inches 

The family of the Rajpipla chief is said to derive its origm from one 
Chokarana, son of Saidawat, Raja of Ujjain, a Rajput of the Paramara 
tribe, who, having quarrelled with his father, left his own country and 
established himself in the village of Pipla, in the most inaccessible part 
of the hills to the west of the modem town of Nandod. The only 
daughter of Chokarana married Moker or Mokheraj, a Rajput of the 
Gohel tribe, who resided in the island of Premgar or Piram in the Gulf 
of Cambay. Mokheraj had by her two sons, Dungarji and Gemar- 
smghji. The former founded Bhaunagar and the latter succeeded 
Chokarana. Since that time (about 1470) the Gohel dynasty has ruled 
in Rajpipla. The Musalman kings of Ahmadabad had before this 
taken an agreement from the Raja to furnish 1,000 foot-soldiers and 
300 horsemen ; and the agreement remained in force until Akbar took 
Gujarat in 1573, when he imposed a tribute of Rs. 35,550 on the 
country in lieu of the contingent, This was paid until the end of 
the reign of Aurangzeb (1707), when, the imperial authority declining, 
the payments became irregular, and, if opportunity favoured, were 
altogether evaded. Subsequent to the overthrow of the Muhammadan 
authority, DamajT Gaikwar, in the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
succeeded in securing a half-share of four of the most fertile sub- 
divisions of the territory. These were afterwards released at the cost 
of an annual payment of Rs. 40,000 to the Gaikwar, and this sum later 
on was raised to Rs. 92,000. Such rapid and frequent encroachments 
on the State and internal quarrels led to the intervention of the British 
Government. About the close of 1821, of two disputants, the rightful 
claimant Verisalji was placed on the throne by the British. Under the 
settlement made in 1823 the State pays an annual tribute of Rs. 50,001 
to the Gaikwar, on the understanding that a remission shall be granted 
in seasons of natural calamity. The State, owing to mismanagement, 
was placed in the year 1884 under the joint administration of an officer 
of the British Government and the Raja. From 1887 to 1897 the 
administration was entrusted solely to a British officer. The chief, 



RAJPIPLA 8 1 

who bears the title of Maharana, is entitled to a salute of n guns and 
holds a sanad authorizing adoption. The succession follows the rule 
of primogeniture. 

The population at the last four enumerations was : (1872) 120,036, 
(1881) 114,756, (1891) 171,771, and (1901) 117,175, the decrease 
during the last decade being due to the great famine of 1899-1900. The 
population is distributed between one town, NANDOD, the capital of the 
State, and 651 villages, the density being 77 persons per square mile. 
Hindus number 94,865, Musalmans 5,636, and Animists 16,075. The 
latter are chiefly Bhils. 

Of the total area 33 per cent, is cultivable, and 243 square miles 
were actually cultivated in 1903-4. Cotton is the most important 
crop, occupying 53 square miles ; while jowdr occupied 43, lajra 29, 
rice 25, and kodra 20 square miles. In the rich alluvial soil in the 
north and north-west and in the favoured patches in the west, tur^ 
castor-oil, millet, cotton, gram, and rice are grown. Experiments for 
introducing Egyptian cotton are in progress. Among the hills and 
forests, where Bhils are the only husbandmen, the chief crops are tur^ 
coarse rice, kodra^ banti, and bavta. The four last are the Bhils' chief 
diet, though, unless three or four times washed, the kodra is slightly 
poisonous, causing giddiness and faintness. Almost all hill crops are 
grown in scattered forest clearings. The tract covered by forests 
is about two-thirds of the whole area, including 409 square miles of 
' reserved ' forest. In the south there are valuable teak forests. Car- 
nelian mines are worked at the foot of a hill near Ratanpur, a village 
about 14 miles from the city of Broach, where the Marathas gained 
a victory over the Mughals in 1705. lion of good quality used to be 
manufactured in the same locality, and akik stones are exported to 
Cambay for the manufacture of agate work. A soTt stone found in 
a village in the Vadia tahika is fashioned into grindstones and mortars 
for export. The State contains two cotton-ginning factories. The 
Bhils and other forest tribes make bamboo matting and baskets for 
sale ; otherwise there are no industries of any description. The chief 
article of trade is teak from the forests. Mahud and sesamum are 
largely exported, and nearly all the cotton grown in the State is sent to 
Bombay. A railway, constructed at a cost of 13 lakhs, and opened in 
1899, connects Nandod with Anklesvar. Its total length in 1903-4 
was 235 miles, and it yielded a net profit of Rs. 11,641. In 1899-1902 
the State suffered severely from famine, due to short rainfall and the 
ravages of rats. Nearly 9 lakhs was spent on famine relief on this 
occasion. 

For administrative purposes the lands of the State are distributed in 
parganaS) each under a thanaddr^ with considerable revenue, police, 
and magisterial powers. The chief has power to try, for capital 



82 RAJPIPLA 

offences, without the permission of the Political Agent, any person 
except British subjects. The income of the State in 1903-4 was 8-7 
lakhs, including receipts from land, forests, and excise. More than 
Rs 70,000 is annually spent on public works. The forms of assess- 
ment levied are the hoe (kodali), or the billhook (ddtardt] cess (vary- 
ing from 8 annas to 2 rupees) ; a plough tax (halbandi\ levied on each 
plough (varying according to the status of the cultivator from Rs. 5 to 
Rs. 19) ; and bighotis, or acre rates (ranging from 4^ annas to Rs. 25). 
Of the total area, 437 square miles have been surveyed. There is 
a municipality at Nandod under State management. The chief main- 
tains a military force of in men, horse and foot, and 239 police. The 
State contained in 1903-4 one high school and 81 primary schools, of 
which 5 were for girls. The boys' schools were attended by 3,417 
pupils and the girls' schools by 607. One hospital and five dispen- 
saries and the Nandod jail infirmary cost Rs. 16,000, and treated 
38,100 patients in 1903-4. In the same year 3,280 persons were 
vaccinated. Nandod contains a veterinary hospital. 

Rajpur State. Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay. 

Rajpur Town (i). Town in the head-quarters subdivision of the 
District of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, situated in 22 26' N. 
and 88 25' E., n miles south of Calcutta. Population (1901), 10,713. 
Rajpur was constituted a municipality in 1876. The income during 
the decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 8,400, and the expenditure 
Rs. 8,200. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 10,000, half of which was 
derived from a tax on persons (or property tax) ; and the expenditure 
was Rs. 12,000. 

Rajpur Town (2). Town in Dehra Dun District, United Provinces, 
situated in 30 24' N. and 78 6' E., at the foot of the Himalayas on 
the main road to Mussoorie, 7 miles from that place and 7 miles 
from Dehra. Population (1901), 2,900. The place is chiefly of im- 
portance as a stage on the journey to Mussoorie, and it is administered 
under Act XX of 1856. Pure drinking-water is supplied through pipes 
from the mountains. There are three hotels, a police station, a post 
orifice, and a dispensary. In 1902 a small glass factory was opened 
here. Glass is made from quartz, limestone, and soda, the two first 
materials being found in the neighbourhood. Four European work- 
men and forty-four natives were employed in 1903. 

Rajpura. Head-quarters tahsll of the Pmjaur nizdmat, Patiala 
State, Punjab, lying between 30 22" and 30 36" N. and 76 33' and 
76 49' E., with an area of 141 square miles. The population in 1901 
wa s SS^ 11 ?! compared with 59,607 in 1891. The tahsil contains 146 
villages, of which Rajpura is the head-quarters. The land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 1-9 lakhs. 

Rajputana (' the country of the Rajputs ' , also called Rajasthan or 



RAJPUTANA 83 

Rajwara, ' the abode of the princes '). In the administrative nomen- 
clature of the Indian Empire, Rajputana is the name of a great terri- 
torial circle which includes eighteen Native States and two chiefships, 
together with the small British Province of Ajmer-Merwara. 

These territories lie between 23 3' and 30 12' N. and 69 30' and 
78 17' E,, with a total area of about 130,462 square miles. Included 
in the latter figure are the areas of Ajmer-Merwara (2,711 square 
miles), which, being British territory, has, for Census and Gazetteer 
purposes, been treated as a separate Province ; the two detached 
districts of Gangapur (about 26 square miles) and Nandwas (about 36 
square miles), which belong respectively to the Gwalior and Indore 
Darbars, but, being surrounded by the Udaipur State, form an integral 
part of Rajputana- and, lastly, about 210 square miles of disputed 
lands. On the other hand, the areas of lands held by chiefs of Rajput- 
ana outside the territorial limits have been excluded, notably the three 
Tonk districts in Central India (about 1,439 square miles). 

As traced on the map, Rajputana is an irregular rhomb, its salient 
angles to the north, west, south, and east respectively being joined by 
the extreme outer boundary lines of the States of Blkaner, Jaisalmer, 
Banswara, and Dholpur. 

It is bounded on the west by the province of Smd ; on the north- 
west by the Punjab State of Bahawalpur ; and on the north and 
north-east by the Punjab. Its eastern frontier marches, first with the 
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, and next with Gwalior, while its 
southern boundary runs across the central region of India in an irregu- 
lar zigzag line, separating it from a number of other Native States in 
Central India and the Bombay Presidency, and marking off generally 
the northern extension of that great belt of territory subject, directly or 
indirectly, to the Maratha powers Sindhia, Holkar, and the Gaikwar 
of Baroda. 

It may be useful to give roughly the geographical position of the 
several States within this area. Jaisalmer, Jodhpur (or Marwar), and 
Blkaner form a homogeneous group in the west and north, while 
a tract called Shekhawati (subject to Jaipur) and Alwar are in the 
north-east. Jaipur, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli, Bundi, Kotah, and 
Jhalawar may be grouped together as the eastern and south-eastern 
States. Those m the south are Partabgarh, Banswara, Dungarpur, and 
Udaipur (or Mewar), with Sirohi in the south-west. In the centre lie 
the British Province of Ajmer-Merwara, the Kishangarh State, the chief- 
ships of Shahpura and Lawa, and parts of Tonk. The last State con- 
sists of six isolated districts (three of which are, as already stated, in 
Central India), and cannot be said to fall into any one of these rough 
geographical groups. 

The Aravalli Hills intersect the country almost from end to end 



84 RAJPUTANA 

by a line running nearly north-east and south-west, and about three- 
fifths of Rajputana lie north-west of this line, leaving two-fifths on the 
south-east. The heights of Mount Abu are close to 
aspects the sout h- w estern extremity of the range, while its 
north-eastern end may be said to terminate near 
Khetri in the Shekhawati country, though detached hills are traceable 
almost as far as Delhi. 

There are thus two main divisions namely, that north-west, and 
that south-east, of the Aravallis. The former stretches from Sind on 
the west, northwaid along the southern Punjab frontier to near Delhi 
on the north-east. As a whole, this tract is sandy, ill-watered, and 
unproductive, but improves gradually from a mere desert in the far 
west and north-west to comparatively fertile and habitable lands to- 
wards the north-east. The 'great desert,' forming the whole of the 
Rajputana-Smd frontier, extends from the edge of the Rann of Cutch 
beyond the Luni river northward ; and between it and what has been 
called the ' little desert ' on the east is a zone of less absolutely sterile 
country, consisting of rocky land cut up by limestone ridges, which to 
some degree protect it from the desert sands. The ' little desert ' runs 
up from the Luni river between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur into the 
northern wastes. The character of this region is the same everywhere. 
It is covered by sand-hills, shaped generally in long straight ridges, 
which seldom meet, but run in parallel lines, separated by short and 
fairly regular intervals, resembling the ripple-marks on a sea-shore upon 
a magnified scale. Some of these ridges may be two miles long, 
varying from 50 to 100 feet, or even more, in height j their sides are 
scored by water, and at a distance they look like substantial low hills. 
Their summits are blown into wave-like curves by the action of the 
periodical westerly winds , they are sparsely clothed with stunted 
shrubs and tufts of coarse grass in the dry season, while the light lains 
cover them with vegetation. The villages within the desert, though 
always known by local names, cannot be reckoned as fixed habitations, 
for their permanence depends entnely on the supply of watei in the 
wells, which is constantly failing or turning brackish ; and as soon as 
the water gives out, the village must shift. A little water is collected 
in small tanks or pools, which become dry before the stress of the heat 
begins, and in places there are long marshes impregnated with salt, 
This is the character, with more or less variation, of the whole north 
and north-west of Rajputana. The cultivation is everywhere poor and 
precarious, though certain parts have a better soil than others, and 
some tracts are comparatively productive. Along the base of the 
Aravalli range from Abu north-east towards Ajmer, the submontane 
region lying immediately under the abiupt northern slopes and absorb- 
ing their drainage is well cultivated, where it is not covered by jungle, 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 85 

up to the Lfmi ; but north-west of this river the surface streams are 
mere rain gutters, the water in the wells sinks lower and lower, and 
the cultivation becomes poorer and more patchy as the scanty loam 
shades off into the sandy waste. As the Aravallis approach Ajmer, 
the continuous chain breaks up into separate hills and sets of hills. 
Here is the midland country of Rajputana, with the city of Ajmer 
standing among the scattered hills upon the highest level of an open 
table-land, which spreads eastward towards Jaipur and slopes by 
degrees to all points of the compass. From Ajmer the Aravallis trend 
north-eastward, never reuniting into a chain but still serving to divide 
roughly, though less distinctly, the sandy country on the north and 
west from the kindlier soil on the south and east. 

The second main division of Rajputana, south-east of the Aravallis, 
contains the higher and more fertile regions. It may be defined by 
a line starting from near Abu and sweeping round first south-eastward, 
and then eastward, along the northern fi on tiers of Gujarat and Malwa. 
Where it meets Gwalior, it turns northward, and eventually runs along 
the Chambal until that river enters the United Provinces \ it then skirts 
the British possessions in the basin of the Jumna as it goes north past 
Agra and Muttra up to the neighbourhood of Delhi. In contrast to 
the sandy plains which are the uniform feature, more or less modified, 
of the north-west, this south-eastern division has a very diversified 
character. It contains extensive hill ranges and long stretches of rocky 
wold and woodland ; it is traversed by considerable rivers, and m many 
parts there are wide vales, fertile table-lands, and great breadths of 
excellent soil. Behind the loftiest and most clearly defined section 
of the Aravallis, which runs between Abu and Ajmer, lies the Udaipur 
(Mewar) country, occupying all the eastern flank of the range, at a level 
800 or 900 feet higher than the plains on the west. And whereas the 
descent of the western slopes is abrupt towards Marwar, on the eastern 
or Mewar side the land falls very gradually as it recedes from the long 
parallel ridges which mark the water-parting, through a country full of 
high hills and deep gullies, much broken up by irregular rocky emi- 
nences, until it spreads out and settles down into the open champaign of 
the centre of Udaipur. Towards the south-western corner of that State, 
the broken country behind the Aravallis is prolonged farthest into the 
interior ; and the outskirts of the main range do not subside into level 
tracts, but become a confused network of outlying hills and valleys, 
covered for the most part with jungle. This is the peculiar region 
known as the Hilly Tracts of Mewar. All the south-east of Rajputana 
is watered by the drainage of the Vindhyas, carried north-eastward by 
the Banas and Chambal rivers. To the north of the town of Jhalra- 
patan, the country rises by a very distinct slope to the level of a 
remarkable plateau called the Pathar, upon which lies a good deal 



86 RAJPUTANA 

of the territory of the Kotah and Bundi States. The surface of this 
table-land is very diversified, consisting of wide uplands, more or less 
stony, broad depressions, or level spaces containing deep black culti- 
vable soil between hills with rugged and irregular summits, sometimes 
barren and sometimes covered with vegetation. To the east the plateau 
falls very gradually to the Gwalior country and the catchment of the 
Betwa river , and to the north-east there is a very rugged region along 
the frontier line of the Chambal in the Karauli State, while farther 
northward the country smooths down and opens out towards the 
Bharatpur territory, whose flat plains belong to the alluvial basin of the 
Jumna. 

Of mountains and hill ranges, the ARAVALLIS are by far the most 
important. Mount Abu belongs by position to these hills, and its 
principal peak, 5,650 feet above the sea, is the highest point between 
the Himalayas and the Nilgiris. The other ranges, though numerous, 
are comparatively insignificant. The cities of Alwar and Jaipur lie 
among groups of Mis more or less connected ; and in the Bharatpur 
State is a range of some local importance, the highest peak being 
AlTpur, 1,357 feet above sea-level. South of these are the Karauli 
hills, whose greatest height nowhere exceeds 1,600 feet; and to the 
south-west is a low but very well-defined range, running from Mandal- 
garh in Udaipur north-east across the Bundi territory to near Indar- 
garh in Kotah. These hills present a clear scarp for about 25 miles on 
their south-eastern face, and give very few openings for roads, the best 
pass being that in which lies the town of Bundi, whence they are called 
the Bundi hills. The MUKANDWARA range runs across the south- 
western districts of Kotah from the Chambal to beyond Jhalrapatan, 
and has a curious double formation of two separate ridges. No other 
definite ranges are worth mention j but it will be understood that the 
whole of Rajputana, excepting only the sandy deserts, is studded with 
occasional hills and isolated crags, and even so far as the south-west of 
the Jodhpur State, near Barmer, there are two which exceed 2,000 feet. 
All the southern States are more or less hilly, especially Banswara, 
Dungarpur, and the southernmost tracts of Mewar. 

In the north-western division of Rajputana the only river of any 
consequence is the LUNT, which rises in the Pushkar valley close to 
Ajmer and flows west by south-west for about 200 miles into the Rann 
of Cutch. The GHAGGAR once flowed through the northern part of the 
Bikaner State, but now rarely reaches more than a mile or two west of 
the town of Hanumangarh. Its water is, however, utilized for irrigation 
purposes by means of two canals, which were constructed in 1897 at 
the joint expense of the Government of India and the Bikaner Darbar. 
The south-eastern division has a river system of importance. The 
CHAMBAL is by far the largest river in Rajputana, flowing through the 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 87 

Province for about one-third of its course, and forming its boundary for 
another third. Its principal tributaries are the KAL! SINB, the PAR- 
BATI, and the BANAS. The last, which is next in importance to the 
Chambal, is throughout its length of 300 miles a river of Rajputana. 
It rises in the Aravallis near the fort of Kumbhalgarh, and collects all 
the drainage of the south-eastern slopes of those hills, as well as of the 
Mewar plateau , its principal tributaries are the Berach, Kothan, Khari, 
Mashi, Dhil, and Morel. Farther to the north is the BANGANGA, 
which, rising in Jaipur, flows generally east through Bharatpur and 
Dholpur into the District of Agra, where, after a course of about 
235 miles, it joins the Jumna. The MAHI, a considerable river in 
Gujarat, runs for some distance through Banswara and along the border 
of Dungarpur in the extreme south, but it neither begins nor ends 
within Rajputana. 

There are no natural fresh-water lakes, the only considerable basin 
being the well-known salt lake at SAMBHAR. There are, however, 
numerous artificial sheets of water, many of which are large, throughout 
the eastern half of the Province, more particularly in the Jaipur State. 
The oldest and most famous are, however, to be found in Mewar : 
namely, the DHEBAR LAKE, the Raj Samand at KANKROLI, and the 
Picrfola lake at Udaipur city. 

Rajputana may be divided into two geological regions : namely, the 
eastern half including the Aravallis, and the western half. The Aravalli 
range, as it exists at present, is but the wreck of what must have been 
in former days a lofty chain of mountains, reduced to its present dimen- 
sions by subaerial denudation; and its upheaval dates back to very 
early geological times, when the sandstones of the Vindhyan system, 
the age of which is not clearly established but is probably not later 
than Lower Palaeozoic, were being deposited. The older rocks com- 
posing it are all of crystalline types, like the transition or Dharwar 
series of Southern India, and comprise gneisses and schists, with bands 
of crystalline limestone, slates, and quartzites. These have been 
divided into two systems, of which the lower, known as the Aravalli 
system, includes the gneisses, schists, and most of the slates. All these 
rocks have been greatly crushed and disturbed, and are thrown into 
sharp folds running m a direction parallel to the trend of the range , 
they are traversed by numerous dikes of intrusive granite, as well as of 
basic igneous rock. Of the gneiss but little is known, and it is doubtful 
whether any older than the transition series occurs in the range. Cal- 
careous bands are of common occurrence among the schists, and, where 
they are in contact with veins of intrusive granite, have been altered 
into a pure white crystalline marble, which is extensively quarried in 
several localities. The most famous of these quarries are at MAKRANA. 
The slates at the northern end of the range are largely used for roofing 



88 RAJPUTANA 

purposes, and the copper and cobalt mines of Khetri are situated in 
the Aravalli schists, but have not been worked for many years. Over 
the schists and slates just described comes a series of slates, limestones, 
and quartzites, known as the Delhi system. The lower portion, con- 
sisting of slates and limestones, was formerly known as the Raialo 
group, and the upper portion (quartzites) is called the Alwar group 
the latter, however, frequently overlaps the former and rests directly 
on the Aravalh schists and slates. In the Bayana hills in Bharatpur 
the Alwar group has been divided as follows , 

(5) Wer quartzites and conglomerates. 

(4) Damdama quartzites and conglomerates 

(3) Bayana white quartzite and conglomerates. 

(2) Badalgarh quartzite and shale. 

(i) Nithahar quartzite and bedded trap 

These groups are all separated by slight unconformities of denuda- 
tion and overlap, but the distinctions appear to be quite local. All the 
groups vary much in thickness, and are completely superseded near 
Nithahar by the Wer quartzites, which rest directly on the schists. 
Copper has been mined in the quartzites at Singhana near Khetn, and 
lead at the Taragarh hill close to Ajmer city. Vindhyan rocks of both 
the lower and upper divisions of that system are found east of the 
Aravalli range, their north-western limit being a line of hills running 
from Fatehpur Slkn south-west to near Chitor, and then south and 
south-east. The lower division consists of conglomerates at the base, 
formed of pebbles derived from the quartzites and schists, followed by 
red shales, sandstones, and limestones, while the upper division con- 
tains red false-bedded and ripple-marked sandstones, with bands of 
pebbles, and forms a plateau extending east beyond the limits of 
Rajputana. The only rocks on the eastern side of the Aravallis that 
are of later date than the Vindhyans are of igneous origin, belonging to 
the great outburst of Deccan trap which covers so large a portion of 
Central India. They are found in the extreme south-east, south of 
a line drawn from Nimach to Jhalrapatan, and conceal all the older 
formations beneath them. 

West of the Aravallis are a few outliers of Lower Vindhyan rocks, 
resting unconformably upon the transition quartzites and slates, while 
in the low country to the north-west are large expanses of sandstones 
which are considered to belong to the Upper portion of this system. 
In the Jodhpur State numerous bare rocky hills rise from among the 
sand-dunes, consisting for the most part of volcanic rocks, rhyolites, 
and granites. The rhyolites, called the Mallani series from the district 
in which they were first found, are poured out upon an ancient land- 
surface formed of the Aravalh schists, but actual contacts between the 
two are very rare. They are pierced by dikes and bosses of granite of 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 89 

two varieties, one containing hornblende bat no mica (Siwana granite), 
and the other both hornblende and mica (Jalor granite), and are also 
traversed by numerous basic igneous rocks having the composition of 
olivme, dolerite, or diabase. In the desert a sequence of rocks newer 
than the Vindhyans is found. The oldest are boulder beds of glacial 
origin occurring at Bap in Jaisalmer, where they rest on Vindhyan 
limestones, and they are considered to repiesent the Talcher beds at 
the base of the Gondwana system. A similar boulder bed occurs at 
Pokaran in Jodhpur, also resting upon a glaciated surface of older rock ; 
but there is some doubt as to the relations of this bed to the Vindhyan 
sandstones, and it may be older than Talcher. 

Farther to the west, in Jaisalmer territory, is a series of Jurassic 
rocks divided into the following five groups : 

(5) Abur group. Sandstones, shales, and fossiliferous limestones ; 
the latter are buff-coloured, but weather red, and abound in yellow 
ammonites. 

(4) Parihar group. Soft, white felspathic sandstones, weathering 
into a clean, sugary sand, and largely composed of fragments of 
transparent quartz. 

(3) Bidesar group. Purplish and reddish sandstones, with thin 
layers of black vitreous ferruginous sandstone. 

(2) Jaisalmer group. Thick bands of compact buff and light brown 
limestone, interstratified with grey, brown, and blackish sandstone, with 
some conglomerate. 

(i) Lathi (or Banner ?) group. White, grey, and brown sandstones, 
interstratified with numerous bands of hard black and brown ferruginous 
sandstones and grit. Towards the base are some soft argillaceous sand- 
stones streaked and blotched with purple. Fragmentary plant remains 
and pieces of dicotyledonous wood have been found. 

At Barmer in Jodhpur, there are some patches of sandstone and 
conglomerates, resting upon the Mallani lava-flows and considered to 
represent the Lathi group \ but they are quite isolated and their position 
in the series is somewhat doubtful. To the north-west of Jaisalmer 
town, and near Gajner in Blkaner, there is a considerable area of Lower 
Tertiary (Nummulitic) rocks. The deep wells that are necessary for 
reaching water in this desert also reveal their presence beneath the 
sand, and in some of these wells near Blkaner coal has been discovered 
interstratified with the Nummulitic beds l . Layers of unctuous clay 
or fuller's earth are also found at several localities in this formation, 
and ^the clay is exported under the name of multdni mitti. The more 
recent deposits of the Rajputana desert consist of calcareous conglo- 
merates, which are found in the larger river basins and denote a period 
when the flow of water was much greater than at present ; blown sand, 
1 Records^ Geological Survey of India > vol. xxx, part in (1897), pp. 122-5. 



90 RAJPUTANA 

and calcareous limestone or kankar. The sand-dunes are all of the 
transverse type : i, e, they have their longer axes at right angles to the 
direction of the prevailing south-west wind. The sand contains large 
quantities of the calcareous casts of foraminiferaj and it is by the solu- 
tion of these that the beds of kankar are formed. The sand also 
contains salt, which is leached out by occasional rams and collects in 
depressions as at Pachbhadra in Jodhpur and the Sambhar Lake. 

The most prominent constituent of the vegetation of Rajputana is 
the scrub jungle which shows forth, rather than conceals, the arid naked- 
ness of the land. The scrub consists largely of species of Capparis, 
ZizyphuS) Tamarlx^ Grewia, with such plants as Buchanama latifolia^ 
Cassia aunculata^ Woodfordia flonbunda^ Casearia tomentosa^ Diospyros 
montana^ Calotropis procera^ and Clerodendron phlomoides. West of 
the Aravalli Hills two cactaceous looking spurges. Euphorbia Royleana 
and E. neriifolia^ are common, but less so east of that range. Towards 
the western frontier occur Tecoma undulata and Acacia Jacquemontit, 
and plants which are characteristic of the and regions, such as Tamanx 
articulata and Myricaria germanica, Balanites Ro&burghii, Balsamo- 
dendron Mukul^ and Alhagi maurorum are also very common in Western 
Rajputana. Farther west the scrub becomes more and more stunted, 
spiny, and ferocious in its aspect, until it merges into the desert tracts 
of Sind. Trees form quite a secondary feature of the vegetation amidst 
the ubiquitous scrub Among the more common indigenous trees, 
which grow both east and west of the Aravallis, are Sterculia urens, 
Pro sop is spidgera, Dichrostachys cinerea, Acacia leucophloea^ Anogeissus 
pendula^ and Cordia Rothii^ although in Western Rajputana the term 
' tree ' applied to some of these is rather a courteous acknowledgement 
of their descent than an indication of their size. The trees found more 
or less sparingly on the Aravallis and in Eastern Rajputana are Bombax 
malabaricuni) Semecarpus Anacardium, Erythrma suberosa, Bauhinia 
purpurea, Gmelma arborea^ Boswellia thunfera^ Butea frondosa^ Ter- 
minaha, tomentosa, and T. Arjuna. In Western Rajputana, in addition 
to those mentioned as occurring all over the region, are found Salva- 
dora persica and Acacia rupestris. Among the introduced or cultivated 
trees, the more common are Parkinsonia aculeata^ several figs such as 
Ficus glomerata^ mrgata^ religiosa, and bengalensis^ Acacia farnesiana 
and A. arabica^ Melia Azadtrachta, and the mulberry, tamarind, mango, 
pomegranate, peach, custard-apple, and guava. Climbing plants are 
exemplified by two species of Cocculus^ Cissampelos Pareira^ Mimosa 
rubricaulis, Vitis carnosa^ and V. latifolia. The herbaceous vegetation 
is for a considerable part of the year a dormant quantity, but during 
the brief rainy season, or in the neighbourhood of water, it springs 
to light. It consists of species of the following orders : Leguminosae^ 
Compo$itae Y Acanthaceae^ Boraginaceae, Malvaceae^ &c. Growing in 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 91 

water aie to be found Vallismria, Utricularia> and Potamogeton , and, 
among grasses, Androfogon, Atithisteria, and Cenchrus. The lower 
slopes of the Aravalhs show generally the same vegetation which the 
low hills to the east and the plains to the west exhibit; but higher 
up, in a moister atmosphere, there are found some species which could 
not exist in the dry hot plains. Among these are Aendes } Rosa Lyelht\ 
Girardmia heterophylla, Carissa Camndas^ Pongamia glabra^ Stercuha 
tolorata, Mallotits phihppmensis, and Dendrocalamus stnctus. A few 
ferns also occur on the range, such as Adiantum caudatum, A. limit- 
latuni) Cheilanthes fannosa, Nephrodium molle^ N. cicutarium, and 
Actimopteris radiata. 

Theie are no wild animals peculiar to Rajputana, Lions must have 
been numerous about a hundred years ago, for Colonel Tod writes that 
Maharao Raja Bishan Singh of Bundi, who died in 1821, 'had slam 
upwards of one hundred lions with his own hand, besides many tigers.' 
Moreover, five lions were shot in Rajputana as recently as 1872 : namely, 
four near Jaswantpura in the south of Jodhpur, and a full-grown female 
on the western slope of Abu , and these are believed to have been the 
last of their kind in Rajputana There are still a fair number of 
tigers, chiefly in the Aravalh Hills and in parts of Alwar, Bundi, Jaipur, 
Karauh, Kotah, Sirohi, and Udaipur, while an occasional tiger is met 
with in every other State except Blkaner, Jaisalmer, and Kishangarh. 
Leopards are common, and the sloth bear (Melursus ur sinus] is found 
in the Aravalhs and in other hills and forests, mainly in the south and 
south-east. Of deer, the sambar (Cervus unicolor) is met with in the 
same localities as the tiger and bear, though in greater abundance, while 
the chltal (C. a&is) frequents some of the lower slopes of the hills 
in Bundi, Kotah, Sirohi, Udaipur, &c. Antelope and gazelle are 
numerous in the plains, as also are nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) 
in parts. Small game, such as snipe, quail, partridge, wild duck, and 
hare, can generally be obtained everywhere except in the desert. In 
the western States there are large numbers of the great Indian and 
of the lesser bustard, as well as several species of sand-grouse including 
the imperial, for which Blkaner is particularly famous. 

In the summer the heat, except in the high hills, is great everywhere, 
and in the west and north-west very great. Hot winds and dust-storms 
are experienced more or less throughout the country, and in the sandy 
half-desert tracts are as violent as in any part of India, while in the 
southern parts they are tempered by hills, verdure, and water. In, 
the winter the climate of the north, especially on the Blkaner border, 
where there is sometimes hard frost at night, is much colder than in 
the southern States \ and from the great dryness of the atmosphere 
in these inland areas the change of temperature between day and 
night is sudden, excessive, and very trying. The heat, thrown off 

VOL. xxi. G 



92 RAJPUTANA 

rapidly by the sandy soil, passes freely through the dry air, so that 
at night water may freeze in a tent where the thermometer marked 
90 during part of the day. The following table gives the average 
mean temperature (in degrees F.) and the diurnal range at selected 
observatories during certain months : 





January 


May 


July 


November, 


Observatory 


Mean 


Diurnal 
range 


Mean 


Diurnal 
range 


Mean 


Diurnal 

range 


Mean 


Diurnal 
range 


Bikaner 


60 4 


22-3 


95' 


24.4 


91.9 


18-1 


72-3 


25-4 


Jodhpur . 
Jaipur 
Mount Abu 


62-1 
60-9 

58-7 


269 

255 
!53 


94-0 

QI'8 

795 


26-1 
28.7 
I7'3 


90-0 
856 

70-5 


17.9 

I5'5 
9-5 


74.6 
701 

66-i 


31-4 

30.8 

157 



These figures are for periods varying from twenty-one to twenty-five 
years ending with 1901, except in the case of Jodhpur, where they are 
for only five years 

The rainfall is very unequally distributed throughout Rajputana 
The western portion comes very near the limits of that part of Asia 
which belongs to the rainless areas of the world, though even on 
this side the south-west winds bring annually a little ram from the 
Indian Ocean, In Jaisalmer and parts of Jodhpur and Bikaner, the 
annual fall averages scarcely more than 6 or 7 inches, as the rain-clouds 
have to pass extensive heated sandy tracts before reaching these plains, 
and are emptied of much of their moisture upon the high ranges in 
Kathiawar and the nearer slopes of the Aravallis. In the south-west, 
which is more directly reached, and with less intermediate evaporation, 
by the periodical rains, the fall is much more copious, and at Abu has 
on more than one occasion exceeded 100 inches, namely in 1875, 1881, 
1892, and 1893. But, except in these south-west highlands of the 
Aravallis, the rain is most abundant in the south-east of Rajputana. 
Along the southern States, from Banswara to Jhalawar and Kotah, the 
land gets not only the rains from the Indian Ocean, which sweep up 
the valleys of the Narbada and Mahl rivers across Malvva to the coun- 
tries about the Chambal, but also the remains of the moisture which 
comes up from the Bay of Bengal m the south-east ; and this supply 
occasionally reaches all Mewar. In this part of the country, if the south- 
west rains fail early, those from the south-east usually come to the rescue 
later in the season ; on the other hand, the northern part of Rajputana 
gets a scanty share of the winter rams of Northern India, while the 
southern part usually gets none at all, beyond a few gentle showers about 
Christmas. In the central tract, about Ajmer and towards Jaipur, the 
periodical supply of rain is very variable. If the eastern winds are strong, 
they bring good rains from the Bay of Bengal; whereas if the south-west 
monsoon prevails, the ram is comparatively late and light. Sometimes 



HISTORY 



93 



a good supply comes in from both seas, and then the fall is larger than in 
the eastern tract ; but it is usually much less. In the far north of Rajput- 
ana the wind must be very strong, and the clouds very full, to bring 
any appreciable supply from either direction. It may be said shortly 
that from Blkaner and Jaisalmer in the north-west to Banswara in the 
south, and Kotah and Jhalawar in the south-east, there is a very gradu- 
ally increasing rainfall from about 6 to 40 inches, the amount increasing 
very rapidly after the Aravallis have been crossed. The subjoined table 
gives the average annual rainfall (in inches) at five representative stations 
during the twenty-five years ending 1901 



Station. 


d 

3 
- 


February 


J3 
d 


o. 


d 


c 

i 59 
1.42 

3-78 
241 

5-24 


*3 
>--, 


s 


!_ 

o. 


October 


No\ ember 


December 


"d rt 

Jr 


Blkaner , 
Jodhpur . 
Udaipur . 
Jaipur 
Mount Abu 


Q-37 
0-26 
o-io 

0.58 
034 


o 23 

0.15 

12 
0.24 
0-30 


O-2O 
O2 
0O7 
0-31 
0-13 


12 

o 06 

0-12 
012 

o.ic 


0-84 
44 

059 
0-64 
097 


326 

3-89 

806 

22 17 


313 

4.80 

7.68 
846 
19 23 


LOO 

167 

4.81 

3-39 
9.66 


008 
O.2I 
037 

o 29 
o 60 


0.08 
O.I I 

o 19 
018 
o 29 


o 16 

0.17 

o 26 

0.23 


n.o6 
13.18 
24.77 
24.94 
59.26 



To this it may be added that the annual rainfall m the thiee eastern 
States (Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli) vanes between 24 and 29 
inches, in Kotah and Jhalawar between 3 r and 3 7 inches, and at the 
town of Banswara is about 40 inches. The greatest fall recorded in 
any one year was ovei 130 inches at Mount Abu in 1893, while in 1899 
not one-hundredth of an inch was registered at the rain-gauge stations 
of Khabha and Ramgarh in the west of the Jaisalmer State. 

Earthquakes are not uncommon at Abu and, being accompanied 
with much rumbling noise, are somewhat alarming, but during recent 
years at any rate they have done no harm. In years of excessive rain- 
fall, the rivers sometimes cause damage and loss of life. For example, 
in 1875 the Banas rose in high flood and, in its passage past Tonk town, 
is said to have swept away villages and buildings far above the highest 
water-mark. Again, the Banganga river, till it was brought under control 
in 1895 by means of several irrigation works constructed by the Bharat- 
pur Darbar, has been responsible for much damage, not only in that 
State but in the adjoining District of Agra, notably in 1873, when 
villages were literally swept away by the floods, and Bharatpur city 
itself was saved with great difficulty, and again in 1884 and 1885. 

The early history of the country now called Rajputana is, like that 
of other parts of India, somewhat obscure, and the materials for its 
reconstruction are scanty. The discovery of two 
rock-inscriptions of Asoka (about 250 B.C.) near 
BAiRAT-in the Jaipur State seems to show that his dominions extended 
westwards to, at any rate, this part of the country. In the second 

G 2 



History. 



94 RAJPUTANA 

century B.C. the Bactrian Greeks came down from the north and north- 
west ; and among their conquests are mentioned the old city of Nagari 
(called Madhyamika) near Chitor, and the country round and about 
the Kali Smd river, while the coins of two of then kings, Apollodotus 
and Menander, have been found m the Udaipur State. 

From the second to the fourth century A.D. the Sakas or Scythians 
were powerful, especially in the south and south-west ; and an inscription 
(dated about 150) at Girnar mentions a famous chief, Rudradaman, as 
ruler of Maru (Marwar) and the country round the Sabarmati, &c. The 
Gupta dynasty of MAGADHA ruled over parts of the Province from about 
the end of the fourth century to the beginning of the sixth century, 
when it was overthrown by the White Huns under their Raja Tora- 
mana. In the first half of the seventh century, Harshavardhana, a 
Rajput of the Vaisha or Bais clan, ruled at Thanesar ar\d Kanauj, and 
conquered the country as far south as the Narbada, including, of course, 
a great deal of Rajputana. At the time of the visit of the Chinese 
pilgrim, Hmen Tsiang (629-45), Rajputana fell within four main divi- 
sions which were then called Gurjjara (Bikaner, the western States, and 
part of Shekhawati), Vadan (the southern and some of the central 
States), Bairat (Jaipur, Aiwar, and a portion of Tonk), and Muttra (the 
three eastern States of Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauh). Included in 
the kingdom of Ujjain were Kotah, Jhalawar, and some of the outlying 
districts of Tonk. 

Between the seventh and the beginning of the eleventh century 
several Rajput dynasties arose. The Gahlots (or, as they are now 
called, the Sesodias) migrated from Gujarat and occupied the south- 
western portion of Mewar, their earliest inscription in Rajputana being 
dated 646. Next came the Parihars, who began to rule at Mandor in 
Jodhpura few yeais later ; and they were followed in the eighth century 
by the Chauhans and the Bhatis, who settled down respectively at 
Sambhar and in Jaisalmer. Lastly, in the tenth century the Paramaras 
and the Solankis began to be powerful in the south-west. It is 
interesting to note that, of these Rajput clans, only three are now 
represented by ruling chiefs of Rajputana, namely the Sesodias, Bhatis, 
and Chauhans ; * and of these three, only the first two are still to be 
found m their original settlements, the Chauhans having moved 
gradually south-west and south-east to Sirohi, Bundi, and Kotah. Of 
the other Rajput clans now represented among the chiefs of Rajputana, 
the Jadons obtained a footing in Karauli about the middle of the 
eleventh century, though they had lived in the vicinity for a very 
long time; the Kachwahas came to Jaipur from Gwalior about 1128- 
the Rathors from Kanauj settled in Marwar in the beginning of the 
thirteenth century ; and the Jhala State of Jhalawar did not come into 
existence till 1838. 



HISTORY 95 

The first Musalman invasions (1001-26) found Rajput dynasties 
seated in all the chief cities of Northern India (Lahore, Delhi, 
Kanauj), but the march of Mahmud's victorious army across Rajputana, 
though it temporarily overcame the Solankis, left no permanent impres- 
sion on the clans. The latter were, however, seriously weakened by 
the feuds between the Solankis and the Chauhans, and between the 
latter and the Rathors of Kanauj, which give such a romantic colour 
to the traditions of the concluding part of the twelfth century. Never- 
theless, when Muhammad Ghori began his invasions, the Chauhans 
fought hard before they were driven out of Delhi and Ajmer in 1193, 
and Kanauj was not taken till the following year. Kutb-ud-dln 
garrisoned Ajmer, and the Musalmans appear gradually to have 
overawed, if they did not entirely reduce, the open country. They 
secured the natural outlets of Rajputana towards Gujarat on the south- 
west, and the Jumna on the north-east ; and the effect was probably 
to press back the clans into the outlying districts, where a more 
difficult and less inviting country afforded a second line of defence 
against the foreigner a line which they have held successfully up to 
the present day. 

Indeed, setting aside for the present the two Jat States of Bharat- 
pur and Dholpur and the Muhamrnadan principality of Tonk, Rajputana 
may be described as the region within which the pure-blooded Rajput 
clans have maintained their independence under their own chieftains, 
and have kept together their primitive societies ever since their 
principal dynasties in Northern India were cast down and swept 
away by the Musalman irruptions. The process by which the Rajput 
clans were gradually shut up within the natural barrier of difficult 
country, which still more or less marks off their possessions, continued 
with varying fortune, their frontiers now receding, now again advancing 
a little, until the end of the fifteenth century. In the thirteenth century 
the rich southern province of Malwa was annexed to the Delhi empire ; 
and at the beginning of the fourteenth century, Ala-ud-dm Khilji finally 
subdued the Rajput dynasties in Gujarat, which also became an im- 
perial province. At the same time he reduced Ranthambhor, a 
famous fortress of the eastern marches, and sacked Chitor, the capital 
of the Sesodias, But, although the early Delhi sovereigns constantly 
pierced the country by rapid invasions, plundering and slaying, they 
made no serious impression on the independence of the chiefs. The 
fortresses, great circumvallations on the broad tops of scarped hills, 
were desperately defended and, when taken, were hard to keep. There 
was no firm foothold for the Musalmans in the heart of the country, 
though the Rajput territories were encircled by incessant war and 
often rent by internal dissensions. The line of communication between 
Delhi and Gujarat by Ajmer seems indeed to have been usually open 



96 RAJPUTANA 

to the imperial armies ; and the Rajputs lost for a time most of the 
great forts which commanded their eastern and most exposed frontier, 
and appear to have been slowly driven inward from this side. Yet no 
territorial annexations were very firmly held by the imperial governors 
from Delhi during the Middle Ages. Chitor was very soon regained 
and the other strongholds changed hands frequently. 

When, however, the Tughlak dynasty went to pieces about the close 
of the fourteenth century, and had been finally swept away by Timur's 
sack of Delhi, two independent Musalman kingdoms were set up in 
Gujarat and Malwa. These powers proved more formidable to the 
Rajputs than the unwieldy empire had been, and throughout the 
fifteenth century there was incessant war between them. For a short 
interval, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, came a brilliant 
revival of Rajput strength. The last Afghan dynasty at Delhi was 
breaking up in the usual high tide of rebellion, and Malwa and 
Gujarat were at war with each other, when there arose the famous 
Rana Sangram Singh (Sanga) of Mewar, chief of the Sesodias. His 
talents and valour once more enlarged the borders of the Rajputs, and 
obtained for them something hke predominance in Central India. 
Aided by Medmi Rao, chief of Chanderi, he fought with distinguished 
success against both Malwa and Gujarat. In 1519 he captured 
Mahmud II ; and m 1526, in alliance with Gujarat, he totally subdued 
the Malwa state, and annexed to his own dominions all the eastern 
provinces of that kingdom, and recovered the strong places of the 
eastern marches, such as Ranthambhor and Khandhar. The power 
of the Rajputs was now at its zenith, for Rana Sanga was no longer 
the chief of a clan but the king of a country The Rajput revival was, 
however, as short-lived as it was brilliant. 

In the year when Malwa was subdued, and one month before its 
capital surrendered, the emperor Babar took Delhi and extinguished 
the Pathan dynasty, so that Rana Sanga had only just got rid of his 
ancient enemy in the south, when a new and greater danger threatened 
him from the north. He marched, however, towards Bayana, which 
he took from the imperial garrison placed there, and Babar pushed 
down to meet him. At Khanua m Bharatpur, in March, 1527, 
the Rana, at the head of all the chivalry of the clans, encountered 
Babar's army and was defeated after a furious conflict, in which fell 
Hasan Khan, the powerful chief of the Mewati country, and many 
Rajputs of note. In this way the great Hindu confederacy was hope- 
lessly shattered; Rana Sanga died in the same year, covered with 
wounds and glory, and the brief splendour of united Rajasthan waned 
rapidly. In 1534 Bahadur Shah of Gujarat took Chitor, and recovered 
almost all the provinces which the Rana had won from Malwa ; and 
the power and predominance of the Sesodia clan were transferred to 



HISTORY 97 

the Rathors of the west, where Maldeo, chief of Jodhpur, had become 
the strongest of all the Rajput rulers. The struggle which began soon 
after Babar's death, between Humayun and the Pathan Sher Shah, had 
relaxed the pressure of the Delhi power upon the clans from this side, 
and Maldeo greatly increased in wealth and territory. In 1544 he was 
attacked by Sher Shah in great force, but gave him such a bloody 
reception near Ajmer that the Pathan abandoned further advance into 
the Rathor country, and turned southward through Mewar into Bundel- 
khand, where he was killed before the fort of Kalinjar. It is clear that 
the victory at Khanua extinguished the last chance which the Rajputs 
ever had of regaining their ancient dominions in the rich plains of 
India. It was fatal to them, not only because it broke the war-power 
of their one able leader, but because it enabled the victor to lay out the 
foundations of the Mughal empire. A firmly consolidated government 
surrounding Rajputana necessarily put an end to the expansion, and 
gradually to the independence, of the clans ; and thus the death of 
Humayun in 1556 marks a decisive era in their history. 

The emperor Akbar, shortly after his accession, attacked Maldeo, 
the Rathor chief, recovered from him Ajmer and several "other impor- 
tant places, and forced him to acknowledge his sovereignty. He then 
undertook to settle the whole region systematically. Chitor was again 
besieged and taken, with the usual grand finale of a sortie and massacre 
of the defenders. Udaipur was occupied, and though the Sesodias 
did not formally submit, they were reduced to guerrilla warfare in the 
Aravallis. In the east, the chief of the Kachwahas at Amber had 
entered the imperial service, while the Chauhans of Bundi were over- 
awed or conciliated. They surrendered the fort of Ranthambhor, the 
key to their country, and were brought with the rest within the pale of 
the empire. Akbar took to wife the daughters of two great Rajput 
houses ; he gave the chiefs or their brethren high rank in his armies, 
sent them with their contingents to command on distant frontiers, and 
succeeded in enlisting the Rajputs generally (save the Sesodias) not 
only as tributaries but as adherents. After him Jahanglr made Ajmer 
his head-quarters, whence he intended to march in person against the 
Sesodias who had defeated his generals m Mewar ; and here at last he 
received, in 1614, the submission of Rana Amar Singh of Udaipur, 
who, however, did not present himself in person. But though the 
Ranas never attended the Mughal court, they sent henceforward their 
regular contingent to the imperial army, and the ties of political associa- 
tion were drawn closer in several ways. The Rajput chiefs constantly 
entered the imperial service as governors and generals (there are said 
to have been at one time forty-seven Rajput mounted contingents), and 
the headlong charges of their cavalry became famous m the wars of the 
empire. Both Jahanglr and Shah Jahan were sons of Rajput mothers, 



9 3 RAJPUTANA 

and the latter in exile was protected at Udaipur up to the time of his 
accession, Their kinship with the clans helped these two emperors 
greatly in their contests for the throne, while the strain of Hindu blood 
softened their fanaticism and mitigated their foreign contempt for the 
natives of India. 

When Shah Jahan grew old and feeble, the Rajput chiefs took their 
full share in the war between his sons for the throne, siding mostly 
with Dara, their kinsman by the mother's side , and Raja Jaswant 
Singh of Jodhpur was defeated with great slaughter in 1658 at Fateh- 
abad, near Ujjain, in attempting to stop Aurangzeb's march upon Agia. 
Aurangzeb employed the Rajputs in distant wars, and their contingents 
did duty at his capital, but he was too bigoted to retain undiminished 
the hold on them acquired by Akbar. Towards the end of his reign 
he made bitter, though unsuccessful, war upon the Sesodias and 
devastated parts of Rajputana ; but he was very roughly handled by 
the united Rathors and Sesodias, and he had thoroughly alienated the 
clans before he died. Thus, whereas up to the reign of Akbar the 
Rajput clans had maintained their political freedom, though within 
territorial limits that were always changing, from the end of the six- 
teenth century we may regard their chiefs as having become feudatories 
or tributanes of the empire ; and, if Aurangzeb's impotent invasion be 
excepted, it may be affirmed that from Akbar's settlement of Rajputana 
up to the middle of the eighteenth century the Rajput clans did all 
their serious warfare under the imperial banner in foreign wars, or in 
the battles between competitors for the throne. 

When Aurangzeb died, they took sides as usual. Shah Alam Baha- 
dur, the son of a Rajput mother, was largely indebted for his success 
to the swords of his kinsmen , and the obligations of allegiance, 
tribute, and military service to the empire were undoubtedly recognized 
as defining the political status of the chief so long as an emperor 
existed who could exact them. After the death of Aurangzeb, the 
Rajputs attempted the formation of an independent league for their 
own defence, m the shape of a triple alliance between the three leading 
clans, the Sesodia, Rathor, and Kachwaha; and this compact was 
renewed when Nadir Shah threw all Northern India into confusion. 
But the treaty contained a stipulation that, in the succession to the 
Rathor and Kachwaha chiefships, the sons of a Sesodia princess should 
have preference over all others ; and this attempt to set aside the rights 
of primogeniture was the fruitful source of disputes which soon split up 
the federation In the rising storm which was to wreck the empire, the 
chiefs of Jodhpur and Jaipur held their own, and indeed increased 
their territories in the general tumult, until the wasting spread of the 
Maratha freebooters brought in a flood of anarchy that threatened 
every political structuie in India. The whole penod of 151 yeais from 



HISTORY 99 

Akbar's accession to Aurangzeb's death was occupied by four long and 
strong reigns, and for a century and a half the Mughal was fairly 
India's master. Then came the ruinous crash of an overgrown cen- 
tralized empire whose spoils were fought over by Afghans, Sikhs, Jats, 
revolted viceroys, and rebellious military adventurers. The two Saiyids 
governed the empire under the name of Farrukh Siyar ; Jodhpur was 
invaded, and the Rathor chief was forced to give a daughter to the 
titular emperor. He leagued with the Saiyids until they were murdered, 
when, in the tumult that followed, he seized Ajmer in 1721. 

About thirty years later, there were disputes regarding the succession 
to the Jodhpur chiefship, and one of the claimants called in the Ma- 
rathas, who got possession of Ajmer about 1756 , and from this time 
Rajputana became involved in the general disorganization of India. 
The primitive constitution of the clans rendered them quite unfit to 
resist the piofessional armies of Marathas and Pathans, and their tribal 
system was giving way, or at best transforming itself into a disjointed 
military feudalism. About this period, a successful leader of the Jat 
tribe took advantage of the dissolution of the imperial government to 
seize territories close to the right bank of the Jumna and to set up 
a dominion. He built fortresses and annexed districts, partly from the 
empire and partly from his Rajput neighbours, and his acquisitions 
were consolidated under his successors until they developed into the 
present Bharatpur State. The Rajput States very nearly went down 
with the sinking empire. The utfer weakness of some of the chiefs 
and the general disorder following the disappearance of a paramount 
authority in India dislocated the tribal sovereignties and encouraged 
the building of strongholds against predatory bands, the rallying of 
parties round petty leaders, and all the general symptoms of civil con- 
fusion. From dismemberment among rival adventurers the States were 
rescued by the appearance of the British on the political stage of 
Northern India. In 1803 all Rajputana, except the remote States in 
the north and north-west, had been virtually brought under by the 
Marathas, who exacted tribute, annexed territory, and extorted sub- 
sidies. Sindhia and Holkar were deliberately exhausting the country, 
lacerating it by ravages or bleeding it scientifically by relentless tax- 
gatherers; while the lands had been desolated by thirty years of in- 
cessant war. 

Under this treatment the whole group of ancient chieftainships was 
verging towards collapse, when Lord Wellesley struck in for the British 
interest. The victories of Generals Lake and Wellesley permanently 
crippled Sindhia's power in Northern India, and forced him to loosen 
his hold on the Rajputana States in the east and north-east, with two l 
of which the British made a treaty of alliance against the Marathas. In 

1 Bharatpur in September and Alwar in November, 1803. 



too RAJPUTANA 

1804 Holkar marched through the heart of Rajputana, attempted the 
fort of Ajmer, and threatened our ally, the Maharaja of Jaipur. 
Colonel Monson went against him and was enticed to follow him 
southward beyond Kotah, when the Marathas suddenly turned on the 
English commander and hunted him back to Agra. Then Holkar was, 
in his turn, driven off by Lord Lake, who smote him blow on blow ; 
but Lake himself failed signally in the dash which he made against the 
fort of Bharatpur, where Holkar had taken refuge under protection of 
the Jat chief, who broke his treaty with the British and openly suc- 
coured their enemy. The fort was afterwards surrendered, a fresh 
treaty being concluded \ and Holkar was pursued across the Sutlej and 
compelled to sign a treaty which stripped him of some of his annexa- 
tions in Raj pu tana. 

Upon Lord Wellesley's departure from India policy changed, and 
the chiefs of Rajputana and Central India were left to take care of 
themselves. The consequence was that the great predatory leaders 
plundered at their ease the States thus abandoned to them, and 
became arrogant and aggressive towards the British power. This 
lasted for about ten years, and Rajputana was desolated during the 
interval ; the roving bands increased and multiplied all over the 
country into Pindari hordes, until in 1814 Amir Khan was living at 
free quarters in the heart of the Rajput States, with a compact army 
estimated at 30,000 horse and foot and a strong force of artillery. He 
had seized some o the finest districts in the east, and he governed 
them with no better civil institution than a marauding and mutinous 
force. The States of Jodhpur and Jaipur had brought themselves to 
the brink of extinction by the famous feud between the two chiefs for 
the hand of a princess of Udaipur, while the plundering Marathas 
and Pathans encouraged and strenuously aided them to ruin each 
other until the dispute was compromised upon the basis of poisoning 
the girl, 

In 1811 Sir Charles Metcalfe, Resident at Delhi, reported that the 
minor chiefs urgently pressed for British intervention, on the ground 
that they had a right to the protection of the paramount power, whose 
obvious business it was to maintain order, but it was not till 1817 that 
the Marquis of Hastings was able to carry into action his plan for 
breaking up the Pindari camps, extinguishing the predatory system, 
and making political arrangements that should effectually prevent its 
revival. Lawless banditti were to be put down ; the general scramble 
for territory was to be ended by recognizing lawful governments once 
for all, and fixing their possessions, and by according to each recog- 
nized State British protection and terntonal guarantee, upon condition 
of acknowledging our right of arbitration and general supremacy in 
external disputes and political relations. Upon this basis overtures for 



HISTORY 101 

negotiations were made to all the Rajput States, and in 1817 the 
British armies took the field against the Pindans. Amir Khan dis- 
banded his troops, and signed a treaty which confirmed him in 
possession of certain districts held in grant, and by which he gave up 
other lands forcibly seized from the Rajputs. His territories, thus 
marked off and made over, constitute the existing State of Tonk. 

Of the Rajput States (excluding Alwar, whose treaty, as already 
mentioned, is dated November, 1803), the first to conclude treaties 
were Karauli (in November) and Kotah (m December, 1817); and by 
the end of 1818 similar engagements had been entered into with all 1 
the other States, with clauses settling the payment of Maratha tributes 
and other financial charges. There was a great restoration of plundered 
districts and rectification of boundaries. Smdhia gave up Ajmer to 
the British, and the pressure of the Maratha powers upon Rajputana 
was permanently withdrawn. 

Since then the political history of Rajputana has been comparatively 
uneventful. In 1825 a serious disturbance over the succession to the 
chiefship of Bharatpur caused great excitement, not only locally, but 
in the surrounding States, some of them even secretly taking sides in 
the quarrel which threatened to spread into war. Accordingly, with 
the object of preserving the public peace, the British Government 
determined to displace a usurper and to maintain the rightful chief ; 
and Bharatpur was stormed and taken by British troops on Jan- 
uary 1 8, 1826. In 1835 the prolonged misgovernment of Jaipur cul- 
minated in serious disturbances which the British Government had to 
compose; and in 1839 a force marched to Jodhpur to put down and 
conciliate the disputes between the chief and his nobles which dis- 
ordered the country. The State of Kotah had been saved from ruin 
and raised to prosperity by Zahm Singh, who, though nominally 
minister, really ruled the country for fifty years ; and the treaty of 1817 
had vested the administration of the State in Zalim Singh and his 
descendants. But this arrangement naturally led to quarrels between 
the latter and the heirs of the titular chief, wherefore in 1838 a part of 
the Kotah territory was marked off as a separate State, under the name 
of Jhalawar, for the direct descendants of Zalim Singh, a Rajput of the 
Jhala clan. On the deposition in 1896 of the late chief of Jhalawar, 
there were found to be no direct descendants of Zalim Singh , and the 
Government of India accordingly decided that part of the territory 
which had been made over in 1838 should be restored to Kotah, and 
that the remaining districts should be formed into a new State for the 
descendants of the family to which Zalim Singh belonged. This dis- 
tribution of territory came into effect in 1899. 

1 Except Sirohi, whose treaty is dated September, 1823 ; and, of course, Jhalawar, 
which did not come into existence till 1838 



102 RAJPUTANA 

When the Mutiny of the Bengal army began in May, 1857, there 
were no European soldiers in Rajputana, except a few invalids recruit- 
ing their health on Mount Abu. Naslrabad was garrisoned by sepoys 
of the Company's forces ; and four local contingents, raised and com- 
manded by British officers but mainly paid from the revenues of 
certain States, were stationed at Deoh, Beawar, Erinpura, and Kher- 
wara. The chiefs of Rajputana were called upon by the Governoi- 
General's Agent (General George Lawience) to preserve peace within 
their borders and collect their musters ; and in June the troops of 
Bharatpur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Alwar were co-operating in the field 
with the endeavours of the British Government to maintain order in 
British Districts and to disperse the mutineers. But these levies, 
however useful as auxiliaries, were not strong enough to take the 
offensive against the regular regiments of the mutineers. Moreover, 
the interior condition of several of the States was critical : their terri- 
tory, where it bordered upon the country which was the focus of the 
Mutiny, was overrun with disbanded soldiers , the fidelity of their own 
mercenary troops was questionable, and their predatory and criminal 
tribes soon began to harass the country-side In this same month 
(May, 1857) the artillery and infantry mutinied at Naslrabad; the 
Kotah Contingent was summoned from Deoli to Agra, where it joined 
the Nlmach mutineers m July , and the Jodhpur Legion at Ennpura 
broke away in August. The Merwara Battalion and the Mewar Bhll 
Corps, recruited for the most part from the indigenous tribes of Mers 
and Bhils respectively, were the only native troops in all Rajputana 
who stood by their British officers. In the important centre of Ajmer, 
General Lawience maintained authority with the aid of a detachment 
of European troops from Deesa, of the Merwara Battalion, and of the 
Jodhpur forces ; but throughout the country at large, from the confines 
of Agra to Sind and Gujarat, the States were left to their own re- 
sources, and their conduct and attitude were generally very good. In 
Jaipur tranquillity was preserved ; the Blkaner chief continued to 
render valuable assistance to British officers in the neighbouring 
Districts of the Punjab, and the central States kept orderly rule. In 
the western part of Jodhpur some trouble was caused by the rebellion 
or contumacy of Thakurs, especially of the Thakur of Awa, who had 
taken into his service a body of the mutinied Jodhpur Legion , but the 
ruling chief continued most loyal Towards the south, the territory of 
Mewar was considerably disturbed by the confusion which followed 
the mutinies at Nlmach, by the continual incursions of rebel parties, 
and by some political mismanagement ; but, on the whole, this tract of 
country remained comparatively quiet, and the Maharana hospitably 
sheltered several European families that had been forced to flee from 
Nlmach. The Haraoti chiefs of Kotah, Bundi, and Jhalavvar kept 



HISTORY 103 

their States in hand, and sent forces which took charge of Nimach for 
some six weeks during the early days when the odds were heaviest 
against the British in Northern India. After the fall of Delhi this 
period of suspense ended ; and the States could afford to look less to 
the question of their own existence in the event of general anarchy, 
and more to the duty of assisting the British detachments. Jaipur at 
once joined heartily in the exeitions of Government to pacify the 
country. In Jodhpur the chief had his hands full of work with his 
own unruly feudatories, and the British assisted him in reducing them, 
In Kotah the troops were profoundly disaffected and beyond the 
control of the chief , they murdered the Political Agent and broke into 
open revolt. The adjoining chief of Bundi gave piactically no aid, 
partly through clannish and political jealousies of Kotah ; but the 
Mahaiaja of Karauli, who greatly distinguished himself by his active 
adherence to the British side throughout 1857, sent troops to the aid 
of his relative, the Kotah chief, when he was besieged in his own fort 
by his mutineers, and held the town until it was taken by assault by 
a British force in March, 1858, an event that marked the extinction of 
armed rebellion in Rajputana. 

The year 1862 was notable for the giant to every ruling chief in the 
Province of a sanad guaranteeing to him (and his successors) the right 
of adoption m the event of failure of natural heirs , and this was 
followed by a series of treaties or agreements relating to the mutual 
extradition of persons charged with heinous offences, and providing for 
the suppression of the manufacture of salt and the abolition of the levy 
of all transit-duty on that commodity. During the last forty years 
great progress has been made. The country has been opened out by 
railways and roads, and life and property are more secure. Regular 
courts of justice, schools, colleges, hospitals, and well-managed jails 
have been established , the system of land revenue administration has 
been improved, petty and vexatious cesses have been generally abor 
lished, and, m several States, regular settlements, on the lines of those 
in British India, have been introduced. 

Rajputana abounds in objects of antiquarian interest, but hitherto 
very little has been done to survey, describe, or preserve these links 
with the past. 

The earliest remains are the rock-inscriptions of the great Mauryan 
king, Asoka, discovered at BAIRAT in Jaipur ; the ruins of some 
Buddhist monasteries at the same place ; and two stufas and a frag- 
mentary inscription of the third century B. c. at Negari near CHITOR. 
At Kholvi in the Jhalawar State is a series of rock-cut temples, interest- 
ing as being probably the most modern group of Buddhist caves in 
India ; they are believed to date from A. D. 700 to 900. 

Of Jain structures, the most famous are the two well-known temples 



io 4 RAJPUTANA 

at^Delwara near ABU, of the eleventh and thirteenth century respec- 
tively, and the Kirtti Stambh, or ' tower of fame,' of about the same 
age at CHITOR, which have just been repaired under the general direc- 
tion of the Government of India. The oldest Jam temples are, how- 
ever, those near Sohagpura in Partabgarh, at Kalinjara in Banswara, 
and at one or two places in Jaisalmer and Sirohi, while remains exist 
at Ahar near Udaipur, and at Rajgarh and Paranagar in Alwar. 

Among the earliest specimens of Hindu architecture must be men- 
tioned the stone pillar at BAYANA with an inscription dated A. D. 372 ; 
the remains of the chaorl or hall at MUKANDWARA, of the fifth century , 
and the ruined temples at Chandravati near JHALRAPATAN, of the 
seventh century. Noteworthy examples of military architecture are the 
forts of Chitor and Kumbhalgarh in Udaipur ; Ranthambhor in Jaipur ; 
Jalor and Jodhpur in Mar war ; Birsilpur in Jaisalmer, said to have 
been built in the second century ; Vasantgarh in Sirohi , Bijaigarh in 
Bharatpur ; Tahangarh in Karauh ; and Gagraun in Kotah. The 
most exquisitely carved temples are to be found in the Udaipur State 
at Barolli and at Nagda near the capital, the former of the ninth or 
tenth, and the latter of the eleventh century. Another celebrated 
building is the Jai Stambh or ' tower of victory ' at Chitor, built in the 
middle of the fifteenth century. 

The Muhammadans have left a few memorials in the shape of 
mosques and tombs, chiefly in Jodhpur and Alwar; but they are of 
little interest. The earliest appears to be a mosque at Jalor, attributed 
to Ala-ud-dm Khilji. 

Rajputana is made up of eighteen States and two chiefships, and the 
population at each of the three enumerations was : (1881) 10,100,542, 

Population ^ l89 ^ I2 > 220 >343> and (1901) 9,723,301. In- 
cluded in the figures for 1891 and 1901 are the 
inhabitants L of small tracts belonging to the Central India chiefs of 
Gwalior and Indore, but geographically situated in Mewar ; white, on 
the other hand, the population J of Tonk's three districts in Central 
India has been excluded throughout. Further, it is necessary to men- 
tion that the Census of 1901 was the first complete one ever taken in 
the Province At the two earlier enumerations the Girasias of the 
Bhakar, a wild tract in Siiohi, and the Bhils of Mewar, Banswara, and 
Dungarpur were not regularly counted, but their number was roughly 
estimated from information given by the illiterate headmen of their 
villages ; and these estimates have been included in the figures for 
1 88 r and 1891. In some cases the headman gave what he believed to 
be the number of huts in his village (when four persons, two of each 
sex, were allowed to each hut), while at other times he made a guess 

1 18,118 m 1891 and 11,407 in 1901. 

3 167,850 in 1881 ; 181,135 in 1891 ; and 129,871 in 1901, 



^ 105 



POPULATION 

at the total population, and his figures were duly entered. This 
was rendered necessary by the extreme aversion displayed by these shy 
and timid tribes to the counting of men and houses. The wildest 
stories were in circulation as to the objects of the Census, Some 
of the Bhlls thought that the Government of India were in search of 
young men for employment in a foreign war, or that the idea was to 
raise new taxes ; while, in 1891, others feared that they were going to 
be seized and thrown as a propitiatory sacrifice into a large artificial 
lake then being constructed at Udaipur. 

Consequently, the Bhlls and Girasias were left unenumerated, and 
the census figures for 1881 and 1891 must be considered as only 
approximate. But, such as they are, they show an increase in popula- 
tion during that decade of nearly 2 1 per cent., compared with about 
9 per cent, for the whole of India; while between 1891 and 1901 there 
was a decrease of nearly 2^ million inhabitants, or about 20 per cent. 
The decade preceding the Census of 1891 was one of prosperity and 
steady growth, but the apparent increase in population was probably 
due, to some extent, to improved methods of enumeration. Between 
1891 and 1901 the country suffeied from a succession of seasons of 
deficient or ill-distributed rainfall , and though it did not perhaps lose 
as heavily as the census figures suggest, the loss was undoubtedly very 
great, and the main cause was the disastrous famine of 1899-1900 and 
its indirect results, lower birth-rate and increased emigration. Fever 
epidemics broke out in 1892, 1899, and 1900, the most virulent of all 
being that following the heavy rainfall of August and September, 1900, 
which was aided in its ravages by the impaired vitality of the people. 
Vital statistics scarcely exist; but the general consensus of opinion 
appears to be that the mortality from fever between August, 1900, and 
February, 1901, exceeded that caused by want of food in the period 
during which famine conditions prevailed. A reference to the last column 
of the table on the next page will show that the only States in which 
an increase in population occurred were Alwar and Karauli, and that 
the decrease was greatest in Bundi, Dungarpur, Jaisalmer, Jhalawar, 
Partabgarh, and Udaipur, and least in Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Jaipur. 
Alwar has benefited for some years by a careful and wise administration, 
and the famine was less severely felt there and in the three eastern 
States (Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli) than in other parts of 
Rajputana. In considering the figures for Dungarpur and Udaipur, 
it should be borne in mind that the population in 1891 included 
a large estimated (probably over-estimated) number of Bhlls \ but at 
the same time there is no doubt that both States lost very heavily in 
the famine. The figures for Jhalawar require a word of explanation. 
As mentioned above, this State was remodelled in 1899, and when the 
Census of 1901 had been taken, an attempt was made to work out 



io6 



RAJPUTANA 
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION IN 1901 



Name ol State or chiefship 


Area in 
square 
miles 


Number of 


Total 
population 


Number of persons 
per square mile 


Is- 

Ov 
> rt en i 


V) 

1 


1 

J5 

> 


Percentage of 
tion in popul 
between i 
and i go 


Udaipur * 
Banswara 
Dungarpur . 
Partabgarh 

Total, Mewar Residency 

Jodhpur 
Jaisalmer 
Sirohi . 

Total, Western States 
Residency . 

Jaipur .... 
Kishangarh , 
Lawa .... 

Total, Jaipur Residency 

Bundi 
Tonkf. 
Shahpura 

Total, Haraoti-Tonk 
Agency 

Bharatpur 
Dholpur 
Karauh 

Total, Eastern States 
Agency . 

Kotah .... 

Jhalawar 

Total, Kotah -Jhalawar 
Agency . 

Bikaner . . - . 
Alwar .... 

Grand total . 


12,753 
1,946 

i,447 
886 


H 
i 
i 
i 


6,069 
1,286 

631 

412 


1,030,212 

165*35 
100,103 

5 2 ,025 


8l 

85 
69 

59 


-447 

-21-8 

-39'5 
-40-9 


17,032 


i7 


8,398 


1,347,690 


79 


-42.1 


34>963 
16,062 
1,964 


27 

i 
5 


4i3 
47* 
408 


1,935.565 
73,370 
!54544 


55 t 
4^ 
79 


-23.4 
-36.6 
-19 


52,989 


33 


4,909 


2,163,479 


41 


-236 


15.579 

858 
IQ 


38 
3 


5.735 
218 
6 


2,658,666 
90,970 
2,671 


17 < 
106 

M- 1 


- 59 

-27-5 
-20.5 


16,456 


41 


5,959 


2,752,307 


167 


- 67 


2,220 
1,114 

405 


2 
2 

I 


817 
542 
132 


171,227 
H3.330 
42,676 


77 
129 
105 


-42-1 
-28 
-329 


3,739 


5 


1,491 


357,233 


95 


-36 


1,982 

M55 
1,242 


7 
3 
i 


1,295 
540 
436 


626,665 
270,973 
156,786 


3i6 

235 
126 


2-1 
- 32 
+ 01 


4,379 


ii 


2,271 


1,054,424 


241 


2-1 


5,684 
810 


4 

2 


2,609 
408 


544,879 
90,175 


96 
in 


-2 4 .2 
-403 


6,494 


6 


3,oi7 


635,054 


98 


26.9 


233" 
3,141 


9 

7 


2,101 

',755 


584,627 

828,487 


3 5 
264 


-297 

+ 79 


127,541 


128 


29,901 


9,723,301 


76 


20 



to Central India 



square m " e '- 



t Rajputana districts only 

t Th!S is the area of the several States and chiefships in 1901, excludme- about 
210 square miles of disputed lands 

The town of Sambhar is under the joint jurisdiction of Jaipur and Jodhpur, and 
has been counted only once in the grand total. 



POPULATION 107 

from the old census papers the population in 1891. This was reported 
to be 151,097, which meant a loss during the succeeding ten years 
of 40 per cent, of the people \ but some mistake appears to have been 
made in the calculation, for it is difficult to believe that the State, 
which was under British management from 1896 to 1899, and in 
which the famine was not severely felt, while the relief measures and 
administration generally were satisfactory, lost so heavily. 

The 128 towns contained 288,696 occupied houses and 1,410,192 
inhabitants, or nearly 5 persons per house ; and the urban population 
was thus 14-5 per cent, of the total, compared with 10 per cent, for 
India as a whole. The principal towns are the cities of JAIPUR (popu- 
lation, 160,167), the sixteenth largest in India; JODHPUR (79,109); 
ALWAR (56,771); BIKANER (53,075); UDAIPUR (45,976); BHARATPUR 
(43,601) ; TONK (38,759); and KOTAH (33,657), all capitals of States 
and all (except Udaipur) municipalities. 

The rural population numbered 8,313,109, distributed in 29,901 
villages containing 1,622,787 occupied houses, thus giving about 
54 houses per village and slightly more than 5 persons per house. 
The average population of a village is 278, varying from 335 in the 
western States, where scarcity of water and insecurity of life have 
compelled people to gather together in certain localities, to 153 in the 
southern States, which contain a large Bhll population living in small 
hamlets scattered over an extensive area of wild country. These Bhll 
hamlets are called pals, and consist of a number of huts built on 
separate hillocks at some distance from each other; elsewhere the 
villages are usually compact collections of buildings. 

Rajputana supports, on an average, 76 persons per square mile : 
namely, 35 in the sandy plains of the west, 79 in the more fertile but 
broken and forest-clad country of the south, and 165 in the eastern 
division, which is watered by several rivers and has a fair rainfall and 
a good soil. The most densely populated State is Bharatpur, bordering 
on the Jumna, with 316 persons per square mile; and the lowest 
density (in all India), 4-| per square mile, is recorded in the almost 
rainless regions of Jaisalmer. Within the States, the density in the 
several districts varies considerably; thus in Jodhpur, it is TOO per 
square mile in the north-east, and 10 in the west ; in Jaipur, 332 in 
the north-east, and 92 in the south-west; and in Alwar, 430 m the 
east, and 166 in the south-west. Throughout Rajputana the relation 
between rainfall and population seems to be singularly close. 

Of the total population in 1901, 97*6 per cent, had been born in 
Rajputana, and immigrants from other parts of India (chiefly the 
Punjab, the United Provinces, Central India, Ajmer-Merwara, and 
the Bombay Presidency) numbered 233,718. On the other hand, the 
number of persons born in Rajputana but enumerated elsewhere in 

VOL. XXI. H 



io8 RAJPUTANA 

India was 900,224, so that, in this interchange of population, there 
was a net loss to Rajputana of 666,506 persons. But m the western 
States emigration is an annual event, whatever be the nature of the 
season, as there is practically but one harvest, the khanf, and as soon 
as it is gathered in September or October large numbers of people 
leave every year to find employment in Smd, Bahawalpur, and else- 
where, usually returning shortly before the rains are expected to break 
Moreover, the recent famine caused more than the usual amount of 
emigration. Lastly, the traders known as Marwans, who were born 
in Rajputana and have their homes and families theie, play an 
important part m the commerce of India ; and there is hardly a town 
where the * thrifty denizen of the sands of Western and Northern Raj- 
putana has not found his way to fortune, from the petty grocer's shop 
in a Deccan village to the most extensive banking and broking con- 
nexion in the commercial capitals of both east and west India. 5 

No vital statistics are recorded for Rajputana as a whole ; but the 
registration of births and deaths was, in 1904, attempted m ten entire 
States and one chiefship, having a total area of 53,178 square miles 
and a population of 3> 5 I >555, and at the capitals of six other States 
and two small towns which together contain 330,660 inhabitants. 
The mortality statistics are believed to be more accurate than those 
of births, but, except perhaps in some of the larger towns, both sets 
of figures are unreliable. 

The principal diseases treated in the hospitals are malarial affections, 
ulcers and abscesses, diseases of the skin or eye, respiratory and 
rheumatic affections, diseases of the ear, and diarrhoea and dysentery. 
Malarial and splenic affections account for more than 18 per cent 
of the cases, and the variations in the different States or divisions are 
hardly worth noting, though perhaps the large proportion in the dry 
climate of Blkaner and the smaller m the more moist eastern States 
are rather contrary to the general opinion. Ulcers and abscesses 
account for nearly 12 per cent., and seem most prevalent in the centre 
and east, while diseases of the skin (also about 12 per cent.) are 
especially frequent in the western States, possibly owing to the want 
of water for cleansing purposes. Diseases of the eye are admitted 
in largest numbers in the centre, east, and south, while respiratory 
affections are less frequent in the west than elsewhere. Cholera and 
small-pox visitations occur periodically ; but as regards the latter, the 
effects of vaccination are everywhere becoming apparent, and those 
who most oppose the operation are not unfrequently convinced, when 
too late, by the fate of their own children and the escape of those 
of their neighbours, of their error in neglecting vaccination. 

Plague is believed to have made its first appearance m Rajputana 
in 1836. It broke out with great virulence at Pali, a town of Jodhpur, 



POPULATION 109 

about the middle of July, and extended thence to Jodhpur city, Sojat, 
and several other places in Marwai, as well as to a few villages in the 
Udaipur State; and it appears to have finally disappeared at the 
beginning of the hot season of 1837. The fact that the disease first 
started among the cloth-stampers of Pah led to the supposition that 
it was imported m silks from China. An interesting account of the 
outbreak, and of the measures taken to combat it and prevent its 
spread, will be found at pp. 148-69 of the General Medical History of 
Rajftttana^. The present epidemic started in Bombay in 1896, but, 
excluding a few cases discovered at railway stations, did not extend 
to Rajputana till November, 1897, when it appeared in five villages 
of Sirohi and lasted till Apnl, 1898. Between October, 1896, and the 
end of March, 1905, there have been 37,845 seizures and 31,980 
deaths in Rajputana. No cases have been reported from Bundi, 
Dfmgarpur, Jaisalmer, and Lawa, while Kishangarh shows but one 
and Blkaner three. Two-thirds of the deaths have occurred in Alwar, 
Jaipur, and Mewar, but the percentage of deaths to total population 
is highest in Partabgarh and Shahpura. 

Of the total population in 1901, more than 52 per cent, were males, 
or, put in another way, for every 1,000 males there were 905 females, 
compared with 963 for the whole of India; and in each of the four 
mam religions this excess of males was observable, except among the 
Jams, where females slightly predominated. Various theories have 
been advanced to explain the difference m the proportion of the sexes 
but there is no reason to believe that it is due, at any rate to any 
appreciable extent, to female infanticide, though this practice was once 
very prevalent in Rajputana. An examination of the census statistics 
shows that between the ages of one and two there were more female 
than male infants, even among the Hindus, and that females exceeded 
males among the Musalmans up to the age of four, and among the 
Jains and Animists up to five. 

Dealing next with the population according to civil condition, it is 
found that 48 per cent, of the males were unmarried, 43 married, and 
9 widowed, and that the similar figures for females were 30, 50, and 
20 respectively. The relatively low proportion of spinsters and the 
high proportion of widows are results of the custom which enforces 
the early marriage of girls and discourages the remarriage of widows. 

Infant marriages still prevail to some extent, but are less common 

than they used to be, and this is largely attributable to the efforts 

of the Walterkrit Rajputra Hitkarmi Sabha. This committee is named 

after the late Colonel Walter, who was the Governor-General's Agent 

in Rajputana in 1888. On previous occasions attempts had been 

made to settle the question of marriage expenses with a view to 

1 By Colonel T. H. Hendley, I.M.S. (Calcutta, 1900). 

H 2 



TTO RAJPUTANA 

suppress infanticide among the Rajputs, but they failed because no 
uniform rule was ever adopted for the whole country. In 1888 
Colonel Walter convened a general meeting of representatives of 
almost all the States to check these expenses, The co-operation of 
the chiefs having been previously secured, the committee had no great 
difficulty in drawing up a set of rules for the regulation of marriage 
and funeral expenses, the ages at which marriages should be contracted, 
and other cognate matters. These rules, which were passed unani- 
mously and widely distributed in the various States, where local com- 
mittees of influential officials were appointed by the Darbars to see 
to their proper observance, laid down the maximum proportion of 
a man's income that might be expended on (a) his own or his eldest 
son's marriage, and (ft) that of other relatives, together with the size 
of the wedding party and the tydg or largess to Charans, Bhats, 
Dholis, and others. It was also laid down that no expenditure should 
be incurred on betrothals, and the minimum age at marriage was fixed 
at 1 8 for a boy and 14 for a girl. It was subsequently ruled that no 
girl should remain unmarried after the age of 20, and that no second 
marriage should take place during the lifetime of the first wife, unless 
she had no offspring or was afflicted with an incurable disease. These 
rules apply primarily to Rajputs and Charans, but have been adopted 
by several other castes. The Walterkrit Sabha meets annually at 
Ajmer m the spring, when the reports of the local committees are 
discussed, the year's work examined, and a printed report is published. 
That for 1905 shows that, in that year, of 4,418 Rajput and Charan 
marriages reported, the age limits were infringed in only 87 cases and 
the rule as to expenditure in only 54 cases. 

Widow marriage is permitted by all castes except Brahmans, Rajputs, 
Khattris, Charans, Kayasths, and some of the Mahajan classes. As 
a rule no Brahmans or priests officiate, and the ceremonies are for the 
most part restricted to the new husband giving the woman bracelets 
and clothes and taking her into his house. The custody of the 
children by the first marriage remains with the deceased husband's 
family, and the widow forfeits all share in the latter's estate. Among 
many of the lower castes (for example, the Bhils and Chamars) the 
widow is expected to marry her late husband's younger brother ; and 
if she is unwilling to do so, and marries some other man, the latter 
has to pay compensation to the younger brother. 

The rules which in theory govern the custom of polygamy are well 
known; but in practice, except among the wealthy sections of the 
community and the Bhil tribes, a second wife is rarely taken unless 
the first is barren or bears only female children, or suffers from some 
incurable disease. The custom just referred to, by which the widow 
contracts a second marriage with her deceased husband's younger 



POPULATION in 

brother, leads in many cases to a man having more than one wife, and 
the Brills usually have two wives. At the Census of 1901 there were 
in Rajputana, among all religions taken together, 1,046 wives to every 
1,000 husbands ; and the statistics show that polygamy is far more 
common among the Jains, Hindus, and Ammists than among the 
Musalmans, and that it is most prevalent in the western States. On 
the other hand, there must have been many married men who were 
temporarily absent from their homes and had left their wives behind 
them. 

The principal language is Rajasthani, which is spoken by no less 
than 7,035,093 persons, or more than 72 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion. Omitting minor local differences, there are at least sixteen real 
dialects, which fall into four main groups ; namely, Marwari, Jaipur!, 
Mewati, and MalwL By far the most important is Marwari, which 
has its home in Western Rajputana, is spoken by 4,276,514 inhabitants, 
and has representatives all over India. It has many varieties, of which 
the best known are the Thall of the desert, the Mewari of Udaipur 
State, the BagrI of north-east Bikanei, and the Shekhawati of north- 
west Jaipur. Jaipurl may be taken as representing the dialects of 
Eastern and South-Eastern Rajputana, of which it and Haraoti are 
the chief; it is spoken by 2,118,767 of the inhabitants. Mewati (or 
Bighota) is the dialect of Rajasthani which most nearly approaches 
Western Hindi, and m Alwar merges into Braj Bhasha; it is the 
language of 478,756 persons, living almost entirely m Alwar and 
Bharatpur, the country of the Meos. The head-quarters of Malwl are 
in the Malwa country, and it is spoken by over 160,000 persons, chiefly 
in Jhalawar, Kotah, and Partabgarh. When mixed with Marwari forms, 
it is called Rangri and is spoken by Rajputs. Among other languages 
common in Rajputana are two dialects of Western Hindi, namely Braj 
Bhasha and Hindustani (i.e. Urdu), and there are, of course, several 
Bhil dialects m the south, all based on GujaratI, but forming a con- 
necting link between it and Rajasthani. 

Among castes and tribes, the most numerous are the Brahmans, 
Jats, Mahajans, Chamars, Rajputs, Minas, Gujars, Bhlls, Malis, and 
Balais. 

The Brahmans number 1,012,396 or 10-4 per cent, of the popula- 
tion. They are found everywhere, but are proportionately strongest 
in Jaipur (over 13 per cent.), Karauh, Dholpur, and Bikaner. Their 
principal divisions are Daima, Gaur, Kanaujia, Pahwal, Purohit, Push- 
karna, Saraswat (Sarsut), and Srimal \ and their chief occupations are 
priestly duties, trade, State or private service, and agriculture. Many 
of them hold Ian4 rent free. 

The Jats (845,909, or 8-7 per cent, of the population) were very 
widely established all over North-Western Rajputana when the now 



ii2 RAJPUTANA 

dominant clans began to rule in those parts, and without doubt this 
tract was one of their most ancient habitations. At the present time 
they outnumber every other caste in Bikaner, Kishangarh, and Jodhpur, 
and they are regarded as the best cultivators in the country. Socially, 
they stand at the head of the widow-marrying castes, and in Bharatpur 
and Dholpur they are politically important, as the chiefs of those 
States are Jats. In Blkanei the headman of the Godara sept has 
the privilege of making the ttlak or mark of inauguration on the fore- 
head of each new chief of that State, in accordance with a promise 
made by Rao Bika when he took parts of the country from them in 
the fifteenth century. 

The Mahajans or Banias (754,317, or 7-8 per cent, of the population) 
are for the most part traders and bankers, some having business con- 
nexions all over India, while not a few are in State service. They 
are distributed throughout the country, but are proportionately most 
numerous in Sirohi, where they form 12-2 per cent, of the population, 
and Partabgarh (about ir per cent.). The principal caste units are 
Agarwal, Oswal, MahesrI, Khandelwal, Saraogi, and Porwal. 

The Chamars number 688,023, or 7 per cent, of the population , 
they are curriers, tanners, day-labourers, and village menials, and many 
are agriculturists. Their name is derived from the Sanskrit charma- 
Mra : a 'worker in leather,' and they claim a Brahmamcal origin. 
The story runs that five Brahman brothers were cooking their food on 
the roadside, when a cow came and died close to the spot. After 
some discussion, the youngest brother offered to remove the carcass, 
and when he had done so his brethren excommunicated him; and 
since then it has been the business of his descendants to remove the 
carcasses of cattle The Chamars are more numerous than any other 
caste in the States of Bharatpur, Dholpur, Kotah, and Tonk. In 
BIKANER a member of this caste founded a sect about 1830 which 
is called after him, Lalgir, and numbers high-caste men among its 
adherents ; a brief account will be found in the article on that State. 

The Rajputs numbei 620,229, or 6-4 per cent, of the population. 
According to tradition there are two branches of this tribe, the Suraj- 
bansi or Solar race, and the Chandrabansi or Lunar race. To these 
must be added the Agmkula or Fire group Surajbansi Rajputs claim 
descent from Ikshwaku, son of the Manu Vaivaswat, who was the son 
of Vaivaswat, the sun. Ikshwaku is said to have been bom from the 
nostril of the Manu as he happened to sneeze. The principal clans 
of the Solar group are the Sesodia, Rathor, and Kachwaha, of which 
the chiefs of Udaipur, Jodhpur, and Jaipur are the respective heads. 

The Lunar race affect to be descended from the moon, to whom 
they trace their line through Budha or Mercury, the son of Soma. 
The principal clans are the Jadon and its branch, the Bhati, represented 



POPULATION 113 

by the chiefs of Karauli and Jaisalmer respectively , the Tonwar, which 
once ruled in Delhi ; and the Jadeja, to which the rulers of Cutch and 
Navanagar in the Bombay Presidency belong. 

The Agnikulas or Fire tribes are supposed to have been brought 
into existence by a special act of creation of comparatively recent 
mythological date. The earth was overrun by demons, the sacred 
books were held m contempt, and there was none on whom the devout 
could call for help in their troubles. Viswamitra, once a Kshattriya, 
who had raised himself to be a Brahman, moved the gods to assemble 
on Abu ; four images of dubh grass were thrown into the fire fountain, 
and called into life by appropriate incantations. From these sprang 
the four clans : the Paramara or Ponwar, the Chaluk or Solanki, the 
Parihar, and the Chauhan. The chiefs of Bundi, Kotah, and Sirohi 
belong to the last named. 

Of the various Rajput clans enumerated in 1901, the Rathor stood 
first with 1 2 2, 1 60 , the Kachwaha second with ioo,i86 ; and the 
Chauhan third with 86,460. Then followed the Jadon clan (74,666), 
the Sesodia (51,366), the Ponwar (43,435), the Solanki (18,949), and 
the Parihar (9,448), The Rajputs are, of course, the aristocracy of 
the country, and as such hold the land to a very large extent, either 
as receivers of rent or as cultivators. By reason of their position as 
integral families of pure descent, as a landed nobility, and as the 
kinsmen of ruling chiefs, they are also the aristocracy of India ; and 
their social piestige may be measured by observing that there is hardly 
a tribe or clan (as distinguished from a caste) in all India which does 
not claim descent from, or irregular connexion with, one of these 
Rajput stocks, The Rajput proper is very proud of his warlike reputa- 
tion, and most punctilious on points of etiquette. The tradition of 
common ancestry has preserved among them the feeling which permits 
a poor Rajput yeoman to hold himself as good a gentleman as the 
most powerful landowner of his own clan, and superior to any high 
official of the professional classes But, as a race, they are inclined to 
live too much on the past and to consider any occupation other than 
that of arms or government as derogatory to their dignity; and the 
result is that those who do not hold land have rather dropped behind 
in the modern struggle for existence, where book-learning counts for 
more than strength of arm. As cultivators, they are lazy and indiffer- 
ent, and prefer pastoral to agricultural pursuits; they look upon all 
manual labour as humiliating, and none but the poorest classes will 
themselves follow the plough. Excluding the 34,445 who are Musal- 
mans (mostly in the western States), the Rajputs are orthodox Hindus, 
and worship the divinities favoured by the sect to which they happen 
to belong. Their marriage customs are strictly exogamous, a marriage 
within the clan being regarded as incestuous, and in this way each 



H4 RAJPUTANA 

clan depends on others for its wives. But running through the entire 
series of septs are to be found the usages of isogamy and hypergamy, 
which exercise a profound influence on their society. The men of 
the higher sept can take their wives from a lower, but a corresponding 
privilege is denied to the women ; the result is a surplus of women in 
the higher septs, and competition for husbands sets in, leading to the 
payment of a high price for bridegrooms, and enormously increasing 
the expense of getting a daughter married, It was partly to remedy 
this state of affairs that the Walterkrit Sabha, already mentioned, was 
started. 

The Mmas number 477,129, or nearly 5 per cent, of the population, 
being proportionately strongest in Karauli and Bundi. There are 
numerous clans, of which one (the Osara) contains the asll or unmixed 
stock, but has very few members ; the others are of mixed blood, 
claiming irregular descent from Rajputs, Brahmans, Gujars, &c. The 
Mmas are among the earliest inhabitants of Rajputana, and were 
formerly the rulers of much of the country now called Jaipur. They 
were dispossessed by the Kachwaha Rajputs about the beginning of 
the twelfth century, and for some time after it was the custom for one 
of their number to mark the tlka on the forehead of each new chief of 
Amber. In Jaipur and Alwar they are divided into two mam classes, 
namely zamlndari and chaiikidart^ which do not intermarry. The 
former are steady and well-behaved cultivators (and are found also in 
the three eastern States, Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli), while the 
latter were, and to some extent still are, famous as marauders. In 
Bundi State and in the rugged country round Jahazpur and Deoli, 
which is called the Kherar and belongs to Bundi, Jaipur, and Udaipur, 
are found the Parihar Mlnas, who claim descent from the Parihar 
Rajputs of Mandor. They are a fine athletic race, formerly notorious 
as savage and daring robbers , but they have settled down to a great 
extent, and the infantry portion of the 42nd (Deoli) Regiment (or the 
Mina Battalion, as it was called from 1857 to 1860) has for many years 
been largely composed of them. Nearly 97 per cent, of the Mmas of 
Rajputana are Hindus , but among them, m the south and south-east 
of Jodhpur, is a sept called Dhedia which, though large in numbers, is 
low in social standing, chiefly because its members eat the flesh of 
cows. 

The Gujars (462,739) are mostly cattle breeders and dealers and 
agriculturists. They are a stalwart race, very similar to the Jats, with 
whom they can eat and drink, although they occupy a slightly lower 
social position. They were formerly noted cattle-lifters in Dholpur 
and Karauli, but now give little trouble. There are two main endoga- 
mous divisions of Gujars, namely Laur and Khan ; and in Bharatpur 
the former has the privilege of furnishing nurses for the ruling family. 



POPULATION 115 

The BHILS are described in a separate article. In 1901 they num- 
bered 339,786, or about 3-! per cent, of the total population, They 
are found in every State except Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Karauli, 
and the petty chiefship of Lawa, but are most numerous m their early 
home in the south. 

An account of the Meos will be found in the article on MEW AT. In 
1901 the tribe numbered 168,596, nearly 98 per cent, of whom were in 
Alwar and Bharatpur. 

Taking the population by religions, Hindus in 1901 numbered 
8,089,513, or more than 83 per cent. ; Musalmans, 924,656, or 9^ 
per cent. ; Animists, 360,543, or about 3! per cent. ; Jains, 342,595, or 
3^ per cent. ; Christians, 2,840 ; and ' others ' (such as Sikhs, Aryas, 
Parsis, Brahmos, and Jews), 3,154. 

Hindus predominate in every State except Banswaia. In Karauli 
they form nearly 94 per cent, of the population, and in Dholpur, 
Bundi, Jaipur, and Shahpura over 90. The lowest proportions are 
found in the south, namely: Partabgarh (61), Dungarpur (56), and 
Banswara (under 31 per cent.). No attempt was made at the last 
Census to record the numerous sects of Hindus, but an account of the 
Dadupanthis will be found m the article on NARAINA, a town in Jaipur 
State which is their head-quarters. 

Of the Musalmans, over 97 per cent, belong to the Sunni sect, more 
than 2 to the Shiah, and the rest (4,735 persons) to the Wahhabi sect. 
Those of indigenous origin still retain their ancient Hindu customs and 
ideas. The local saints and deities are regularly worshipped, the 
Brahman officiates at all family ceremonials side by side with the 
Musalman priest, and if m matters of creed they are Muhammadans in 
matters of form they are Hindus 

The Animists are found in eleven States, and are mostly Bhils and 
Girasias residing in the wild tracts in the south. They share the usual 
belief that man is surrounded by a ghostly company of powers, ele- 
ments, and tendencies, some of whom dwell m trees, rivers, or rocks, 
while others preside over cholera, small-pox, or cattle diseases, and 
all require to be diligently propitiated by means of offerings and 
ceremonies, in which magic and witchcraft play an important part. 

The main Jam sects are the ancient divisions of the Digambara, 
whose images are unclothed, whose ascetics go naked, and who assert 
that women cannot attain salvation , and the Swetambara, who hold 
the opposite view regarding women, and whose images are clothed in 
white. An offshoot from the latter, known as Dhundia, carnes to 
an extreme the doctrine of the preservation of animal life, and worships 
gurus instead of idols In 1901 more than 32 per cent, of the Jains 
returned their sect as Digambara, 45 as Swetambara, and the rest as 
Dhundia. 



n6 RAJPUTANA 

The Christians (2,840) are made up of 969 Europeans and allied 
races, 503 Eurasians, and 1,368 natives. They have increased by 
53 per cent, since 1891, namely by 21 per cent, among Europeans 
and Eurasians, and more than 1 1 1 per cent, among the natives. The 
latter figure is due chiefly to missionary enterprise, which received 
a great impetus during the famine of 1899-1900, when the various 
societies opened refuges for orphans and other destitute persons. Of 
the 1,368 native Christians enumerated in 1901, 40 per cent, were 
Presbyterians, 20 per cent. Roman Catholics, a further 20 per cent. 
Methodists, and 10 per cent belonged to the Church of England. 
The largest Christian community is to be found m Jaipur, where the 
United Free Church of Scotland Mission has had a branch since 1866, 
and where there are important railway centres at Bandikui and Phalera. 
Next comes Sirohi with its railway population at Abu Road, and a 
number of Europeans at Mount Abu ; and then, m order, follow 
Kotah, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Alwar, Bharatpur, and Bikaner. The Scot- 
tish mission above mentioned has had branches at the city of Udaipur 
since 1877, at Alwar since 1880, at Jodhpur since 1885, and at Kotah 
since 1889, while the Church Missionary Society has been represented 
at the cantonment of Kherwara since i88i,and at Bharatpur since 1902. 

With the exception of Sirohi State, Rajputana is included m the 
Anglican see of the Bishop of Nagpur, and in the Roman Catholic 
Prefecture of Rajputana, which was established in 1891 and is ad- 
ministered by the Capuchin Fathers of Pans, the Prefect Apostolic 
having his head-quarters at Agia, Sirohi State forms part of the 
Anglican diocese, and of the Roman Catholic archdiocese, of Bombay. 

More than 56 per cent, of the total population m 1901 returned 
some foim of agriculture as their principal means of. subsistence ; more 
than 51 per cent, were either landlords or tenants, nearly 5 per cent, 
were field-labourers, and 0-2 per cent, were growers of special products, 
rent collectors, &c. In addition to these, about 223,000 persons (or 
a further 2 J per cent ), who mentioned some other employment as the 
chief source of their livelihood, were also partially agncultunsts ; and 
5^ per cent more, who were shown under the head of general 
labourers, were doubtless to some extent supported by work in the 
fields In Dholpur over 74 per cent., and in Bikaner 71 per cent., 
of the population are entirely dependent on agriculture, while the 
lowest ratios (32 and 33 per cent) are found in Sirohi and Lawa. 
More than 18 per cent, of the total population, including dependents, 
are maintained by the preparation and supply of material substances ; 
and of these, rather less than one-third find a livelihood by the pro- 
vision of food and drink, nearly one-fourth by working and dealing 
in textile fabiics and dress, while about one-eighth are engaged in the 
leather industry. Personal and domestic services provide employment 



POPULATION ni 

for about 4| per cent , and commeice for i\ pei cent, of the popu- 
lation. 

The majority of the people have three meals a day namely, the first 
in the early morning before going to work, the second at midday, and 
the third any time after sunset. The morning meal consists either of 
the remains of the previous evening's chapatis^ or of a kind of porridge 
(rabri) of the flour of maize, bdjra^ or jowar, coarsely pounded and 
boiled overnight in diluted buttermilk. The midday and evening 
meals usually consist of chapdtis, pulse, and vegetables, washed down 
with milk or water. The chapatis or unleavened cakes are made of 
wheat, barley, maize, bajra, or jowdr^ according to the means of the 
consumer. A favourite dish of the more substantial farmers in the 
north and west is pounded bdjra mixed with moth in the proportion of 
four to one, boiled in water, and improved by the addition of a little 
clarified butter or fresh oil. Animal food is not in general use, though 
most Rajputs and some of the other Hindu castes eat it when they can 
afford it. The flesh of goats and wild hog is highly esteemed by the 
Rajputs, while that of sheep or fowls is considered inferior in both 
flavour and nutriment. Speaking generally, rice is a luxury, and sugar, 
sweetmeats, &c., are consumed only on festive occasions. 

There is nothing peculiar about the dress of the people. The 
poorer Hindu males wear a turban of sorts, a dhoti or loin-cloth, a 
short jacket reachmg to the waist, and sometimes a sheet over the 
shoulders which can be used as a wrap for the upper part of the body. 
Those of the higher and middle classes wear either dhoti or trousers, 
a shirt (kurta), a long coat (angarkhd), and a cloth round the waist, 
The ncher men wear a long coat, called ackkan and often very hand- 
some, in place of, or in addition to, the angarkhd^ and the use of a 
kerchief (rumat) round the neck or over the turban is popular in some 
States. There is but little difference in dress between Hindus and 
Muhammadans , the latter almost always wear trousers, and button 
their coats to the left instead of to the right like Hindus and Europeans. 
The dress of a Hindu female consists of a coloured skirt, a half-sleeved 
bodice, and a sheet or veil taken over the head and round the body. 
Musalman women wear trousers (faijamas\ a long bodice more like 
a shirt, and the usual veil \ some of them wear skirts over their trousers, 
or a skirt and coat sewn as one garment and called iilak. The wilder 
Bhils are scantily clad, their apparel geneially consisting of a dirty rag 
round the head and a waistcloth of limited length , their women-folk 
dress like the poorer Hindus, but wear a number of brass bangles and 
rings on their arms and legs. 

Except where building stone is plentiful, the houses of the people 
are geneially of mud or unburnt bricks ; some have flat mud roofs 
suppoited on wooden beams, while others have sloping roofs of ill- 



irS RAJPUTANA 

baked tiles. The majority are low and badly ventilated, and usually of 
the same pattern, namely a quadrangular enclosure with rooms ranged 
round the sides. In the desert tracts the poorer classes have to be 
content with beehive-shaped huts, made from roots and grass, and 
usually surrounded by a thorn fence, which serves as a protection 
against the sand-drifts and hot winds as well as a cattle-pen. The 
Bhils build their own huts, thatching them with straw and leaves, and 
in rare cases with tiles, while the walls consist of interwoven bamboos, 
or mud and loose stones. 

Hindus cremate their dead as a rule ; but infants who die before 
they are weaned, and Sanyasis, Gosains, Bishnois, and Naths are 
buried. Again, some of the low castes, such as the Chamars, Kolls, 
and Regars, bury when they cannot afford to burn. The Bhils almost 
invariably burn their dead \ but the first victim of an outbreak of small- 
pox is buried, and if, within a certain time, no one else in the village 
dies of the disease, the body is disinterred and burnt. The Musalmans 
always practise inhumation. 

Apart from cricket, football, lawn tennis, and racquets, which are 
played at the capitals of some of the States, the chief games of the 
younger generation are marbles, blindman's-burT, hide-and-seek, top- 
spinning, and games like hockey, tip-cat, prisoner's base, &c. Kite- 
flying is practised by both children and adults ; and the indoor amuse- 
ments are chess, cards, and a kind of backgammon played with cowries 
and dice. The wealthier Rajputs are fond of horse exercise, and many 
of them are m the front rank as horsemen and polo-players. The Bhils 
are no mean archers, and in their own peculiar way get a certain 
amount of sport yearly. But for the adult rural population as a whole 
there are few amusements or relaxations ; they meet on the hatai or 
platform, to smoke and discuss the weather and crops, and the 
monotony of their daily life is varied only by an occasional marriage 
or the celebration of one of the annual festivals. 

The more important Hindu festivals are the Holi and the Ganger in 
March ,, the Tij or third of Sawan, being the anniversary of the day on 
which Parbati was, after long austerities, reunited to Siva, in July ; the 
Janmashtml, or anniversary of the birth of Krishna, in August; the 
Dasahra in September or October, and the Dewali in the following 
month. The chief Muhammadan festivals are the Muharram, the two 
Ids, and the Shab-i-barat 

Among some of the higher and middle classes of the Hindus, it is 
customary when a child is bom to send for the family priest or 
astrologer, who, after making certain calculations, announces the initial 
letter of the name to be given to the infant Children are usually 
called after some god or goddess, or the day of the week on which they 
were born, or some jewel or ferocious animal, or are given a name 



AGRICULTURE 119 

suggestive of power, physical or political. The name of a man's father 
is never added to his own, whether in addressing him by speech or 
letter, but the name of his caste or gotra is sometimes prefixed or 
suffixed : e. g, Kothan Hanwant Chand and Bachh Raj Bhandan. The 
distinctive feature in the names of those belonging to the higher Hindu 
castes is that the suffixes are generally indicative of the subdivision to 
which they belong. Thus, among the Brahmans, the name will often 
end with Deo, Shankar, Ram, Das, &c. ; among the Kshattriyas 
almost always with Singh ; and among the Vaisyas with Mai, Chand, 
Lai, &c. The Sudras, on the other hand, usually have only one name, 
a diminutive of that of a higher class, such as Bheria (Bhairon Lai), 
Chhatria (Chhatar Bhuj), and Uda (Udai Ram). The most common 
suffixes used in the names of places are : -pur, -pura, -khera> -war, 
-ward) -nagar, -ner, and -olt, all meaning c town, 3 ' village,' * hamlet/ or 
'habitation 5 ; -garh ('fort'), and -mer ('hill'). 

Excluding Sirohi State and the comparatively fertile portions of 
Marwar found along the banks of the Luni river and its tributaries, 
the country to the west, north, and north-west of the . 

Aravalli Hills, comprising the whole rf Jaisalmer, ure " 

Bikaner, and Shekhawati, and most of Jodhpur, is a vast sandy 
tract. Water is far from the surface and scarce ; and irrigation is, in 
most parts, impracticable, for not only is the supply of water too scanty 
to admit of its being used for this purpose, but the depth of the wells 
usually exceeds 75 feet, the maximum at which well-irrigation has 
been found profitable. The Luni occasionally overflows and, on the 
subsidence of its waters, an alluvial deposit remains, which yields good 
crops of wheat, and there are tracts in Jodhpur and Bikaner where 
artificial irrigation is possible ; but, speaking generally, the people have 
to depend for their supply of grain almost entirely on the crops sown in 
the rainy season, which, in this part of the country, is of very uncertain 
character. When rain does fall, it sinks into the sandy soil and does 
not flow off the surface, so that a very small rainfall suffices for the 
crops. In the eastern half of Rajputana, the agricultural conditions 
are very different. The rainfall is heavier and more regular; every 
variety of soil is found, from the light sand of the west to the richest 
alluvial loam, and there are extensive tracts of black mould which 
produce excellent crops of wheat and barley without artificial irriga- 
tion. Further, water is generally near the surface, and wells are very 
numerous ; there are several considerable rivers and streams, and a 
large number of tanks. It follows, then, that, except in a very few 
parts, two crops a year are the rule and not the exception. 

There are two kinds of crops : those cultivated during the rainy 
season are called khanf or sdwnu or sialu> while the cold-season crops 
are known as rabi or unalu, 



120 RAJPUTANA 

The system of agriculture is everywhere very simple, and the imple- 
ments in use are of the rudest description. For the rams crops, ploughing 
operations commence with the first good fall of rain, and the land 
is ploughed from once to three times according to the stiffness of 
the soil In the western half of Rajputana, a camel or a pair of 
bullocks is yoked to the plough, but sometimes donkeys or buffaloes 
are used. The camels of the desert walk swiftly, and the ploughs are 
of very trifling weight ; consequently each cultivator is able to put a 
large extent of ground under crop. It is estimated that, in the light 
sandy soil, a man with a camel or a pair of good bullocks can plough 
from two to three acres a day. The seed is usually sown by means of 
a drill or bamboo tube attached to the rear of the plough, but some- 
times, especially m the case of ///, broadcast. In the cultivation of the 
rdbi crops more trouble is taken. The land receives several ploughings 
transverse to each other, and is harrowed and levelled in order to 
retain the moisture. When the seed has been sown and the crops 
begin to sprout, considerable attention is paid to weeding ; thorn 
fences are erected to keep out cattle and hog ; scarecrows are set up 
to frighten away the birds, and 'persons are engaged to keep watch and 
are provided with slings or a noisy instrument, called thah> in the 
western States. 

In the south of Raj pu tana a peculiar mode of cultivation is practised 
by the Bhils; it is called -walar or wa/ra, and resembles the jhwn of 
Assam and the kumri of the Western Ghats. It consists of cutting 
down a patch of forest and burning the trees on the ground in order 
to clear room for a field, which is manured by the ashes. After a year 
or two, the soil is exhausted and another felling takes place. The 
system, which is, of course, most destructive to the forests, has been 
prohibited in Dungarpur and Sirohi. 

The principal rams crops are bdjra (Penmsetum typhoideuni) or spiked 
millet, and jowar (Sorghum vidgare) or great millet. The former is 
sown as early as possible, even in May if rain falls in that month, and 
takes about three months to ripen ; it is the chief crop in the western 
and northern States, and also in Alwar, Bhaiatpur, Dholpur, Karauli, 
and the greater part of Jaipur. Jowar requires a stiffer soil and more 
ram, and is sown later \ it is the most common crop in Bundi, Jhalawar, 
Kotah, Tonk, and parts of Partabgarh and Udaipur. Other kharif 
crops are maize or Indian corn, the food of the masses in the south ; 
moth and mung> both species of the kidney bean ; cotton ; and a coarse 
kind of rice. The cultivation of the latter is practically confined to 
Banswara, Dungarpur, and parts of Jaipur, Karauli, and Kotah. Of 
these crops, the only ones that usually require manure or artificial 
irrigation are maize and cotton. The principal rabi crops are wheat, 
barley, gram or chick-pea, sugar-cane, poppy, tobacco, tan (Indian 



AGRICULTURE 121 

hemp), and indigo. They require eithei constant irrigation or one 
of the best natural soils, and are therefore to be found chiefly in the 
favoured eastern half of the country. The oilseeds consist of til (Sesa- 
mum indicum] in the rainy season, and mustard, rape, linseed, and castor 
in the cold season. Of these, til is by far the most important ; it is 
usually grown by itself, but is sometimes mixed v\ft\jowar or cotton. 

Manure is hardly used at all in the desert tracts m the west and 
north, and elsewhere is applied chiefly to irrigated lands, where the 
more valuable crops such as wheat, barley, poppy, sugar-cane, and 
tobacco are grown, or to gardens. It consists of the dung of cattle, 
sheep, and goats, night-soil, village sweepings, deciduous leaves, jungle- 
plants, &c. ; and of these, the dung of sheep and goats is preferred as 
being the most powerful. Bone manure is used to a small extent in 
Kishangarh, but is not altogether acceptable. The practice of penning 
sheep and goats on the fields for a few days is common everywhere. 

Among the cultivated fiuits are the apricot, custard-apple, guava, 
mango, mulberry, orange, peach, plantain, plum, pomegranate, pum- 
melo, tamarind, and several varieties of fig, lime, and melon. Many 
kinds of vegetables are grown for household use or for sale, such as 
artichoke, beet, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, celery, egg-plant, onion, 
parsnip, potato, radish, spinach, tomato, turnip, yam, and several of 
the gourd and cucumber family. 

Of improvement in agricultural practice there is very little to record. 
In a few of the States the seed is carefully selected, and cases are 
known of experiments with Egyptian cotton, American maize, and 
Turkish tobacco , but as a whole the cultivators are very conservative. 

The majority of the States advance money for the construction or 
repairs of wells and tanks, and for the purchase of seed, bullocks, and 
agricultural implements. In some cases these loans are free of interest, 
and in others a rate varying from 6 to 1 2 per cent, per annum is charged. 
In adverse seasons takavi advances are given freely throughout Rajput- 
ana, and in 1899-1900 they amounted to more than 24 lakhs. 

Except in parts of the north-east and east, where the recent famines 
and scarcities were less severely felt than elsewhere, the cultivators are 
generally in debt, and many of them are heavily involved. This state 
of affairs is due partly to their own extravagance and imprudence or 
to debts they have inherited, partly to bad seasons, and partly to the 
grasping methods of the bohrd or professional money-lender. In several 
States the majority of the cultivators are entirely in the hands of their 
bohras and depend on them for everything. The rate of interest varies 
from 1 8 to 36 per cent, yearly } and the profits of the money-lender are 
swelled by charging compound interest, by making loans m bajra or 
jmvdr and insisting on a similar quantity of wheat in repayment, and 
in various other ways. 



122 



RAJPUTANA 



Agricultural statistics exist for the whole of one State (Bharatpur) and 
for portions of nine others, but they are available only for the last few 
years, and cannot be considered as altogether reliable. The table below 
is for the year 1903-4. The figures in the third column relate, for the 
most part, to kkdlsa lands only, i.e. those paying full revenue to the 
State ; while the figures m the fourth column are obtained by deducting 
from them the areas occupied by forests, towns, villages, rivers, &c., 
or otherwise not available for cultivation. The differences between 
the figures in the last two columns represent the area cropped more 
than once 







Area (in square miles) 


Area (m square miles) 
cropped 




Total area 






State 


(in square 
rnilps) 


For which 


Available 










returns 


for culti- 


Total 


Net 






exist 


vation 






Alwar 


3.HI 


2,751 


1,733 


1,505 


1,431 


Bharatpnr 


i,'982 


1,982 


1,59 s 


1,492 


1,278 


Bikaner 


23,3U 


6,539 


6,420 


933 


933 


Dholptir 


i,i55 


900 


515 


405 


400 


Jaipur 




3,548 


2,587 


1,304 


1,247 


Jhalawai . 


? 8io 


558 


400 


126 


116 


Jodhpur . 

Kishangarh 


34,963 

858 


4,320 
199 


3,532 
153 


I,OI2 
162 


1,012 
153 


Kotah 


5,684 




3,233 


i,353 


1,315 


Tonk (in Rajputana) 


1,114 


602 


503 


250 


239 


Total 


88,597 


26,177 


20,694 


8,542 


8,124 



Thus returns exist for 26,177 square miles, or about one-fifth of the 
whole ; and of this area nearly four-fifths are available for cultivation. 
The net area cropped was 8,124 square miles, or 31 per cent, of the 
area for which returns exist and 40 per cent, of the area available for 
cultivation. Turning to individual States, the highest percentages of 
area cropped to that available for cultivation are found in Kishangarh, 
where the entire cultivable area is said to have been under crop, Alwar 
(82), Bharatpur (80), and Dholpur (74) ; and the lowest percentage in 
Bikaner (between 14 and 15). 

The table on the next page gives the areas under principal crops in 
1903-4, and shows that, of the total cultivated area, bdjra occupied 
22 per cent., jowdr about 16, wheat nearly 9, and gram over 7 per 
cent. 

These tables, though incomplete and imperfectly reliable, give an 
approximate guide to the conditions in the remaining four-fifths of 
Rajputana, Taking the States mentioned in the tables, it is doubtless 
the case that the rest of Jodhpur is, on the whole, less fertile and less 
cultivated than the 4,320 square miles for which returns exist, and that 
the large sandy district of Shekhawati (in Jaipur) is, as regards pro- 



AGRICULTURE 



123 



ductiveness and quality of soil, far inferior to the rest of that State and 
more resembles Blkaner. Yet, with these exceptions, there is reason 
to believe that the extent of cultivation injdglr and muafi lands, held 
revenue free or at reduced rates, is probably much the same as in the 
khalsa area. Again, turning to the States whose names do not appear 
in the table, Jaisalmer is no doubt a more sterile country than even 
its immediate neighbours to the east and north-east, but the central 
and south-eastern districts of Udaipur, the greater part of Partabgarh, 
and the southern half of Bundi will hold their own against any tract 
in Rajputana ; they are extensively cultivated and yield all the valuable 
spring crops, including poppy. 





Area (in square miles) under 


State 


3 


V. 







^ 




c 


V 


>, 




^ 


'o 


S 


1 


V 


"4 


2 


.a 






' 


4 





1 


5 

m 


fi 


o 
O 


rt 


& 


Alwar . . 


437 


1 68 


4 1 


72 


137 


37 


60 


2 5 




Bhaiatpur 


3H 


247 


76 


193 


1 06 


66 


68 


I 




Blkaner . 


222 


ii 


4 


25 


18 


21 








Dholpur . 


176 


38 


21 


J 9 


16 




30 






Jaipur . . 
Jhalawar 


271 
I 


160 

68 


114 

12 


66 

7 


207 
i 


53 


9 I 


52 
II 


8 


Jodhpur . 
Kishangarh 


43 
17 


*5i 

40 


81 

5 


18 

7 


23 

2 5 


66 

17 


ii 
ii 


8 
23 




Kotah . . 


4 


38i 


359 


107 


20 


68 


33 


4 1 


42 


Tonk (in Raj- 




















putana) 


7 


9' 


39 


16 


II 


23 


12 


16 


6 


Total 


1,879 


i,355 


752 


620 


5% 


354 


326 


177 


60 



The main wealth of the desert lands of the west and north consists 
in the vast herds of camels, horned cattle, and sheep which roam over 
the sandy wastes and thrive admirably in the dry climate. 

Camels are looked on rather as members of the family than as dumb 
animals ; they plough and harrow the ground, bring home the harvest, 
carry wood and water, and are both ridden and driven. Their milk is 
used both as an article of diet and as a medicine ; a fair profit is made 
from the sale of their wool, and, when they die, their skin is made into 
jars for holding #& and oil, The riding camels bred in these parts are 
probably superior to any others in India, and the best of them will 
cover from 80 to 100 miles in a night when emergency demands speed, 
The price varies from Rs. 150 to Rs. 300. The Jaisalmer camels are 
famed for their easy paces and hardiness, and can go long distances 
without food or water, subsisting for days on a little unrefined sugar 
and alum, which are carried in the saddle-bags. The best of this breed 
are smaller and finer in the head and neck than the ordinary camel. 
The camels of Jodhpur and Blkaner are larger and stronger than those 
of Jaisalmer, and are often very swift. 

VOL. XXI. I 



124 RAJPUTANA 

The bullocks of Nagaur, a district of Jodhpur, where they are chiefly 
bred, are famous throughout Northern India, and are sold at all the 
principal fairs. They are noted for their size, and their massive horns 
and humps ; a pair sometimes fetches Rs. 300, but the average price is 
Rs. 150. The cows of all the sandy tracts (especially Mallani and 
Sanchor in Jodhpur, and Pugal in Bikaner) are held in the highest 
esteem ; they sell for Rs. 40 to Rs. 200, and give from five to ten seeis 
of milk a day, but they require cleanliness and good food, and have to 
be carefully tended when away from their native pastures. 

Goats and sheep are reared in large numbers in the west and north ; 
the former supply the greater part of the animal food of the country, 
and their milk is in general use as an article of diet, especially in the 
desert. Sheep are kept principally for their wool, but are exported in 
large numbers ; those of western Bikaner are said to be among the largest 
in India, while those of Jodhpur and Jaisalmei, though small, fatten 
excellently, and, when well fed, yield mutton second to none. 

The horses of Mallani and Jalor (two districts of Marwar) are re- 
nowned for their hardiness and ease of pace; they grow to a good 
height and, though light-boned, will carry plenty of weight and cover 
long distances without food or water. 

In the eastern half of the country there is nothing remarkable about 
the live-stock, but efforts are being made by several Darbars to improve 
the breed of cattle by importing bulls from Hissar and Nagaur. 

The principal fairs,, are held at Pushkar, in Ajmer, in October or 
November, and at Tilwara, near Balotra in Jodhpur, m March ; horse 
and cattle fairs are also held at Alwar, Bharatpur, and Dholpur. There 
is an important fair at Parbatsar in Jodhpur in September, at which 
many bullocks change hands, and smaller cattle or camel fairs are held 
at several places in Bikaner. 

The chief sources of irrigation are wells, tanks or reservoirs, and 
canals. Statistics are available for the area dealt with m the two pre- 
ceding tables, and are set forth below. Of the total area cropped in 
1903-4, 1,486 square miles, or more than 17 per cent, were irrigated: 
namely, three-fourths from wells and one-eighth from tanks and canals. 
The percentages of area irrigated to total area cropped varied from 45 
in Kishangarh, 38 in Dholpur, and 33 in Jaipur, to 8 m Kotah, where 
artificial irrigation is m many parts unnecessary, and 2 in Bikaner, 
where it is more or less impracticable except m the north. In the 
rest of Rajputana, excluding Jaisalmer, it is reported that from one- 
sixth to one-fourth of the cultivated area is usually irrigated, the higher 
Percentages being found in Sirohi and Udaipur. 

The States which are best protected by irrigation are Jaipur, Bharat- 
pur, Kishangarb, Alwar, Kotah, and the chiefship of Shahpura 

In Jaipur much has been done since 1868 in the construction of 



AGRICULTURE 



tanks, reservoirs, and canals. In the kMlsa area alone there are 
200 irrigation works under the management of the Public Works 
department; they have cost more than 66 lakhs up to 1904, and 
brought in a gross revenue of nearly 59 lakhs. Bharatpur State has 
spent 10 lakhs since 1895, and now possesses 164 irrigation works, 
which are kept in good order by its Public Works department. The 
more important canals outside these two States are the Ghaggar canals 
in Bikaner, the Parbati canal in Kotah, and those connected with the 
Jaswant Sagar near Bilara in Jodhpur. Since the famine of 1899-1900 
increased attention has been paid in almost every State to the subject 
of irrigation. In accordance with the recommendations of the Irriga- 
tion Commission of 1901-3, investigations have been undertaken in 
the greater part of Rajputana at the expense of the Government of 
India and under the supervision of British engineers, with the object 
of drawing up projects for utilizing to the best advantage all available 
sources of water-supply. 





Area (m square miles) 
irrigated from 


Total area 


State. 




(m square 
miles) 












Canals 


Tanks 


Wells 


Other 

sources. 


irrigated 


Alwar . 




36 


1 68 


8 


212 


Bharatpur 


7 




189 


98 


294 


Bikaner . 


16 






4 


20 


Dholpur . 




8 


140 


6 


154 


Jaipur 
Jhalawar 
Jodhpur . 


45 

8 


20 
I 

4 


342 
in 


29 
27 


436 

18 


Kishangarh 




3 


38 


5 


73 


Kotah . 


ii 


3 


87 


3 


104 


Tonk (in Rajputana) 




i 




i 




Total 


87 


103 


i,H5 


181 


1,486 



Wells are the mainstay of the eastern half of the country, as also of 
Sirohi and parts of Jodhpur. Their number is roughly estimated at 
300,000 \ and they are, almost without exception, the property of 
individual cultivators, the Darbars merely encouraging their construc- 
tion by a system of agricultural advances known as takavi, or by liberal 
rules in the matter of land revenue assessment. The cost varies from 
a few rupees for a temporary well, to about Rs. 1,500 for a deep and 
permanent structure. Except in Sirohi and parts of Jodhpur, Kotah, 
and Udaipur, where the Persian wheel is used, the water is lifted by 
means of leathern buckets drawn up with a rope and pulley by bul- 
locks moving down an inclined plane. In the case of shallow wells, 
a contrivance known as dhenkH is everywhere popular. It is similar to 
the shadoof employed in Egypt, and consists of a stout rod, balanced 
on a vertical post, with a heavy weight at one end and a leathern 

i 2 



126 



RAJPUTAKA 



bucket or earthen pot suspended by a rope to the other. The worker 
dips the bucket or pot into the water, and, aided by the counterpoising 
weight, empties it into a hole from which a channel conducts the water 
to the lands to be irrigated. Water is sometimes lifted from streams 
in the same way. 

Wages vary greatly according to locality, but have increased every- 
where during the last twenty years. The landless day labourer now 
receives from two to four annas daily, instead of 

Kent, wages, f rom Qne to two annas j n f orme r times, while the 

monthly wage of domestic servants has risen 20 or 
25 per cent. As regards agricultural labour, the system of payment in 
kind is common ; and the village artisans and servants, such as carpen- 
ters, potters, blacksmiths, workers in leather, and barbers, are almost 
always remunerated in this way. In some States the cultivators 
employ labourers for a particular harvest, and give them two or three 
rupees a month in addition to food and clothes, or a share of the 
produce ; and in such cases these helps are usually of the same caste 
as their employers, so that they may eat together and thus economize 
food. The wages of skilled labour have, as elsewhere, risen consider- 
ably in consequence of the extension of railways and industries, and the 
general rise in prices. 

The table below shows the average price of the staple food-grains 
(and of salt) in seers per rupee during the twenty-eight years ending 
1900, excluding years of acute famine. The figures opposite the 
eastern division represent the average prices in the Alwar, Bharatpur, 
Dholpur, Jaipui, Karauli, and Udaipur States, while those opposite the 
western division relate to Bikaner, Jaisalmer, and Jodhpur. 



Natural 
divisions 


Selected staples 


Salt 


Wheat. 


Barley 


Jowar, 


Bajra. 


Maize 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


Years 


1 


a 


i 


j 


* 


I 





& 


1 

1 


S 


g 


1 

1 


a 


g 


1 

1 


f 


a 


I 


00 


tf 


00 





w 


00 


w 


w 





00 





w 


So 







8 


$ 






































Eastern . 
Western 

Rajputana 


15 


16 

13 


ii 


22 
20 


23 

21 


21 

18 


21 
19 


22 
19 


21 

16 


19 


17 


18 


20 


17 


21 

16 


22 

45 


12 

15 


II 


14 


T * 


12 


21 


22 


20 


21 


21 


20 


18 


19 


i? 


... 


20 


19 


28 


13 


12 



It will be seen that the prices of all grains have risen since 1890, 
and this was due to a series of indifferent seasons. The importance of 
railways as levellers of prices cannot be overestimated ; in the famine 
of 1868-9, when there was no railway ? grain sold for less than 4 seerg 



FORESTS 127 

per rupee, whereas in the recent famine of 1899-1900 prices were 
never higher than 7 or 8 seers. 

The material condition of the urban population is generally satis- 
factory, and the standard of living is considerably higher than it was 
thirty or forty years ago. The middle-class clerk has sufficient income 
to dress well, diet himself liberally, and give his sons an English 
education; his house is comfortably, if simply, furnished, and he can 
generally afford to keep a personal servant. In rural areas, on the 
other hand, there has been little change in the style of living, and in 
some States there has been a perceptible falling off owing to recent 
adverse seasons. It is only by the exercise of thrift and frugality that 
the people can hold their own. The cultivators, as a whole, are in- 
differently housed and poorly clad, and their food, if sufficient, consists 
usually of inferior grains. The condition of the ordinary labourer 
shows some improvement, in consequence of the increase in wages and 
the extension of public works. 

There are no large timber forests in Rajputana, but the woodlands 
are extensive upon the south-western Aravallis and throughout the hilly 
tracts adjoining, where the rainfall is good. Mount 
Abu is well wooded from summit to skirts and ores 4 s - 

possesses several valuable kinds of timber; and from Abu north-east- 
ward the western slopes of the range are still well clothed with trees 
and bushes up to the neighbourhood of Merwara. Below the hills on 
this western side runs a belt of jungle, sometimes spreading out along 
the river beds for some distance into the plain. All vegetation, how- 
ever, rapidly decreases m the direction of the Luni ; and beyond that 
river, Marwar, Bikaner, and Jaisalmer have scarcely any trees at all, 
except a few plantations close to villages or towns. In the west and 
south of Mewar the forests stretch for miles, covering the hills 
with scrub jungle and the valleys with thickets ; while the southern- 
most States of Banswara, Dungarpur, and Partabgarh are, in proportion 
to their size, the best wooded of any in Rajputana. Here teak and 
other valuable timber trees would thrive well if the jungles were not 
periodically ruined by the Bhils, who burn them down for the purposes 
of sport or agriculture almost unchecked. In Bundi and Kotah, and 
in parts of Jaipur, Alwar, and Karauli, the woodlands are considerable, 
but they contain very little valuable timber. Elsewhere in Rajputana 
there are only fuel and fodder reserves. 

The principal trees found in the forest are dhak (Butea frondosd)^ 
dhaman (Grewia pilosa), dhao (Anogeissus$endula) t gol (Odina Wodier)^ 
jdmun (Eugenia Jambolana}) karayia (Stirculia urens\ salar (Borwellia 
thuriferd)) semal (Bombax malabancum\ tendu (Diospyros tomentosa)^ 
and urn (Saecopetalum tomentosum). Teak is found sparingly and 
seldom attains any size ; the mango, inahua (Bassia lattfolia\ and the 



iz8 RAJPUT AN A 

small bamboo are common. The minor forest produce consists of 
grass, firewood, bamboos, fruits, honey, lac, gum, &c, 

In some States right-holders get forest produce ftee or at reduced 
rates \ and in years of scarcity the forests are usually thrown open to 
the people for gracing, grass-cutting, and the collection of fruits, 
tubers, &c. 

The area under the management of the Forest departments of the 
various States cannot be given. Indeed, in many of the States there is 
no real Forest department, the staff being chiefly engaged in guarding 
game-pi eserves or providing forage and fuel for Raj establishments , 
but in Ahvar, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kotah, and Sirohi the forest area 
amounts to about 2,800 square miles, and efforts are made to work 
the forests on proper lines. The forest revenue in these five States, 
excluding the value of grass, wood, &c., taken free by right-holders or 
supplied for the requirements of the Darbar, is about 2-5 lakhs, and 
the expenditure nearly 1-5 lakhs. 

The most important mineral now being worked is coal at Palana in 
Blkaner. It is of Tertiary age, and was discovered in 1896 in associa- 
tion with Nummuhtic rocks. Mining operations 
Ml ? es j*? d were started in 1898, and the colliery was connected 
with the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway by a branch line, 
ten miles long, in the following year. The output has risen from 
about 500 tons in 1898 to over 44,000 tons in 1904. The coal is of 
inferior quality, but when mixed with the Bengal variety is found 
satisfactory, and is largely used on the Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway and 
by the Public Works department of the State \ attempts are being 
made to manufacture briquettes The colliery gives employment to 
about 100 labourers. 

What Colonel Tod called the tin mines of Mewar, once very pro- 
ductive and yielding no inconsiderable portion of silver, are probably 
the lead and zinc mines of the village of Jawar, 16 miles south of 
Udaipur city, They are said to have been worked till 1812, when, 
m consequence of a famine, the village was depopulated. Prospecting 
operations, undertaken in 1872, showed but a very small proportion 
of silver in two specimens of galena, namely, about io| ounces to 
a ton of lead \ and the mines have since been untouched. There are 
old lead-workings in the Thana Ghazi district of Alwar, and the remains 
of zinc furnaces at Sojat in Jodhpur. 

Copper is found in several States, and was formerly smelted m 
considerable quantities. The most important mines are at KHETRI 
and SINGHANA in Jaipur, and they must have produced copper for 
a long period. Some of the hills are honeycombed with old excava- 
tions , and the heaps of slag from the furnaces have accumulated, in 
the course of time, until they now form a range of hillocks several 



MINES AND MINERALS 129 

hundred feet in length, and from 30 to 60 feet high. The ores are 
copper pyrites, and some carbonates also occur , considerable quantities 
of blue vitriol (copper sulphate), alum, and copperas (iron sulphate) 
were formerly manufactured from decomposed slates and refuse. At 
Danba, the chief mine in Alwar, the ores are also copper pyrites, but 
are mixed with arsenical iron, and occur irregularly disseminated 
through the black slates, only a few specks and stains being seen 
in the quartzites. Here, as elsewhere, the industry is diminishing 
owing to the impoitation of copper fiom Europe, and the mine is 
practically abandoned. 

Iron ores are pretty generally distributed throughout the country, 
but the most noteworthy deposits are found in Jaipur, Alwar, and 
Udaipur. In the first of these States, the mines at Karwar have long 
been abandoned, in consequence, it is said, of the scarcity of fuel but 
in the south-west of Alwar, the eastern half of Udaipur, and in parts 
of Kotah, the ores are worked on a small scale to supply native 
furnaces. 

Cobalt has long been known as occurring in the mines near KHKTRI, 
in association with nickel and copper ores. It has been compared to 
a line grey sand having the appearance of iron filings, and is found m 
minute crystals belonging to the isometric system, mixed with copper 
and iron pyrites. Under the name of sefifa, it is exported to Jaipur, 
Delhi, and other places, and is used by Indian jewelleis for producing 
a blue enamel. 

The rocks of Rajputana are rich in good building materials 1 . The 
ordinary quartzite of the Aravallis is well adapted for many purposes ; 
the more schistose beds are employed as flagstones or for roofing, and 
slates are found in the Alwar and Bundi hills. 

Limestone is abundant in several parts, and is used both for building 
and for burning into lime. Two local forms of it stand pre-eminent 
among the ornamental stones of India for their beauty namely, the 
Raialo group, quarried at Raialo (Raiala) in Jaipur, at Jhiri in Alwar, 
and at MAKRANA in Jodhpur; and the Jaisalmer limestone. The 
former is a fine-grained crystalline marble, the best being pure white 
in colour, while others are grey, pink, or variegated. The famous Taj 
at Agra was built mainly of white Makrana marble, and it is proposed 
to use the same stone in the construction of the Victoria Memorial 
Hall at Calcutta. The Jaisalmer variety is of far later geological age ; 
it is even-grained, compact, of a buff or light brown colour, and is 
admirably adapted for fine carving. It takes a fair polish, and was 
at one time used for lithographic blocks. 

Sandstone is plentiful almost everywhere, varying greatly in texture 
and colour. The most famous quarries are at Bansi Paharpur in 
Bharatpur State 3 they have furnished materials for the most celebrated 



130 RAJPUT AN A 

monuments of the Mughal dynasty at Agra, Delhi, and Fatehpur Sikri, 
as well as for the beautiful palaces at Dig, There are two varieties 
of this stone : namely, a very fine-grained yellowish white ; and a dark 
red, speckled with yellow or white spots. The quarries give employ- 
ment to 450 labourers, and the out-turn is about 14,000 tons a year. 
Excellent red sandstone comes from Dalmera in Blkaner, from Dholpur, 
and from several places in Jodhpur, where also the brown, pink, and 
yellow varieties are found. 

Beds of unctuous clay or fuller's earth are found in parts of Bikaner 
and the two western States from 5 to 8 feet below the surface ; the 
clay is used locally as a hair-wash or for dyeing cloth, and is exported 
in considerable quantities to Sind and the Punjab under the name of 
multani mitti, 

Large deposits of gypsum occur in the vicinity of Nagaur and at 
other places in Jodhpur; the mineral is used as cement for the 
interiors of houses, and the yearly output is about 5,000 tons. 

Of pigments, a black mineral paint, discovered in Kishangarh in 
1886, has been successfully tried on the Rajputana-Malwa and Jodhpur- 
Bikaner Railways, and on steamers. 

The only precious or semi-precious stones at present worked are the 
garnets, which occur in the mica schists of the Rajmahal hills in Jaipur, 
near Sarwar in Kishangarh, and to a less extent in the Bhilwara district 
of Udaipur. Beryl was once worked on a large scale near Toda Rai 
Singh in Jaipur, and turquoises are said to have been found in the 
same locality. Rock-crystal is occasionally met with, but of no market- 
able value. 

The salt sources of Rajputana are celebrated. Under agreements 
entered into with the various Darbars in, or soon after, 1879, the local 
manufacture of salt has ceased in every State except Blkaner, Jaisalmer, 
Jodhpur, and Kotah. In the first two States, a small amount, limited 
to about 360 tons in Bikaner and 180 in Jaisalmer, is manufactured 
at Lunkaransar (Blkaner) and Kanod (Jaisalmer) , but the salt is of 
inferior quality. Similarly, the Jodhpur and Kotah Darbars are per- 
mitted to manufacture small quantities of khdri or earth-salt for indus- 
trial purposes, With these exceptions, the manufacture is entirely in 
the hands of the Government of India , and the chief salt sources are 
the SAMBHAR LAKE, leased by the Jaipur and Jodhpur States in 
1869-70, the depressions at DIDWANA, PACHBHADRA, Phalodi, and 
the Luni tract, leased by Jodhpur in 1879, an ^ the lake at Kachor 
Rewassa, leased by Jaipur in 1879. The only sources now worked 
are the first three mentioned immediately above, and they are under 
the charge of the Northern India Salt Revenue department. During 
the five years ending 1903, the yearly out-turn averaged about 164,000 
tons, worth about 9 lakhs ; during the same period the yearly sales 



ARTS AND MANUFACTURES 131 

have averaged nearly 170,000 tons, and the annual net revenue has 
been more than in lakhs (say, 743,000). 

In manufactures Rajputana has no speciality, unless the making 
of salt be included under this head. The more important industries 
are the weaving of muslin, the dyeing and stamping 
of cotton cloths, the manufacture of carpets, rugs, 
and other woollen fabrics, enamelling, pottery, and 
work in ivory, lac, brass, steel, stone, &c. 

The weaving of coarse cotton cloths for local use is carried on in 
almost every village, and cotton rugs (dans) are made in a few places. 
Among muslins the foremost place is held by those of Kotah, where 
the charming art of dyeing the thinnest net with a different colour on 
each surface is still sometimes practised. The dyeing and stamping 
of cotton cloths is carried on largely in several States, particularly at 
Sanganer in Jaipur The chintzes are printed in colours by hand 
blocks, but the industry is decaying owing to machine competition. 
The patterns on dark green and light yellow cloths are frequently 
stamped with gold or silver leaf. Tie-dyeing (called chundri bandisK] 
is practised chiefly in Jaipur and Kotah. The process consists of 
knotting up with thread any portion of the cloth which is to escape 
being dyed, For each of the many colours required to produce an 
elaborate design, a separate knotting is required, and, though the 
labour involved is great, the rapidity with which the work is done 
is marvellous. 

Fine wool is obtained from Bikaner, Jodhpur, and Shekhawati, and 
is much prized for carpet-weaving. The principal woollen manufactures 
are carpets, rugs, shawls, and blankets, especially famous in Bikaner. 
Felt rugs, saddle-cloths, capes, c., are made at Malpura in Jaipur, 
and at several places m Jodhpur and Tonk, 

For enamelling on gold, Jaipur is acknowledged to be pre-eminent, 
and some work is done on silver and copper. The enamel is of the 
kind termed l champteve, i.e. the outline is formed by the plate itself, 
while the colours are placed in depressions hollowed out of the metal. 
The red colour is the most difficult to apply, and for this hue Jaipur 
is famous. The quasi-enamelling of Partabgarh, where the article 
itself is of glass, is also interesting. 

The best pottery is produced in Jaipur, and is practically the same 
as that for which Delhi has long been noted. The vessels are formed 
in moulds and, after union of the separate parts, are coated with 
powdered white felspar mixed with starch, and are then painted. The 
ware is next dipped in a transparent glaze of glass, and when dry 
goes to the kiln, where only one baking is required. At Indargarh in 
Kotah painted pottery is made, the colour being applied after the 
pottery has been fired. 



132 RAJPUTANA 

Ivory-turning is earned on to a small extent in Alwar, Bikaner, 
Jodhpur, and Udaipur, the articles manufactured being mostly bangles, 
chessmen, c. At Etawah (in Kotah) boxes and powder-flasks are 
veneered with horn, ivory, and mother-of-pearl set in lac; while fly- 
whisks and fans made of ivory or sandal-wood are curiosities produced 
at Bharatpur. The fibres are beautifully interwoven and, in good 
specimens, are almost as fine as ordinary horsehair. 

Work in lac is practically confined to such small articles as toys, 
bangles, and stools, and is earned on in most of the States. In 
Bikaner lac, or some similar varnish, is applied to skin oil-flasks 
(kiippis\ and in Shahpura lac is used in the ornamentation of shields 
and tables. 

Brass and copper utensils of daily use are manufactured every- 
where. The brass-work of Jaipur, which is especially artistic, takes 
the form of tea-tables, salvers, Ganges water-pots, and miniature repro- 
ductions of bullocks, camels, carts, deer, elephants, &c. 

Sword-blades, daggers, knives, &c., are manufactured in Jhalawar, 
Sirohi, and Udaipur, and, m the second of these States, are often inlaid 
with gold or silver wire. 

The carving of small articles and models in stone is practised 
chiefly in Alwar, Bharatpur, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, and Jodhpur. Among 
other industries may be mentioned the manufacture of ornamental 
saddlery and camel-trappings, leathern jars for ghl and oil, and silver 
table-ornaments. 

There is only one spinning and weaving mill in Rajputana, at 
Kishangarh. It was opened in 1897 and now employs about 500 
hands daily . there are over 10,000 spindles, and the out-turn in 1904 
exceeded 685 tons of yarn. Of cotton-presses there are sixteen, half of 
which belong to private individuals. Jaipur owns three, Kishangarh 
two, and Udaipur, Bundi, and Shahpura own one each. These eight 
presses employ from 700 to 1,200 hands daily during the working 
season, and in 1903-4 about 32,000 bales (of 400 Ib. each) were 
pressed. 

Of the trade of Rajputana in olden days very little is known. The 
principal marts were Bhilwara in Udaipur, Churu and Rajgarh in 
Bikaner, Malpura in Jaipur, and Pali m Jodhpur , 
anc * ^ e ^ ^ orme( ^ tne connecting link between the 
sea-coast and Northern India. The productions of 
India, Kashmir, and China were exchanged for those of Europe, Africa, 
Persia, and Arabia. Caravans from the ports of Cutch and Gujarat 
brought ivory, rhinoceros' hides, copper, dates, gum arabic, borax, 
coco-nuts, broadcloths, sandal-wood, drugs, dyes, spices, coffee, &c., and 
took away chintzes, dried fruits, sugar, opium, silks, muslins, shawls, 
dyed blankets, arms, and salt, The guardians of the merchandise 



COMMUNICATIONS 133 

were almost invariably Charans, and the most desperate outlaw seldom 
dared commit any outrage on caravans under the safeguard of these 
men, the bards of the Rajputs. If not strong enough to defend their 
convoy with sword and shield, they would threaten to kill themselves, 
and would proceed by degrees from a mere gash in the flesh to a 
death-wound 3 or if one victim was insufficient, a number of women 
and children would be sacrificed and the marauders declared re- 
sponsible for their blood. The chief exports of local production were 
salt, wool, gfa, animals, opium, and dyed cloths, while the imports 
included wheat, rice, sugar, fruits, silks, iron, tobacco, &c The 
through trade was considerable, but was hampered by the system of 
levying transit and other dues, known as rahdari, mapa, dalali, chiingt, 
&c. At the present time, except in four or five of the less important 
States, transit duties have eithei been abolished altogether, or are 
levied only on opium, spirits, or intoxicating drugs } but import and 
export duties are still in force in most of the States. 

The chief expoits now are salt, wool and woollen fabrics, raw cotton, 
oilseeds, opium, ghl, marble and sandstone, hides, printed cloths, 
camels, cattle, sheep and goats ; and the mam imports include food- 
grams, English and Indian cotton goods, sugar, tobacco, metals, 
timber, and keiosene oil The bulk of the trade is carried by rail, 
but no complete statistics are available, 

The principal trade centres are the capitals of the various States, 
and also the towns of Baran, Bhilwara, Churu, Dig, Jhunjhunu, Merta, 
Nagaur, Pali, Sambhar, and Sikar. The head-quaiters of banking and 
exchange operations may be said to be Jaipur, the largest and richest 
city of Rajputana, though the principal firms of Maiwa and of the 
northern cities of British India have agencies in most of the towns, 
The employment of capital is, however, becoming less productive since 
the peculiar sources of profit formerly open have been disappearing. 
At the beginning of the nineteenth century large commercial specula- 
tions had more the character of military enterprises than of industrial 
ventures, when the great banking firms remitted goods or specie 
under armed bands in their own pay, and when loans were made at 
heavy interest for the payment of armies or the maintenance of a 
government. Now, railways and telegraphs are gradually levelling 
profits on exchange and transport of goods, while the greater pros- 
perity and stability of the States, under the wing of the Empire, render 
them more and more independent of the financing bankers. 

The total length of railways in Rajputana, including the British 
District of Ajmer-Merwara, has increased from 652 miles in 1881, 943 
in 1891, and 1,359 in 1901, to 1,576 miles in 1906. 
Of the miles now open, 739 are the property of the 
British Government, and the rest are owned by various Native States , 



134 RAJPUT AN A 

and, with the exception of 48 miles, the entire length is on the metre- 
gauge system. 

The oldest and most important line, the Rajputana-Malwa, belongs 
to Government, and has a total length in Rajputana of about 720 miles. 
Starting from Ahmadabad, it enters the country near Abu Road in the 
south-west, and runs north-east to Bandikui, whence one branch goes 
to Agra and another to Delhi, It also has branches from Ajmer south 
to Nimach and from Phalera north-east to Rewan. With the exception 
of the chord last mentioned, which is a recent extension, the line was 
constructed between 1874 and 1881; it has been worked on behalf 
of Government by the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway 
Company since 1885, and the lease has just been renewed 

The only other Government line in the Province is the Indian Mid- 
land section of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, which runs for 
about ig miles through the Dholpur State between Agra and Gwalior; 
it is on the broad gauge, and was opened for traffic in 1878. 

Of lines owned by Native States, by far the most important is the 
Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway, the property of these two Darbars, and 
worked by a special staff employed by them. Its length in Rajputana 
is 700 miles, 455 belonging to Jodhpur and 245 to Bikaner ; and 124 
additional miles, situated in British territory, are under the same 
management. The line starts from Marwar junction on the Rajputana- 
Malwa system, and runs north-west for 44 miles till it reaches the Luni 
river, whence there are two branches, one almost due west to Hyder- 
abad (Sind), where it meets the North- Western Railway, and the other 
generally north-by-north-east past Jodhpur, Merta Road, and Bikaner 
to Bhatinda in the Punjab. From Merta Road another branch runs 
east, joining the Rajputana-Malwa line at Kuchawan Road, not far 
from the Sambhar Lake. The Jodhpur-Bikaner Railway has been 
constructed gradually between 1881 and 1902, and the total capital 
outlay of the two States to the end of 1904 was about 173 lakhs in the 
year last mentioned the net receipts exceeded 13^ lakhs, thus yielding 
a return of nearly 8 per cent, on the capital outlay. 

The remaining lines are the Udaipur-Chitor, a portion of the Bina- 
Guna-Baran, and the Jaipur-Sawai Madhopur Railways. Of these, the 
first connects the towns after which it is named, is 67 miles in length, 
and is the property of the Udaipur Darbar, by which it was constructed 
between 1895 and 1899, and by which it has been worked since 1898. 
The capital expenditure up to the end of 1904 was nearly 21 lakhs, 
and the net profits average about 5 per cent. 

In the south-east corner of the Province, the Kotah Darbar owns the 
last 29 miles of the Blna-Guna-Baran (broad gauge) line, which was 
opened for traffic in 1899, and has since been worked by the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway. The section within Kotah territory has 



COMMUNICATIONS 135 

cost more than 17 lakhs, but the net profits average only about 
i-| per cent. The line also runs for 22 miles through the Chhabra 
district of Tonk, but this portion is now owned by the Gwalior 
State. 

A metre-gauge line is now being constructed by the Jaipur Darbar 
between its capital and Sawai Madhopur, a distance of 73 miles. The 
first 40 miles as far as Nawai have recently been opened for traffic. 

Another line which is under construction and should greatly benefit 
the south-eastern States is that between Nagda in Gwahor and Muttra. 

It would be difficult to overestimate the benefits which the railway 
has conferred on the inhabitants, particularly during periods of famine. 
Without it, thousands of persons and cattle would have died in 1899- 
1900. It has had the effect of levelling and steadying prices, and 
preventing local distress from disorganizing rural economy, and has 
brought about the general advancement of material prosperity by 
stimulating the cultivation of marketable produce. As for the influ- 
ence which railways have exercised on the habits of the people, it 
may be said that they have a tendency to relax slightly the observance 
of caste restrictions, and to introduce a good deal of Hindustani and 
a sprinkling of English words into everyday use, 

The total length of metalled roads is about 1,190 miles, and of 
unmetalled roads 2,360 miles ; of these, 250 miles are maintained by 
the British Government, and the rest by the various States and 
chiefships. The use of roads for through communication has declined 
since the introduction of the railway. The first great road constructed 
m the country was that between Agra and Deesa, running for about 
360 miles through the States of Bharatpur, Jaipur, Kishangarh, 
Jodhpur, and Sirohi. It was constructed between 1865 and 1875, 
partly at the cost of the States concerned, and partly from Imperial 
funds, and, except for the last 28 miles, was metalled throughout ; 
but it has now been superseded by the railway, and is kept up merely 
as a fair-weather communication. Another important road built about 
the same time was that connecting Nasirabad and Nimach ; but the 
Rajputana-Malwa Railway now runs close to and parallel with it, and it 
is rarely used. The chief metalled roads at present maintained by 
Government are those between Nasirabad and Deoli, passing through 
parts of Jaipur and Kishangarh, and between Mount Abu and Abu 
Road in Sirohi. The States with the greatest lengths of metalled roads 
are Jaipur (292 miles), Bharatpur (165 miles), Kotah (143 miles), and 
Udaipur (142 miles). 

The country carts vary greatly in size, but all are of old-fashioned 
type. In some cases the bottom of the cart is level, while in others 
it is curved, the back part being nearer to the ground in order to 
facilitate unloading. The wheels are seldom tired. In some of the 



I 3 6 



RAJPUTANA 



towns ekkas and tongas are used for the conveyance of passengers, 
and the upper classes occasionally keep bullock-carriages called raths 
or baihs. In the desert tracts the people travel on camels. 

With the exception of Dholpur, which is included for postal purposes 
in the Postmaster-Generalship of the United Provinces, and certain 
States which have postal arrangements of their own, the Province forms 
a circle in the charge of a Deputy-Postmaster-General. The following 
statistics show the advance in business in Rajputana since 1880-1. 
The statement includes figures for Dholpur except when it is otherwise 
stated, but not those of Darbar post offices in States which have their 
own postal arrangements 





1880-1 


1890-1 


1900-1 


1902-3 


Number of post offices 


*8 5 


225 


305 


343 


Number of letter boxes 


*44 


*I31 


227 


249 


Number of miles of postal 










communication 


^2,072 


"3,661 


4 ? ;97 


5,3H 


Total number of postal 










articles delivered 










Letters 


*3,o67,o96 


4,670,784 


5,656,474 


6,044,490 


Postcards . 


*i 72,394 


2,099,360 


4,850,693 


5:797,338 


Packets 


*3i ? 9ii 


I34 3 239 


t25i, 195 


t33>657 


Newspapers 


*i6,o78 


346,088 


$275,900 


J 403,1 1 1 


Parcels 


*42,522 


56,599 


84>523 


97,741 


Value of stamps sold to 










the public . , Rs. 


*78,99 


*2,i 7,594 


2,28,818 


2,09,922 


Value of money-orders 










issued . . . Rs 


*i 2,45,500 


*35,6o,7io 


66,23,911 


50^54.753 


Total amount of sayings 










bank deposits . Rs 




*7,54 J 38 


10,13,299 


12,24,583 



* These figures exclude statistics for Dholpur which are included in the figures for the United 
Provinces. t Includes unregistered newspapers 

\ Registered as newspapers in the Post Office 

The States which, besides possessing British post offices, have 
a local postal system of their own are Biindi, Dholpur, Dungarpur, 
Jaipur, Kishangarh, Shahpura, and Udaipur. The primary object of 
this local service is the transmission of official correspondence ; but 
the public are usually permitted to send letters either on payment 
of a small fee, or, in Bundi, Jaipur, and Kishangarh, by affixing the 
necessary local postage-stamp. 

Rajputana has been subject to famine from the earliest times of 
which we have any tradition. Colonel Tod called 
it the grand natural disease of the western regions, 
and a Mar wan proverb tells us to expect one lean year in three, one 
famine year in eight. 

The cause of scarcity or famine is the failure of the south-western 
monsoon ; adverse weather conditions, such as hail and frost, or visita- 
tions of locusts, have frequently done much damage, but they seldom 



Famine. 



FAMINE T37 

cause more than a partial failure of crops, and this failure is usually 
confined to certain districts. 

Famines may be classified thus according to their intensity : ankdl 
(grain famine) ; jalkal (scarcity of water) ; trinkdl (fodder famine) ; and 
trikal (scarcity of grain, water, and fodder). The tracts most liable 
to famine are the desert regions of Blkaner, Jaisalmer, and Jodhpur, 
situated outside the regular course of both the south-western and north- 
eastern monsoons. Here there are no forests and no perennial rivers ; 
the depth of water from the surface exceeds the practical limit of well- 
irrigation ; and the rainfall is scanty, irregular, and at times so fitful 
that the village folk say that one horn of the cow lies within, and the 
other without, the rainy zone. The best-protected States are found 
along the eastern frontier from Alwar in the north to Jhalawar in the 
south ; the rainfall here is good and fairly regular, and facilities for 
artificial irrigation are abundant. 

From the point of view of famine the kharlf is the more important 
harvest, as the people depend on it for their food supply and fodder. 
The money value of the rabi or spring harvest is, however, generally 
greater than that of the kharlf \ and hence it is often said that the 
people look to the autumn crop for their food supply, and to the spring 
crop to pay their revenue and the village money-lender, on whom they 
usually depend for everything. A late, or even a deficient, rainfall 
would not necessarily entail distress, though the yield of the kharlf 
would probably be below the average ; it might be followed by an 
abundant rabi. On the other hand, absolute failure of rain between 
June and November would not only mean no autumn crops, but cer- 
tain loss to the spring harvest as well. 

When the rains fail, the regular danger signals of distress are a rise 
in prices, and a contraction of charity and credit, indicated respectively 
by the influx of paupers into towns and an enhancement of the rate of 
interest. Other symptoms are a feverish activity in the gram trade, an 
increase in petty crime, and an unusual stream of emigration of the 
people accompanied by their flocks and herds in search of pasturage. 

Of the famines which occurred prior to 1812 there is hardly any 
record save tradition. Colonel Tod mentions one in the eleventh 
century as having lasted for twelve years; and the Mewar chronicles 
contain an eloquent account of the visitation of 1661-2, when the con- 
struction of the dam of the Raj Samand lake at KANKROLI, the oldest 
known famine relief work in the country, was commenced. We are 
told that July, August, and September passed without a drop of rain ; 
' the world was in despair, and people went mad with hunger. Things 
unknown as food were eaten. The husband abandoned the wife, the 
wife the husband parents sold their children time increased the evil, 
it spread far and wide : even the insects died, they had nothing to feed 



138 RAfPUTANA 

on. Those who procured food to-day ate twice what nature required. 
. . . The ministers of religion forgot their duties ; there was no longer 
distinction of caste, and the Sudra and Brahman were undistmguish- 
able. ... All was lost in hunger ; fruits, flowers, every vegetable thing, 
even trees were stripped of their bark, to appease the cravings of 
hunger: nay, man ate man!' The years 1746, 1755, X 783~5j and 
1803-4 are all mentioned as periods of scarcity, but no details are avail- 
able In 1804, however, Kotah escaped, and the regent Zalim Singh 
was able to fill the State coffers by selling grain to the rest of the 
country at about 8 seers per rupee. 

The famine of 1812-3 is described as rivalling that of 1661 in the 
havoc it caused ; the crops failed completely and the price of grain is 
said to have risen to 3 seers per rupee. The mortality among human 
beings was appalling, and in certain States three-fourths of the cattle 
perished. 

For the next fifty-five years there was no general famine in Rajputana; 
but there were periods of recurring scarcity in parts, notably in the 
south and west in 1833-4 and 1848-9, in the north and east in 1837-8, 
and in the east, particularly in Alwar, in 1860-1. 

The main stress of the calamity of 1868-9 was felt * n ^ ne northern, 
central, and western tracts, excluding Jaisalmer, which is said to have 
occupied the extreme western limit of the famine area ; but every State 
was more or less affected. The rams of 1868 came late, fell lightly, 
and practically stopped in August; the result was a triple famine (trikat). 
The people emigrated m enormous numbers with their flocks and herds, 
but as most of the surrounding Provinces were themselves in distress, 
the emigrants became aimless wanderers and died in thousands. Sub- 
sequently, cholera broke out and found an easy prey in the half-starved 
lower classes. The area cultivated for the rail was only half of the 
normal, and the heavy prolonged winter rains prevented more than half 
of the crops sown from reaching maturity Large numbers of people 
returned to their villages in May, 1869, in the belief that the rains 
would be early, but the monsoon did not break till the middle of July, 
and in the interval thousands died. Owing to want of cattle, the land 
was sown with extreme difficulty, and the ploughing was done to a con- 
siderable extent by men and women. The autumn harvest, however, 
promised well, and the crops were developing satisfactorily, when locusts 
appeared in unprecedented numbers and, where the country was sandy, 
ate up everything. To crown all, the heavy rains of September and 
October were followed by a virulent outbreak of fever and, m the end, 
the autumn crop was but one-eighth of the normal. There are no 
materials for estimating either the total cost of this famine or the num- 
bers who were relieved. The Maharana of Udaipur is said to have 
spent about five lakhs in direct relief; the expenditure in Jaipur appears 



FAMINE 139 

to have been nearly as great, and others mentioned as conspicuous for 
their charities or liberal policy were the chiefs of Jhalawar, Kishangarh, 
and Sirohi, Some idea of the scarcity of forage may be gathered from 
the fact that in Marwar wheat was at one time being sold at 6, and 
grass at 5-5 seers per rupee, while in Haraoti the prices of grain and 
grass were the same, weight for weight. This dearth of fodder, coupled 
with the scarcity of water, caused heavy mortality among the live-stock, 
and it was estimated that 75 per cent, of the cattle died or were sold 
out of the country. Grain was imported by camels from Smd and 
Gujarat, and by carts along the Agra-Ajmer road. The latter com- 
munication had just been completed, but there was no railway line 
nearer than Agra on the east and Ahmadabad to the south. As the 
Governor-General's Agent wrote at the time, had not the East Indian 
and Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railways been in working 
order, grain would not have been procurable for money, and central 
Rajputana would have been abandoned to the vultures and the wolves. 
Even as it was, the mortality was terrible ; it was estimated that both 
Bikaner and Jodhpur lost one-third of their population, and generally 
throughout the country the people died by thousands and lay unburied 
by the waysides. 

In 1877 the rains were very late, and there was considerable distress 
in Alwar, Bharatpur, and Dholpur. The autumn crop failed almost 
completely ; there was great scarcity of fodder, and more than 200,000 
persons emigrated. Alwar is said to have lost by deaths and emigration 
one-tenth of its population, and Dholpur 25,000 persons. Relief 
measures were started late and were on the whole inadequate. 
Advances were given to the extent of about a lakh, but the expenditure 
on relief works is only available for Alwar, namely Rs. 31,000. In 
this year also there was a severe grass famine in Jaipur and Jodhpur, 
which caused heavy mortality among the cattle. 

The year 1891-2 was one of severe scarcity in Bikaner, Jaisalmer, 
Jodhpur, and Kishangarh, and is noticeable as having been the first 
occasion on which the provisions of the Famine Code for Native States 
were earned out in practice. The maximum number on relief works* 
on any one day was never very large (about 15,000), owing to emigra- 
tion, the self-reliance of the people, the comparatively liberal exercise 
of private charity, and the peculiar relations obtaining between the 
cultivators and the village bankers. Fodder was at famine prices and 
often not available, but, owing to imports by railway, food-grains were 
plentiful, selling at less than 20 per cent, above normal rates. The 
four States above mentioned spent between them about 3 lakhs on 
relief works, and Rs. 44,000 on gratuitous relief. Advances- to cultiva- 
tors amounted to about Rs. 34,000, revenue was suspended to the 
extent of more than 2 lakhs, and remitted in the case of 5| lakhs more. 

VOL. XXI. K 



140 RAJPUT AN A 

A weak monsoon in 1895 caused some distress in the north and 
west and a great dearth of fodder in Alwar. In the following year the 
rainfall was either deficient or unevenly distributed, and there was 
famine in Blkaner and Dholpur, and scarcity in Bharatpur, Jaisalmer, 
Jodhpur, and Tonk. The total direct expenditure on relief in these 
six States exceeded 9 lakhs, and there were large remissions and sus- 
pensions of land revenue. 

An indifferent season in 1898 was followed by the great famine of 
1899. The monsoon failed everywhere; the rams crops were entirely 
lost over all but a very limited area in the east and south-east, and 
there was no grass except along the base of the Aravallis and in the 
hilly tracts in the south. The early withdrawal of the monsoon currents 
had an equally disastrous effect on the rabi sowings; the area com- 
manded by artificial irrigation had shrunk to a fraction of the normal, 
as the tanks were dry and the wells had largely failed. The situation 
was intensified by the natural check put upon emigration by a failure 
of crops and fodder in most of the neighbouring territories, which 
tradition had taught the hardy desert cultivators to look upon as an 
unfailing refuge in times of trouble. Thousands emigrated at the first 
sign of drought, but many returned hopeless and helpless as early as 
October, and their reports went far to deter others from joining in the 
great trek. Relief measures were started on a scale never before 
attempted in Rajputana, and were continued till October, 1900. The 
high- water mark was reached in June, 1900, when there were more than 
53,000 persons in receipt of relief of one kind or another. Altogether 
about 146 million units 1 were relieved at a cost of nearly 104 lakhs; in 
addition, a sum of 24 lakhs was received from the Indian Famine 
Charitable Relief Fund, and the greater part of it was spent in pro- 
viding additional comforts, maintaining orphans, establishing depots 
for the relief of returning emigrants, and generally in giving the people 
a fresh start in life. Loans and advances amounted to more than 
24 lakhs, revenue was remitted to the extent of 28 lakhs, and sus- 
pended in the case of 48 lakhs. There was also much private charity 
by missionaries and other benevolent persons or bodies, the amount of 
which it is impossible to estimate even approximately. The Govern- 
ment of India assisted the Darbars with loans of nearly 63^ lakhs, and 
placed at their disposal the services of engineers with experience in 
irrigation works, and officers of the Indian Army to assist in supervising 
the administration of relief. An epidemic of cholera between April 
and June, 1900, caused terrible loss of life, and the Bhlls of the 
southern States are known to have died in large numbers from this 
disease and from starvation. The difficulty of saving these aboriginal 
people in spite of themselves was enormous. While ready to accept 
1 A unit means one per&on relieved for one day. 



FAMINE 141 

any gratuitous relief offered in money or food, they had an almost in- 
vincible repugnance to earning a day's wage on the famine works. The 
last four months of 1900 were marked by an exceedingly virulent out- 
break of fever, which is said to have caused more deaths than want of 
food in the period during which famine conditions prevailed. To this 
famine of 1899-1900, and to the epidemics of cholera and malarial 
fever which respectively accompanied and followed it, must be ascribed 
almost entirely the large decrease in population since the Census of 
1891. This famine is also remarkable for having brought to notice the 
great advance made by the chiefs of Rajputana generally in recognizing 
their responsibilities to their people and in adopting measures to give 
that feeling practical expression. 

The crops harvested in the autumn of 1900 and the succeeding 
spring were good ; but this brief spell of prosperity came to an end 
with the monsoon of 1901, which was weak and ceased early. Fodder 
and pasturage were sufficient, and there was no cause for anxiety on the 
score of water-supply except in the south ; but both the %/iartfof 1901 and 
the rabi of 1902, besides being poor owing to want of ram, were much 
damaged by rats and locusts. The period of distress extended from 
November, 1901, to October, 1902 ; and the revival of the monsoon at 
the end of August, 1902, after an unusually prolonged break, narrowly 
saved the whole country from disaster. Famine conditions prevailed 
in Banswara, Dungarpur, Kishangarh, and the Hilly Tracts of Mewar, 
and scarcity in parts of Jaipur, Partabgarh, Tonk, Udaipur, and the 
three western States. Altogether about nine million units were relieved 
on works or in poorhouses, at a cost of about 8J lakhs, remissions and 
suspensions of land revenue were granted to the extent of 14% lakhs, 
and Rs. 88,000 was advanced to agriculturists. 

The succeeding seasons were favourable ; but the deficient rainfall of 
1905 caused considerable distress in parts, particularly in the east, and 
relief measures were again found necessary in ten States, 

The chief steps taken to secure protection from the extreme effects of 
famine and drought have been the opening up of the country by means 
of railways and roads, the construction of numerous irrigation works, 
and the grant of advances for the sinking of new wells or the deepening 
of old ones. All these measures have of late been receiving the 
increased attention of the Darbars. But in the vast desert tracts in the 
west and north, where water is always scarce, where artificial irrigation 
is out of the question, and where the crops depend solely on the rain- 
fall, the greatest safeguard against famine consists in the migratory 
habits of the people. The traditional custom of the inhabitants is to 
emigrate with their flocks and herds on the first sign of scarcity, before 
the grass withers and the scanty sources of water-supply dry up. 
^Moreover, the people are by nature and necessity self-reliant and 

K 2 



142 RAJPUTANA 

indifferent, if not opposed, to assistance from the State coffers, and 
many of them consider it so derogatory to be seen earning wages on 
relief \\orks in their own country that they prefer migration. As an 
instance, it may be mentioned that in Jaisdlmer in 1891-2 relief works 
started by the Darbar had to be finished by contract, as the people 
prefened to find employment m Sind. It would seem then that in 
these tracts, where there is but one crop a year, emigration must con- 
tinue to be the accustomed remedy. 

The Government of India is represented in Rajputana by a Political 
officer styled the Agent to the Governor-General, who is also the Chief 

. . Commissioner of the small British Province of Aimer- 

Administration. ^ T _ TTU^U A *.<.!. r 

Merwara. He has three or more Assibtants, two of 

whom are always officers of the Political department, and a native 
Attache. Other members of his staff are the Residency Surgeon and 
Chief Medical Officer, and the Superintending Engineer and Secretary 
in the Public Works department. Subordinate to the Governor- 
General's Agent are three Residents and five Political Agents, who are 
accredited to the various States forming the Rajputana Agency ; 
and in the south-west of Udaipur State the commandant and second 
in command of the Mewar Bhil Corps are, subject to the general 
control of the Resident, respectively Political Superintendent and 
Assistant Political Superintendent of the Hilly Tracts of Mewar. 

The following is a list of the officers who have held the substantive 
appointment of Agent to the Governor-General : Colonel A. Lockett 
(1832); Major N. Alves (1834); Colonel J. Sutherland (1841); 
Colonel J. Low (1848),, Colonel G. Lawrence (1852 and 1857); 
Colonel Sir H. Lawrence (1853)5 Colonel E. K. Elliot (1864), 
Colonel W. F. Eden (1865) ; Colonel R. H. Keatmge (1867) ; Colonel 
Sir L, Pelly (1874); Sir A. C. Lyall (1874); Colonel Sir E. Bradford 
(1878); Colonel C. K. M. Walter (1887); Colonel G, H. Trevor 
(1890); Sir R. J. Crosthwaite (1895); Sir A. Martmdale (1898); and 
Mr. E. G. Colvin (1905). 

The actual administrative organization of the different States varies 
considerably ; but, speaking generally, the central authority is in the 
hands of the chief himself and, when he has a turn for government, 
his superintendence is felt everywhere. He is usually assisted by a 
Council or a body of ministerial officers called the Mahakma khas, or 
by a Dlwan or Kamdar. The officials in the districts are variously 
termed hakims^ tahslldars^ ndzlms, and ziladars, and, as a rule, they 
perform both revenue and judicial duties. 

As has already been stated, the Rajputana Agency is made up of 
eighteen States and two chiefships 1 , which constitute eight Political 

1 There is a distinction between a State and a chiefship In Rajputana the ruler of 
a State bears the title oi Hib Highness, while the ruler of a chiefship does not Agairf> 



LEGISLATION AND JUSTICE 143 

Charges three "Residencies and five Agencies undei the superinten- 
dence of the Governor-General's Agent. The MKWAR RESIDENCY 
comprises the States of Udaipur, Banswara, Dungarpur, and Partab- 
garh; the WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES RESIDENCY comprises Jodh- 
pur, Jaisalmer, and Sirohi ; and the JAIPUR RESIDENCY comprises the 
States of Jaipur and Kishangarh and the chiefship of Lawa. The five 
Agencies are the [ARAOTI AND TONK AGENCY (Bundi, Tonk, and 
the Shahpura chiefship), the EASTERN RAJPUTANA STATES AGENCY 
(Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli), the KOTAH-JHALAWAR AGENCY, 
the Bikaner Agency, and the Alwar Agency. The average area of 
a Political Charge is about 16,000 square miles, and the average 
population nearly a million and a quarter. 

The various districts and subdivisions of the States are usually called 
hukumats, tahslts, nizamats, zilas, or parganas, and altogether number 
about 220. 

In former times there was, properly speaking, neither any written 
law emanating from the head of the State, nor any system of permanent 
and regularly constituted courts of justice. Offices 
combining important judicial and revenue functions Legislation and 
were openly leased out at a fixed annual rental, the 
lessee reimbursing himself by fines and often by legal exactions. 
When the public outcry against his acts became general, he would be 
imprisoned till he disgorged a part of the money squeezed from the 
unhappy people ; but, having paid, he was frequently re-employed. 
In criminal cases the tendency of sentences was towards excessive 
leniency rather than severity ; or, as Colonel Tod has put it, ' justice 
was tempered with mercy, if not benumbed by apathy. 3 Crimes of 
a grave nature were apt to be condoned by nominal imprisonment 
and heavy fine, while offences against religion or caste were dealt with 
rigorously. Capital punishments were rarely inflicted; and, in cases 
of murder, the common sentence would be fine, corporal punishment, 
imprisonment, confiscation of property, or banishment. The indige- 
nous judiciary of the country, for the settlement of all civil and a good 
many criminal cases, was the fanchayat, or jury of arbitration. Each 
town and village had its assessors of justice, elected by their fellow 
citizens and serving as long as they conducted themselves impartially 
in disentangling the intricacies of the complaints preferred to them. 
A person tried by panchayat might appeal to the chief of the State, 
who could reverse the decision, but rarely did so. Another form of 
trial was by ordeal, especially when the court of arbitration had failed 
to arrive at a decision. The accused would be required to put his 

the Government of India has entered into formal treaties with the States, while its 
relations with the chiefships are regulated by some less formal document, such as 
a sanad 



144 RAJPUTANA 

arm into boiling water or oil, or have a red-hot iron placed on his hand, 
a leaf of the sacred fig-tree being first bound on it. If he was scalded 
by the liquid or burnt by the iron, he was guilty ; but if he was unhurt, 
the miracle would be received in testimony of his innocence, and 
he was not only released but generally received presents. Such trials 
were not infrequent, and culprits, aided by art or the collusion of 
those who had the conduct of the ordeal, sometimes escaped. 

Such was the state of affairs in olden days, and even as recently as 
1867 law and system hardly existed in any State. The judges were 
without training and experience ; their retention of office depended on 
the capricious will and pleasure of the chief; they were swayed and 
influenced by the favourites of the hour, and their decisions were liable 
to be upset without cause or reason. Less than thirty years ago the 
criminal courts of more than one State were described as mere engines 
of oppression, showing a determination to make a profit out of crime 
rather than an honest desire to inflict a deterrent punishment. 

Since then, however, great progress has been made. Some of the 
States have their own Codes and Acts, based largely on those of British 
India, while in the others British procedure and laws are generally 
followed. Every State has a number of regular civil and criminal 
courts, ranging from those of the district officers to the final appellate 
authority. Except in the chiefships of Shahpura and Lawa, where 
cases of heinous crime are disposed of in accordance with the advice 
of the Political officer, and in States temporarily under management, 
where certain sentences require the confirmation of either the local 
Political authority or the Governor-General's Agent, the chief alone 
has the power of life or death. 

Two kinds of courts, more or less peculiar to Rajputana, deserve 
mention ; they are the Courts of Vakils and the Border Courts. 

The former are five in number : namely, four lower courts at Deoli, 
Jaipur, Jodhpnr, and Udaipur; and an upper court at Abu. They 
were established about 1844, with the special object of securing justice 
to travellers and others who had suffered injury in territories beyond 
the jurisdiction of their own chiefs, and they take cognizance only of 
offences against person and property which cannot be dealt with by 
any single State. 

The lower courts are under the guidance respectively of the Political 
Agent, Haraoti and Tonk, and the Residents at Jaipur, Jodhpur, and 
Udaipur, and are composed of the Vakils in attendance on these 
officers. They are simply courts of equity, awarding both punishment 
to offenders and redress to the injured ; and, though far from perfect, 
they are well adapted to the requirements of the country. Their 
judgements are based on the principle that the State in which an 
offence is committed is primarily responsible, and ultimately the State 



LEGISLATION AND JUSTICE 145 

into which the offenders are followed in hot pursuit or in which they 
are proved to reside or to which the stolen property is traced. The 
number of cases decided yearly during the decade ending 1901 
averaged no, and 109 were disposed of in 1904-5. The upper court 
is composed of the Vakils attendant on the Agent to the Governor- 
General, and is usually presided over by one of his Assistants, Its 
duties are almost entirely appellate ; but sentences of the lower courts 
exceeding five years' imprisonment, or awards for compensation ex- 
ceeding Rs. 5,000, require its confirmation. The yearly number of 
appeals disposed of varies from 20 to 30. 

The Border Courts are somewhat similar to, but rougher than, those 
just described, and are intended for a very rude state of society where 
tribal quarrels, affrays in the jungle, the lifting of women and cattle, 
and all the blood-feuds and reprisals thus generated have to be 
adjusted. They are held on the borders between the southern States 
of Rajputana and the adjoining States of Gujarat and Central India, 
and usually consist of the British officers in political charge of the 
States concerned. No appeal lies against decisions in which both 
officers concur ; but when they differ, the cases are referred to the 
Agent to the Governor-General for Rajputana, whose orders are final. 
The courts were established with the special object of providing 
a tribunal by which speedy justice might be dispensed to the Bhils 
and Girasias of this wild tract ; after hearing the evidence, they either 
dismiss the case or award compensation to the complainant, and there 
is little or no attempt at direct punishment of offenders. 

Among courts established by the Governor-General-in-Council with 
the consent of the Darbars concerned may be mentioned that of the 
magistrate of ABU, described in the article on that place; those at 
the salt sources of Sambhar, Didwana, and Pachbhadra; and those 
connected with the railway. The salt source courts at Sambhar and 
Didwana are for certain purposes included in Ajmer District, and the 
presiding officers are Assistant Commissioners of the Northern India 
Salt Revenue department, having first-class magisterial powers in the 
case of Sambhar and second-class powers in that of Didwana The 
Assistant Commissioner at Pachbhadra is a second-class magistrate, 
subordinate to the Resident at Jodhpur, who is both District Magis- 
trate and Sessions Judge, while the Governor-GeneraPs Agent is the 
High Court. 

For lands occupied by the Indian Midland Railway there is a special 
magistrate with first-class powers and a Judge of Small Causes, while 
for such portions as he within Dholpur or Kotah limits the Political 
officers accredited to these States are District Magistrates, Courts of 
Session, and District Judges, and the Governor-General's Agent is the 
High Court. Similarly, the Rajputana-Malwa Railway has its first and 



I 4 6 RAJPUTANA 

second-class magistrates and courts of Small Causes ; the Residents at 
Jodhpur and Jaipur and the Political Agents at Alwar and Bharatpur 
are District Magistrates and Judges for such portions of the railway as 
lie within the States to which they are accredited ; the Commissioner 
of Ajmer-Merwara is Sessions Judge for the whole of the railway in 
Rajputana, and the Governor-General's Agent is the High Court. 

Lastly, the three Residents, the five Political Agents, and the First 
Assistant to the Agent to the Governor-General are all Justices of the 
Peace for Rajputana. 

The main sources of revenue in former times were the land tax and 
the transit and customs duties, but the amount realized cannot be 
ascertained. The lead, zinc, and copper mines of 
mance. Udaipur are said to have yielded three lakhs yearly, 
and the salt sources in Jodhpur brought in an annual revenue of from 
seven to eight lakhs. Besides these items, numerous petty and vexa- 
tious imposts were levied in connexion with almost every conceivable 
subject. Among these may be mentioned faxes on the occasion of 
births and marriages, on cattle, houses, and ploughs, on the sale of 
spirits, opium, and tobacco, or for the provision of buffaloes to be 
sacrificed at the Dasahra festival. A long list is given by both Colonel 
Tod and Sir John Malcolm. 

The revenue of the States of Rajputana was estimated in 1867 at 
about 235 lakhs, of which nearly two-thirds was derived from the land. 
At the present time it amounts, in an ordinary year, to about 321 lakhs. 
The income of those holding on privileged tenures, such as the jagir- 
dars and mudfiddrs, is not ascertainable, but is known to be large. 
The chief sources of revenue are : land revenue, including tribute from 
iagirddrs, 185 lakhs; customs duties, 47 lakhs; salt, including pay- 
ments by Government under the various treaties and agreements, 
30 lakhs; and railways, 24 lakhs. The remainder is derived from 
court fees, fines, stamps, cotton-presses, excise, forests, mines and 
quarries, &c. The total expenditure in an ordinary year is about 
274 lakhs, the main items being, approximately, in lakhs : army and 
police, 64 , civil and judicial staff, 40 ; public works, 32 ; privy purse, 
palace, and household, 30 ; tribute to Government, including contribu- 
tion to certain local corps, i$^ , and railways, n-| The expenditure 
m connexion with stables, elephants, camels, and cattle is considerable, 
but details are not available. Among minor items may be mentioned the 
medical department, about 4^ lakhs ; and education, nearly 3^ lakhs. 

Almost every State in Rajputana has at one time or another coined 
money ; but except in the case of Mewar, the ruler of which is said to 
have coined as far back as the eighth century, all the mints date from 
the decline of the Muhammadan power. 

The Native Coinage Act, IX of 1876, empowered the Governor- 



LAND REVENUE 147 

Genei al-in-Council to declare coins of Native States of the same fine- 
ness and weight as British coins to be, subject to certain conditions, 
a legal tender in British India, and authorized Native States to send 
their metal to the mints of the Government of India for coinage. The 
only States throughout India which availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity afforded by this Act were Alwar in 1877 and Bikaner in 1893. 
They called in their silver coins, and dispatched them to Government 
mints, whence they were reissued as rupees which bore on the reverse 
the name of the State and the name and title of the chief, and which 
were legal tender in British India, Shortly afterwards (in 1893), the 
Government mints were closed to the unrestricted coinage of silver, 
and the exchange value of all the other Native States' rupees depre- 
ciated. It was decided that the provisions of the Native Coinage Act 
were not applicable to the new condition of affairs , but the Govern- 
ment of India agreed to purchase the existing rupees of Native States 
at their average market value, and to supply British rupees in their 
place, and eight States have taken advantage of this offer, which 
involves cessation of the privilege of minting. There are now only 
seven States (Bundi, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Kishangarh, Tonk, and Udaipur) 
and one chiefship (Shahpura) which have their own coinage, and the 
majority of these propose converting it into British currency as soon 
as their finances or the rate of exchange permit. 

The land may be divided into two mam groups : namely, that under 
the direct management of the Darbar, called khalsa; and that held by 
grantees, whether individuals or religious institutions, 
and known as jdgir, indm, bhiim, muaft, sdsan, dhar- Lan 

mada, c. The proportion of territory under the 
direct fiscal and administrative control of the chief varies widely in 
different States. In Jodhpur it is about one-seventh of the total area, 
in Udaipur one-fourth, and in Jaipur two-fifths , whereas in Kotah it 
forms three-fourths, and in Alwar and Bharatpur seven-eighths. Where 
the clan organization is strongest and most coherent, the chiefs personal 
dominion is smallest, while it is largest where he is, or has lately been, 
an active and acquisitive ruler 

In the khalsa territory the Darbar is the universal landlord ; the 
superior and final right of ownership is vested in it, but many of the 
cultivators also hold a subordinate proprietary right as long as they pay 
the State demand. Except in Alwar and Dholpur and parts of Bikaner 
and Jhalawar, where the system is zamlnddritx something akin to it, the 
Darbar deals directly with the cultivator, though in parts the headman 
of a village sometimes contracts for a fixed payment for a short term 
of years. The cultivating tenures of the peasantry at large are not 
easy to define accurately, though their general nature is much the same 
throughout Rajputana but they may be broadly divided into pakkd 



148 RAJPUTANA 

and kachcha. Those holding on the fdkka tenure may be said to 
possess occupancy rights, which descend from father to son and may 
(generally with, but sometimes without, the sanction of the Darbar) be 
transferred by sale or mortgage. Those holding on the kachchd tenure 
are little better than tenants-at-will ; the land is simply leased to them 
for cultivation, and can be resumed at any time, but in practice they 
are seldom ejected. 

In former times the word jdgir was applied only to estates held by 
Rajputs on condition of military service. Thzjagirdarw&s the Thakur 
or lord who held by grant (fatto] of his chief, and performed service 
with specified quotas at home and abroad. The grant was for the life 
of the holder, with inheritance for his offspring in lineal descent, or 
adoption with the sanction of the chief, and resumable for crime or 
incapacity; this reversion and power of resumption were marked by 
the usual ceremonies, on each lapse of the grantee, of sequestration 
(zabtt\ of relief (nazarana\ and of homage and investiture of the 
heir. At the present time, lands granted in recognition of service or 
as a mark of the chiefs personal favour are all classed as jaglr^ though 
the grantees may be Mahajans, Kayasths, &c. The jagirdars may 
therefore be classed as Rajput and non-Rajput; and as regards the 
latter it will suffice to say that they usually pay no tribute or rent, but 
have to attend on the chief when called on. The duties and obliga- 
tions of the Rajput nobles and Thakurs and the conditions on which 
they hold vary considerably, and are mentioned in the separate articles 
on the different States. Some pay a fixed sum yearly as quit-rent or 
tribute, and have also to supply a certain number of horsemen or foot- 
soldiers for the public service. Others either pay tribute or provide 
armed men, or, in lieu of the latter obligation, make a cash payment 
At every succession to an estate, the heir is bound to do homage to 
his chief and to pay a considerable fee, these acts being essential to 
entry into legal possession of his inheritance. He also pays some 
customary dues of a feudal nature, such as on the accession of a chief, 
and is bound to personal attendance at certain periods and occasions. 
Disobedience to a lawful summons or order, or the commission of a 
grave political offence, involves sequestration or confiscation, but the 
latter course is rarely resorted to. fagtr estates cannot be sold, but 
mortgages are not uncommon, though they cannot be foreclosed; 
adoptions are allowed with the sanction of the Darbar. 

Those holding on the bhum tenure are called bhumias, and are 
mostly Rajputs ; they usually pay a small quit-rent, but no fee on 
succession. They perform certain services, such as watch and ward, 
escort of treasure, c. ; and provided they do not neglect their duties, 
they hold for ever. 

The other tenures mentioned above, namely, mam, muafi, sasan, 



MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE 149 

dharmada, &c., may be grouped together. Lands are granted there- 
under to Rajputs for maintenance, to officials in lieu of salary, and to 
Brahmans, Charans, &c. } in charity ; they are usually rent-free, and are 
sometimes given for a single life only. Grants to temples, however, 
are given practically in perpetuity, but the lands cannot be sold. 

Private rights in land are hardly recognized in Rajputana; and the 
payments made by the cultivators are, therefore, technically classed 
as revenue, and rents in the ordinary significance of the term scarcely 
exist In former times the revenue was taken m kind, and the share 
paid varied considerably in every State for almost every crop and for 
particular castes. In some cases the share would be one-eleventh, and 
in others as much as one-half of the gross produce. Several methods 
of realization prevailed, but the most common were latai (also called 
lata) or actual division of the produce, and kankut or division by con- 
jectural estimate of the crop on the ground. This system, though still 
in force in some of the States, particularly in the jagtr villages belonging 
to the Thakurs and others, is losing ground, and cash payments are 
now more common. The rates vary according to the class of the soil, 
the distance of the field from the village, the caste of the cultivator, 
the kind of crop grown, the policy of the State, &c. They range from 
i-| annas per acre of the worst land to Rs. 15 or Rs. 20 per acre of 
the best irrigated land. In suburbs where fruit and garden-crops are 
grown the rate rises to Rs. 35 and Rs, 40, and some of the betel-leaf 
plantations pay as much as Rs. 70 per acre. 

Regular settlements have been made in Alwar (1899-1900), Bharat- 
pur (1900), Bikaner (1894), Dholpur (1892), Jhalawar (1884), Kotah 
(1877-86), Tonk (1890-2), and parts of Jodhpur (1894-6) and Udaipur 
(1885-93) ; and settlements are now in progress in Banswara, Dungar- 
pur, and Partabgarh. 

Poppy is grown in several parts of Rajputana, notably in Udaipur, 
Kotah, Jhalawar, and the Nimbahera district of Tonk. The area 
ordinarily under cultivation with poppy is about 100 
square miles, but used to be considerably greater. 
The States, as a rule, levy export, import, and transit 
duties, as well as licence fees for the sale of the drug. The Govern- 
ment of India does not interfere with production or consumption in 
the States, but no opium may pass into British territory for export 
or consumption without payment of duty. The opium is prepared for 
export in balls, and is packed in chests (of 140 Ib. each) or in half- 
chests. The Government duty is at present Rs. 600 per chest for 
export by sea, and Rs. 700 if intended for local consumption in India 
outside Rajputana. For the weighment of the opium, the levy of this 
duty, and the issue of the necessary passes, depots are maintained at 
Chitor in the Udaipur State, and at Baran in Kotah, the latter having 



TSO RAJPUTANA 

been opened in June, 1904. The number of chests passing yearly 
through the scales at Chitor averages about 4,400, while at Baran 
during the nine months ending March, 1905, nearly 1,100 chests were 
weighed. In addition, some of the Rajputana opium goes to the 
scales at Indore and Ujjain in Central India. 

The salt revenue of the States is considerable, amounting to about 
30 lakhs a year, of which nearly five-sixths are payments made by the 
Government of India under various treaties and agreements. The 
States of Blkaner and Jaisalmer still make a small quantity of edible 
salt for local consumption, and at certain petty works in Jodhpur and 
Kotah the manufacture of khdri 01 earth-salt for industrial purposes 
is permitted up to 22,000 maunds. Elsewhere, the manufacture of 
salt by any agency other than that of the British Government is abso- 
lutely prohibited, and all taxes and duties have been abolished by the 
Darbars. The amount paid by the Government is made up of rent for 
the lease of the various salt sources, royalty on sales exceeding a certain 
amount, and compensation for the suppression of manufacture and the 
abolition of duties. In addition, over 3 7,000 maunds of salt are delivered 
yearly to various Darbars free of all charges, 225,000 maunds are made 
over to Jodhpur free of duty, and 20,000 maunds to Blkaner at half 
the full rate of duty. The sources now worked by Government are 
at Sambhar, Didwana, and Pachbhadra, and during the five years 
ending 1902-3 they yielded 18 per cent, of the total amount of salt 
produced in India. 

The excise revenue is derived from liquor and intoxicating drugs, 
and is estimated at about 4 lakhs a year. In the case of liquor the 
system in general force is one of farming, the right of manufacture and 
sale being put up to auction and sold to the highest bidder for a year 
or a term of years. In some States the stills are inspected by certain 
officials, but as a rule there is no Excise department and no supervision. 
Country liquor is prepared by distillation from the mahua flower, 
molasses, and other forms of unrefined sugar , very little foreign liquor 
is consumed. The drugs in use are those derived from the hemp plant, 
such as gdnja, bhang, and charas ; and the right to sell them is also put 
up to auction. 

The net average stamp revenue varies between 4 and 5 lakhs, of 
which about three-fourths is said to be derived from judicial, and the 
remainder from non-judicial stamps. 

Rajputana cannot be said to contain any municipalities in the true 
sense of the term, that is to say, towns possessed of corporate privileges 
_ of local government ; but municipal committees have 

municipal. been consti ^ted in 39 cities and towns. The elective 
system does not exist, all the members being nomi- 
nated by the Darbar concerned or, in the case of the Abu municipality, 



PUBLIC WORKS 151 

by the Governor-General's Agent The principal duties of the various 
committees are connected with conservancy and lighting, the settlement 
of petty disputes relating to easements, and the prevention of encroach- 
ments on public thoroughfares; and the sanitary condition of towns 
under municipal admimstiation has certainly been improved. The 
total expenditure of these municipalities amounts to about 3 lakhs 
a year, which is denved chiefly from a town tax or octroi on imports, 
or a conservancy cess, or from contributions from the State treasury. 

The Rajputana circle of the Imperial Public Works department was 
formed m 1863 under a Superintending Engineer, who is also Secretary 
to the Agent to the Governor-Geneial and to the 
Chief Commissioner, Ajmer-Merwara. Of the two P ublicworks - 
divisions forming this circle, one has its head-quarters at Ajmer and the 
other at Mount Abu. The work of the former, as far as the Native 
States are concerned, is practically confined to the maintenance of the 
road between Nasirabad and Deoli, which traverses the southern half 
of Kishangaih and the extreme south-western portion of Jaipur. The 
Mount Abu division, on the other hand, has constructed and stilt main- 
tains almost all the metalled, and nearly half of the unmetalled, roads 
in Sirohi State, and is responsible for the upkeep of the numerous 
Government buildings at Abu and at the cantonments of Ennpura, 
Kherwara, Kotra, and Deesa, the last of which lies in the Bombay 
Piesidency. 

Each Native State has a Public Works department of some kind 
In the smaller and poorer States will be found a single overseer, while 
in most of the larger or more important ones the head of the depart- 
ment is a British officer, usually lent by the Government of India, with 
a regular staff of one or more Assistant Engineers, besides supervisors 
and overseers as in Bntish India. The expenditure on roads, buildings, 
and irrigation works in a normal year averages about 32 lakhs, and the 
amount spent by an individual State varies from Rs 2,000 orRs. 3,000 
to 7 lakhs. 

The more important works carried out since iSSi have been the 
railways in Jodhpur, Bikaner, Udaipur, and Jaipur \ numerous irrigation 
projects, particularly in Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kishangarh, Bharatpur, Alwar, 
and Kotah , a scheme for the supply of water at Jodhpur, and the 
extension of the gas- and water-works at Jaipur. Among bridges, those 
over the Banas near Isarda in Jaipur, over the Western Banas near 
Abu Road in Sirohi, and the pontoon-bridge across the Chambal at 
Kotah are deserving of mention. The most noteworthy buildings 
erected during recent years are . the Albert Hall, the Lansdowne 
Hospital, and the additions to the Mayo Hospital at Jaipur ; the Resi- 
dency, the Jubilee offices, the Ratanada palace, and the Imperial Service 
cavalry lines at Jodhpur , the Victoria Hall and Lansdowne Hospital 



152 RAJPUTANA 

at Udaipur ; the Ganga Niwas or audience-hall, the new palace (Lal- 
garh), and the courts and offices at Bikaner , the Victoria Hospital at 
Bharatpur and the palaces at Sewar in the same State , the public 
offices at Dholpur , and the new palaces at Alwar and Kotah. Many 
of these buildings were designed by Colonel Sir Swinton Jacob, who 
was for many years the successful head of the Public Works department 
of Jaipur State 

The military forces in Rajputana may be grouped under four heads . 
namely, regiments 01 corps of the Indian army, Imperial Service troops, 
local service troops maintained by the various 
Darbars, and volunteers 

Rajputana lies within the Mhow division of the Western Command 
of the Indian army, and contains three cantonments (Erinpura, Kher- 
wara, and Kotra) and the sanitarium of Abu. The total strength of 
the Indian army stationed in territory belonging to the States of Raj- 
putana is about 1,700, of whom about 70 are men from various British 
regiments and batteries sent up to Abu for change of air. The remainder 
is supplied by the 43rd (Erinpura) Regiment (see the article on ERIN- 
PURA) , the Mewar Bhil Corps (see the articles on KHERWAR.A and 
KOTRA) ; the 42nd (Deoli) Regiment, which furnishes small detachments 
at the Jaipur Residency and the Kotah Agency and the 44th Merwara 
Infantry, which sends a small guard to the Salt department treasury at 
Sambhar. 

The Imperial Service troops are the contributions of certain States 
towards the defence of the Empire. They have been raised since 
1888-9, are under the control of the Darbars furnishing them, and 
are commanded by native officers, subject to the supervision of British 
inspecting officers who are responsible to the Foreign Department of 
the Government of India. Alwar supplies a regiment of cavalry and 
one of infantry, Bharatpur a regiment of infantry and a transport corps, 
Bikaner a camel corps, Jaipur a transport corps, and Jodhpur two regi- 
ments of cavalry. The total force numbers over 5,000 fighting men, 
possesses more than 900 carts and 1,800 ponies or mules, and costs 
the States about 17 lakhs annually to maintain. The troops are, in 
times of peace, usefully employed locally and have served with credit 
in several campaigns: namely, Chitral (1895), Tirah (1897-8), China 
(1900-1), and Somaliland (1903-4). 

The local forces maintained by Darbars number about 42,000 of all 
armscavalry, 6,000; artillerymen, 2,500; and infantry, 33,500 and 
cost about 35 lakhs yearly. These troops are locally divided into regu- 
lars and irregulars ; and while the latter are of no military value what- 
ever, the regulars contain much capital material, and are not unacquainted 
with drill and discipline. The force is employed in various ways : it 
furnishes guards and escorts, performs police duties, garrisons forts, 



POLICE AND JAILS 153 

drives game for the chief, &c. In the matter of ordnance, the States 
possess about 1,400 guns of all shapes and sizes, of which 900 are said 
to be serviceable. Besides the local force just described, there are the 
feudal quotas furnished by ydglrddrs 3 their number is considerable, and 
the men are employed as official messengers, postal escorts, police, c. 

The 2nd Battalion of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway 
Volunteers has its head-quarters at Ajmer. The number of members 
residing in the Native States of Rajputana is about 250, and they are 
found chiefly at Abu Road, Bandikm, Mount Abu 3 and Phalera. 

Police duties in the khdlsa area are performed partly by a regular 
police force and partly by the irregular troops maintained by the Dar- 
bars, while almost every village has its chauklddr or 
watchman. In the jagir estates which form such a Police and 
large part of the country, the duty of protecting traffic, 
preventing heinous crimes, &c,, devolves on \hQjdgirddrs, but no details 
of the force they keep up are available. The regular police maintained 
by Dai bars numbers about 11,000 men and costs 12 lakhs a year. 
The village watchmen are usually remunerated by allotments of land 
and also get certain perquisites from the cultivators. Several criminal 
tribes, such as the Baoris or Moghias, the Minas, the Kanjars, and the 
Sansias, are under surveillance, and efforts are being made to induce 
them to settle down to agricultural pursuits, but with no marked success. 

The conditions under which prisoners live have been greatly amelio- 
rated during the last thirty or forty years. Formerly, civil and criminal 
offenders and lunatics were huddled together indiscriminately, and taken 
out to beg their bread in the streets ; and it was only in 1884 that the 
system of recovering the cost of their food from prisoners was abolished 
everywhere. In almost all the jails the use of the iron lei chain, which 
passed through the fetters of a long row of prisoners, was universal, and 
was abandoned as recently as 1888. In some States the convicts were 
' chained up like dogs in the open plain, unprovided with kennels ' ; but 
the great evil was overcrowding, which was the cause of much sickness 
and mortality. Since those times, there has been great progress in jail 
management. Ventilation, diet, clothing, discipline, and general sanitary 
condition have all been improved ; there is less overcrowding, and some 
of the Central jails are as well managed and as healthy as any in British 
territory. The condition of the prisons and lock-ups in the districts is, 
however, not so satisfactory. Each State and chiefship (except Lawa) 
has a jail at its capital, and Jaipur has two, the second being known 
as the District jail. There are thus twenty jails, which are for the most 
part under the medical charge of the Residency or Agency Surgeon, 
and are annually inspected by the Chief Medical Officer of Rajputana. 
These jails contain accommodation for 5,380 inmates (4,807 males 
and 573 females), and cost the Darbars from 2^ to 2\ lakhs a year to 



RAJPUTANA 



maintain, Complete statistics are available only from 1896, and are 
given in the table below : 





1896. 


1901 


1904. 




Number of jailb 
Accommodation 
Average daily population 
0) Male . ... 
(0) Female 
Mortality per 1,000 


20 

4>7 6 4 
4,792 
4>5o6 

286 
28-17 


20 

5>327 
5,619 

5i343 
276 

41.47 


20 
5.380 
4.729 
4>450 
279 
17.76 



The principal causes of sickness are malarial fever and splenic and 
respiratory affections. The jail manufactures consist of cotton and 
woollen cloths, rugs, carpets, blankets, dusters, paper, matting, &c. 
The carpets and woollen cloths made in the Bikaner jail are famous 
and find a ready sale. 

Besides the jails above mentioned, there are smaller prisons and 
lock-ups at the head-quarters of almost every district ; but particulars 
regarding them are not available, except that they are intended for 
persons sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. 

Only thirty or forty years ago, the Darbais took little or no interest 
in education. The Thakurs and chiefs, as a rule, considered reading 
and writing as beneath their dignity and as arts 
which they paid their servants to perform for them ; 
and there was a general feeling among Rajputs that learning and 
knowledge should in a great measure be restricted to Brahmans and 
Mahajans. Schools existed everywhere; but they were all of the in- 
digenous type, such as Hindu pathsalas and Musalman maktabs^ in 
which reading, writing, and a little simple arithmetic were taught. 
Classes were held in the open air on the shady side of the street, or 
on the steps of the village temple, or m some veranda ; and the entire 
school equipment often consisted only of a white board, a piece of 
wood for a pen, and charcoal water for ink. These indigenous institu- 
tions have held their own, and are still much appreciated, especially 
by the trading castes, who are generally content with a little knowledge 
of the vernacular, and the native system of arithmetic and accounts for 
their sons , if a slight acquaintance with English is sometimes thought 
desirable, it is because telegrams play an important part in business 
in these days. 

The first public institutions were established at Alwar in 1842, at 
Jaipur in 1845, and at Bharatpur in 1858; and the other Barbara 
followed suit between 1863 and 1870. Shortly afterwards, schools 
were opened in the districts, the teaching of English became common 
it the capitals of most of the States, and female education received 
attention. It is unfortunately not possible to show the gradual pro- 
gress made in Rajputana as a whole by giving statistics for certain 






DIVISIONS OF RAJPUTANA 

1 WESTERN RAJPUTANA STATES 

RESIDENCY 
I HARAOTI AND TONK AGENCY 

3 MEWAR RESIDENCY 

4 JAIPUR RESIDENCY 

5 EASTERN RAJPUTANA 

STATES AGENCY 

6 KOTAH AND JHAUWAR 
AGENCY 




EDUCATION 155 

yeais, because complete returns are available for only some of the 
States ; but there can be no doubt that the progress has been great. 
The number of schools and scholars has increased largely, the standard 
of education and the qualifications of the teachers are higher, and the 
successes achieved at university examinations have been considerable, 

Omitting the private indigenous schools, which are known to be 
numerous but send in no returns, except in Jaipur, the educational 
institutions at the end of March, 1905, numbered altogether 647, , 
of which 510 were maintained by the several Darbars, 103 by private 
individuals, caste communities, &c., and 34 by missionary societies, 
They 'consist of four colleges, 86 secondary schools, 545 primary 
schools, including 53 for girls, and 12 special schools. The number 
on the lolls of these 647 institutions in 1905 was 37,670, and the daily 
average attendance during 1904-5 was 28,130. The total amount 
spent by the Darbars on education is about 3-| lakhs yearly, and to 
this sum must be added the cost of the schools maintained by private 
individuals, &c. In some of the States a small school-cess is levied ; 
but, speaking generally, education is free, fees being the exception. 

The Arts colleges, two in number, are at Jaipur and Jodhpur, and 
were attended during 1904-5 by 96 students. The Jaipur institution 
dates from 1873, an d tn e othei was established in 1893. Both aie 
first-grade colleges affiliated to the Allahabad University, and have 
between them, up to the present time, passed 4 students for the degree 
of M.A., 75 for that of B.A,, and 180 in the Intermediate or First 
Arts examination. 

The only colleges for the cultivation of the Oriental classics are at 
Jaipur. The Sanskrit college imparts instruction in that language up 
to the highest standard, while the Oriental college prepares students 
for the Persian- Arabic title examinations of the Punjab University. 

The 86 secondary schools are attended by 11,540 boys, and arej 
divided into high and middle schools. In the former English is 
taught up to the standard of the entrance and school final examina- 
tions, while in the latter either English or the vernacular is taught. 

The primary schools for boys number 492, and are of two kinds, 
upper and lower. The daily average attendance during 1904-5 was 
17,308. The course of instruction is simple, but in some of the upper 
schools a little English is taught. 

Schools for girls were first established about 1866 in Bharatpur, 
Jaipur, and Udaipur , they numbered 53 in 1905, and were attended 
by 2,225 pupils. Female education has made little headway, as social 
customs hinder its growth. The subjects taught are reading, writing, 
and arithmetic in Hindi, and needlework. 

The special schools include a school of arts at Jaipur, established in 
1868 and attended during 1904 by 96 students; a normal school 

VOL. XXI, L 



r S 6 RAJPUTANA 

and other institutions in which painting, carpet-weaving, surveying, 
telegraphy, &c., are taught. 

The only institutions for Europeans and Eurasians are the Lawrence 
school at ABU, which, however, is open only to the children of soldiers- 
the high school, also at Abu, which is under private management but 
receives a grant-in-aid from Government 3 and a small primary school 
at Abu Road, maintained by the Rajputana-Malwa Railway authorities 
for the benefit of the children of their European and Eurasian em- 
ployes. Including 80 children at the Lawrence school, these three 
institutions were attended during 1904-5 by about 190 boys and girls. 

Lastly, mention must be made of the Mayo College, which was 
established for the education of the chiefs and nobles of Rajputana. 
An account of it will be found in the article on AJMER CITY. 

The table below relates to the year 1901, and shows that in Rajpu- 
tana 62 males and 2 females out of 1,000 of either sex could read 
and write. The Sirohi State, owing to its comparatively large Euro- 
pean, Eurasian, and Pars! communities at Abu (the head-quarters of the 
Local Government and a sanitarium for British troops) and Abu Road, 
heads the list for both sexes. According to religion, 71 per cent, of 
the Christians, 67 per cent, of the Parsis, and 24 per cent, of the 
Jams were literate ; but in the case of the Hindus and Musalmans, 
who form the great majority of the population, the proportions sink to 
2-7 and 2*4 per cent, respectively. Similar figures for 1891 are not 
available, as this information was not recorded at that Census. 



State or chtefship. 


Number of persons per 1,000 
able to read and write. 


Males 


Females. 


Total 


Sirohi 


124 


6 


68 


Jodhpur ....,,. 


IOO 

98 


3 
4 


54 
53 


Shahpura 


Kishangarh . . . 
Partabgarh 


84 
83 


4 
i 


46 

42 


Udaipur 

Jhalawar . . 


% 


2 
2 


40 
34 


Tonk . . ... 


62 


2 


33 


Dungarpur 


65 


I 


33 


Jaisalmer 


54 


I 


20 


Bharatpur ... . 


52 


I 


38 


Alwar . . 


5 1 


I 


27 


Blkaner . ... 


47 


2 


25 


Jaipur . 


47 


I 


25 


Bundi . ... 


46 


T 


24 


Kaiauli 


4 1 


2 


22 


Banswara 


43 


I 


22 


Lawa . ... 


29 


3 


16 


Kotah 


28 


j 




Dholpur. , .... 


26 


i 


J 5 
14 


Total 


62 


2 


33 



MEDICAL 



Dispensaries appear to have been fust opened about fifty-five or 
sixty years ago. The earliest report on them mentions nine as 
existing in 1855, and this number increased to 58 
in 1871, The following table shows the subsequent 
progress . 



Medical. 





1881 


1891 


igor 


1904. 


Number of hospitals and dis- 










pensaries 


74 


128 


178 


178 


Accommodation for in-patients 


459 


55 


1,388 


1,480 


Total cases treated 


263,684 


674,870 


1,139,742 


1,1 j 7 999 


Average daily number of 
(a) In-patients 


408 


623 


990 


7 2 3 


(b} Out-patients 


2,720 


6,372 


9,170 


7,290 


Number of operations performed 


15,832 


45,078 


59,022 


57,068 


Expenditure on 










(a) Establishment . . Rs. 


46,000 


95,916 


1,69,989 


1,79,521 


() Medicine, diet, &c. . Rs. 


19,500 


78,604 


^52,932 


1,33.588 



Of the total of 178 hospitals and dispensaries, 168 are maintained 
by the Darbars or, in a few cases, by the more enlightened Thakurs, 
8 by the Government of India, and 2 partly by Government and 
partly from private subscriptions. Included in these are seven hos- 
pitals (with 191 beds) exclusively for females. In addition, there are 
four railway and two mission hospitals, in which nearly 96,000 cases 
were treated and 1,000 operations were performed in 1904, as well as 
the Imperial Service regimental hospitals from which no returns are 
received. The total annual expenditure of the States of Rajputana on 
medical institutions, including allowances to Residency and Agency 
Surgeons, is about 4 lakhs. 

In ten of the States small lunatic asylums are maintained ; elsewhere 
dangerous lunatics are usually kept in the jails. The number treated 
in 1904 was 151. At the Census of 1901, 967 persons (591 males and 
376 females) weie returned as insane ; the chief causes of the malady 
are said to be mental strain and intemperance. 

Inoculation by indigenous methods was at one time widely practised, 
but is now disappearing with the spread of vaccination. The Bhils are 
said to have inoculated from time immemorial under the name of 
kanai t the operation being performed with a needle and a grain, of dust 
dipped into the pock of a small-pox case. 

Vaccination appears to have been introduced on a small scale about 
1855-6, when 1,740 persons submitted to the operation, and the num- 
ber increased to 53,000 in 1871. Since then, as will be seen from the 
table on next page, there has been great progress. Vaccination is, on 
the whole, not unpopular, and has done much to lessen the virulence 
and fatality of outbreaks of small-pox. Lymph is kept up throughout 
the year in most of the important States by arm-to-arm vaccination in 

L 2 



i S 8 



RAJPUTANA 



selected places during the hot season, and humanized lymph is gener- 
ally used. Buffalo calf lymph is largely employed in several States. 





1881. 


lS<)I-2 


1901-2 


1904-5 


Number of vaccmators employed 
Number of persons vaccinated . 
Number of successful operations . 
Ratio per 1,000 of population 
successfully vaccinated . 
Total expenditure , , Rs 
Cost per successful case Rs 


72 
94,566 
85,403 

9' 
9,892 

O-I-IO 


192 

233,39 
228,425 

20 
24,55 s 

o-i-8 


185 
255,97 
251,816 

26 

25,720 
0-1-8 


170 
286,628 
282,749 

29 
24,226 
0-1-4 



Surveys. 



The system of selling quinine in pice packets at post offices was 
introduced in 1894. These packets were at first supplied to post- 
masters by the Residency and Agency Surgeons, but since 1902 have 
been obtained direct from the Superintendent of the Allgarh jail. In 
1904-5 more than 50,525 packets of 7 -grain doses were sold. 

The operations of the Great Trigonometrical Suivey of India have 
extended to parts of Rajputana, and the entire countiy was surveyed 
topographically by the Survey of India between 
1855 an ^ 1891, In the majority of the States cadas- 
tral suiveys have been carried out during the last fifty years, and in 
a few others they are now in progress. Most of the surveys are con- 
fined to the khalsa or revenue-paying area, and the agency employed 
is not infrequently foreign 

[Rajputana Agency Administration Reports > annually from 1865-6. 
Rajputana Gazetteer, vols i-iii (1879-80, under revision) Report on 
the Famine in the Native States of Rajputana in 1899-1900. Chiefs 
and Leading Families of Rajputana (1903). Census Reports (1891 
and 1901). J. Tod Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, vol. i 
(1829) and vol. ii (1832). J. Tod , Travels in Western India (1839). 
^ J. Malcolm : Memoir of Central India (1832). J. Sutherland : 
Relations subsisting between the British Government in India and the 
different Native States (1837). G. B. Malleson Native States of 
India (1875) C U. Aitchison Treaties, Engagements, and Sanaa's, 
vol, in (1892, under revision) . W. W. Webb : Currencies of the Hindu 
States of Rajputana (1893). T. H. Hendley General Medical History 
of Rajputana (1900). F. Ashton : The. Salt Industry of Rajputana ; see 
Journal of Indian Art and Industry, vol. ix, January, 1901.] 

Rajputana States Agency, Eastern. &0 EASTERN RAJPUTANA 
STATES AGENCY. 

Rajputana States Residency, Western.-^ WESTERN RA> 
PUTANA STATES RESIDENCY. 

Rajshahi Division. Division or Commissionership of Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, extending from the Ganges to the Himalayas and 



RAJSHAlII DIVISION 



159 



lying between 23 49' and 27 o' N. and 87 46' and 89 53' E. It 
is bounded on the east by Assam and the Dacca Division, and on 
the west by the sub-province of Bihar. The Division was formerly part 
of Bengal and then included the District of Darjeelmg ; but in 1905 
it was transferred to Eastern Bengal and Assam with the addition of 
Malda District, while Darjeelmg was transferred to the Bhagalpur 
Division of Bengal. The head-quarters of the Commissioner are at 
JALPAIGURI. The Division includes seven Districts with area, popu- 
lation, and revenue as shown below : 







Current demand in 


District, 


Area m square 
miles 


Population, 
1901 


1 903-4 for land 
revenue and cesses, 
m thousands 








of rupees ; 


Rajshahi 


2,593 


1,462,407 


12,22 


Dmajpur 


3,946 


1,567,080 


16,87 


Jalpaiguri 
Malda . 


2,962 
1,899 


787,380 
884,030 


9,08 , 
5i3 I 


Rangpur 


3,493 


2,154,181 




Bogra . 
Pabna . 


i,359 
1,839 


8,54,533 
1,420,461 


6,05 


Total 


18,091 


9,130,072 


67,62 



The population increased from 7,955,087 m 1872 to 8,280,893 i n 
1881, and to 8,609,007 in 1891. The density of population is 505 
persons per square mile, as compared with 474 for the whole of 
Bengal. Of the total, 62-4 per cent, are Muhammadans and 36-3 per 
cent. Hindus. The small lemamder consists of Ammists (103,633), 
Buddhists (6,352), and Christians (4,448, including 3,494 natives). 
About half the Hindus are the aboriginal Rajbansib and Kochs, and 
the gieat majority of the local Muhammadans are the descendants 
of converts from these tribes. 

The northern part of the Division consists of a strip of submontane 
country, in Jalpaiguri, running along the foot of the Himalayas. This 
tract contains large and valuable forests, and the conditions are also 
very favourable to the growth of tea } the area under this crop in 
Jalpaiguri was 121 square miles m 1903, and the out-turn in that 
year amounted to nearly 37 million pounds, The remainder of the 
Division forms part of the great Gangetic plain. The surface con- 
sists of recent alluvium, except in portions of Malda, Rajshahi, Dmaj- 
pur, and Bogra, which belong to an older and more elevated alluvial 
formation known as the BARIND. More than half of the tobacco crop 
of Bengal is produced in Jalpaiguri and Rangpur, and jute is exten- 
sively cultivated m the south-east of the Division, while the rice of 
Dinajpur is well-known. The Division contains 18 towns and 3 I j33 
villages, The laigebt towns are SIRAJGANJ (population, 23,114) and 



160 RAJSHAHI DIVISION 

RAMPUR BOALIA (21,589). The chief place of commercial impor- 
tance is the jute mart of Sirajganj. A considerable amount of trade 
also passes through SARA, where the northern section of the Eastern 
Bengal State Railway meets the Padma, or main stream of the Ganges ; 
SAIDPUR is the head-quarters of this section. GAUR and PANDUA were 
capitals of the early Muhammadan rulers of Bengal and contain ruins 
of great interest \ DEVIKOT, GHORAGHAT, MAHASTHAN, and SHERPUR 
also possessed some importance under Muhammadan rule, and many 
traditions of earlier times are associated with the ruins at these 
places ; but with these exceptions the Division contains few places of 
historical interest. 

Rajshahi District (the ' royal territory ') District in the south- 
western comer of the Rajshahi Division, Eastern Bengal and Assam, 
lying between 24 7' and 25 3' N and 88 18' and 89 21' E., with an 
area of 2,593 square miles. It is bounded on the north by Dmajpur 
and Bogra Districts ; on the east by Bogra and Pabna ; on the south 
and south-west by the Padma, or main stream of the Ganges, which 
separates it from Nadia and Murshidabad ; and on the west by Malda. 

The District is composed of three entirely distinct tracts The 
north-western portion, bordering on Malda and Dmajpur, is elevated 
and undulating, with a stiff red clay or quasi-laterite 
aspects so ^ > w ^ ere not cultivated, it is covered with brush- 
wood, interspersed with large trees, the remains of 
an extensive forest. Along the bank of the Padma or Ganges is 
a comparatively high and well-drained tract of sandy soil, while the 
central and eastern thdnas are a swampy depression, waterlogged and 
abounding in marshes ; the rivers that once drained this tract have 
been cut in half by the Padma and their mouths have silted up. 

With the exception of the PADMA, which forms the southern 
boundary of the District, and of the MAHANANDA, which runs foi 
a short distance along its western border, the river system is a net- 
work of moribund streams and watercourses, some of which are 
connected with the Padma and others with the Brahmaputra. The 
Baral is an offshoot of the Padma, which eventually mingles its 
waters with those of the Atrai , its upper channels have silted up, 
and from December to June there is now scarcely any cun ent. The 
Narad was formerly another important branch of the Padma, but 
its channel is now practically dry even during the rains The chief 
representatives of the Brahmaputra system are the Atrai and the 
JAMUNA. The former is navigable throughout the year by small 
cargo boats, the latter only m the rains. Another river, whose lower 
reaches are usually passable by country boats, is the Baranai, which 
flows in an easterly direction through the subdivision of Nator. 

The District slopes slightly from west to east, its drainage is 



RAJSHAHI DISTRICT 161 

carried off not by rivers, but through a chain of marshes and swamps. 
The largest of these is the" CHALAN BIL, into which the overflow from 
all the others sooner or later finds its way, to be passed on eventually, 
through an outlet at its south-eastern corner, into the Brahmaputra. 

The greater part of the District is covered with recent alluvium, con- 
sisting of sandy clay and sand along the course of the rivers, and 
elsewhere of fine silt consolidating into clay. The Barind, however, 
belongs to an older alluvial formation j it is composed of massive 
argillaceous beds of a rather pale reddish-brown hue, often weathering 
yellowish, in which are disseminated kankar and pisohtic ferruginous 
concretions. 

Where the ground is not occupied by the usual crops of North 
Bengal, it is covered with an abundant natural vegetation. Old river- 
beds, ponds and marshes, and streams with a sluggish current have 
a copious vegetation of Valhsneria and other plants. Land subject to 
inundation has usually a covering of Tamarix and reedy grasses, and 
where the ground is marshy Rosa involucrata is plentiful. Few trees 
are found on these inundated lands \ the most plentiful and largest is 
the hidjal (Barringtonia acutangula). There are no forests \ and even 
on the higher ground the trees are few and stunted, and the surface 
is covered by grasses, such as Imperata arundinacea and Andropogon 
aciculatus, Among trees the most conspicuous is the red cotton-tree 
or semal (Bombax malabancutn) } the stssu (Dalbergia Sissoa) and the 
mango occur as planted or sometimes self-sown species. The villages 
are generally buried in thickets of semi-spontaneous and more or less 
useful trees. 

Tigers are occasionally found in the Barind and in the country 
south of the Chalan Bil, but they are nowhere common, Leopards 
have greatly diminished in numbers in recent years. Fish abound in 
all the rivers, and the annual value of the Padma fisheries alone has 
been estimated at 2 lakhs. 

Mean temperature increases from 63 in January to 85 in April, 
May, and June. It is about 83 during the monsoon months, falling 
to 72 in November and 65 in December. The highest average maxi- 
mum is 96 in April, and the lowest average minimum 51 in January. 
The annual rainfall averages 57 inches, of which 6-2 fall in May, 10-1 
in June, 11-7 in July, 10-4 in August, and 10-4 in September. 

The earthquake of 1897 was very severely felt, especially in the east 
of the District. Only 15 deaths were reported, but great damage was 
caused to property, and the total loss to Government alone was 
estimated at i-| lakhs. Earth fissures occurred in many places, the 
roads were badly cracked, and the crops damaged by surface sub- 
sidences. 

Rajshahi must originally have formed part of the old kingdom of 



1 62 RAJSHAHI DISTRICT 

PUNDRA, 01 Paundravardhaua, the country of the Pods, whose capital 
was at MAHASTHAN. Under the Sen kings this was kno\\n as the 

Barendra Bhumi, a name which still suivives in the 
History. Barmd tract already referred to. Rajshahi piesents 
an example of the process by which a native zaminddri has been 
moulded into a British District. Early m the eighteenth century it 
was granted by the Muhammadans to Ramjiban, the founder of the 
Nator family. In 1728 the zaminddri of Rajshahi extended from 
Bhagalpur on the west to Dacca on the east, and included a large 
subdivision called Nij Chakla Rajshahi, on the south bank of the 
Padma, which stretched across Murshidabad and Nadia as far as the 
frontiers of Birbhum and Burdwan. Rajshahi thus comprised an area 
of 13,000 square miles, and paid a revenue of 27 lakhs. Unfortunately, 
however, for the Nator family, the estate fell under the management 
of a woman, the celebrated Ram Bhawani, whose charitable grants of 
rent-free land permanently impoverished her ancestral possessions, 
After some years of direct management by Government officers, the 
Ranfs adopted son was permitted in 1790 to engage for the whole 
District at a permanent assessment of 23 lakhs ; but the strict regula- 
tions which were then introduced for the recovery of revenue arrears 
by sale of the defaulter's estate were constantly called into requisition 
against the Raja, and paicel after parcel of his hereditary property 
was sold 

Meanwhile another chain of circumstances was tending to dissolve 
the integrity of the original District At first an attempt was made to 
administer justice through a single Collector-Judge and Magistiate with 
t\vo assistants, one stationed at Muradbagh, near Muishidabad, and 
the other at the local capital of Natoi. In 1793, however, a general 
redistribution of Bengal into Districts was made, and the extensive 
tract lying south of the Padma was taken from the parent District and 
divided among the adjoining juiisdictions of Muishidabad, Nadia, and 
Jesbore. The prevalence of crime in the remoter parts of the District 
rendered further reductions necessary , and in 1813 the present Dis- 
trict of Malda was constituted out of a neglected tract in the west, 
towards which Rajshahi, Dinajpur, and Purnea all contributed their 
share; Bogra was formed in a similar manner in 1821, and Pabna in 
1832 ; and thus Rajshahi District assumed its present proportions. 

The population of the present area increased from 1,423,592 in 1872 

to 1,450,776 in 1881, but fell to 1,439,634 m 1891. It rose again to 

Population M^M ? in 1901, but the growth since 1872 is little 

more than 2 per cent Rajshahi is one of the most 
feverish Districts in Bengal, the unhealthiest portion being the central 
and eastern tract of waterlogged country which has already been 
described. This aiea is notonously malanous, and the mortality from 



POPULATION 



163 



fever has consistently been among the highest lecoided in Bengal 
The pievailing disease is malarial fever ; but cholera and dysenteiy also 
claim their victims. 

The chief statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below ; 



Subdivision 


Area in square 
miles 

: 


Number of 


| 

c3 



Is 

e 
5 

J* 


Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901 


Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write 


c 

1 


in 

j 

> 


Rampur Boalia , 
Naogaon . 
Natoi 

District total 


QIO 
867 

816 


1 

I 


2,271 

2,34<5 

1,727 


563 3 93<5 

476,072 

422,399 


620 

549 
5i8 


- 1-3 

+ 12 T 
- 4 8 


24,297 
2O, 211 

17)732 


2 ;593 


2 


6,344 


1,462,407 


564 


+ 16 


62,240 



The two towns aie RAMPUR BOALIA, the head-quarters, and NAIOR. 
The density would be far greater but for the fact that the District 
contains a large portion of the Bannd and numerous marshes and 
lakes, including the Chalan Bll. In a belt of country running from 
north to south through the centre of the District the population is as 
dense as in almost any pait of North Bengal. For the net increase 
the north of the District is entirely responsible. In the Bannd the 
population has mcieased since 1872 by 25-6 per cent, and in the 
gdnja-g\ owing thanas (Naogaon and Panchupur) by 59-3 per cent., 
while in the decadent southern and central thanas there has been 
a decrease of 12-8 per cent. There has been an extension of immi- 
gration to the Bannd on the part of aboriginal Santals, Mundas, and 
Oraons, who are encouraged to break down and clear the jungle by 
the zamlndars* They are allowed to occupy waste land rent free for 
three or four years , and they then move on, leaving the fields they 
have brought under cultivation to be occupied by the less hardy Hindu 
ryots, who would shrink from undertaking on their own account the 
irksome task of reclamation There has been a considerable drift of 
population within the District from the unhealthy waterlogged tract 
to the healthier and more prospeious thanas in the Naogaon sub- 
division. During the cold season numerous /^/-bearers, earth- 
workers, and field-labourers visit the District, and their presence at 
the time of the Census caused a large excess of males over females, 
The dialect known as Northern Bengali is the vernacular of the 
District. Muhammadans number 1,135,202, or 77-6 per cent, of the 
population, a proportion exceeded only in the neighbouring District 
of Bogra. Hindus (325,111) constitute the greater part of the re- 
mainder. 

The majority of the Muhammadans aie Shaikhs, and there can 



164 



RAJSHAHI DISTRICT 



be little doubt that the majority of these, together with the functional 
groups of Jolahas (18,000) and Kulus (15,000), are descendants of 
converts from the Chandal and Koch communities, which are, after 
the Kaibarttas (66,000), still the most numerous Hindu castes in the 
District. Of the total population, 73 per cent, are supported by agri- 
culture, 12-7 per cent, by industry, 5-5 by unskilled labour, and only 
0-5 and 1-5 per cent, by commerce and the professions respectively. 

A Presbyterian mission began work in 1862 and maintains a hospital 
and dispensary, an orphanage, and schools. The number of native 
Christians is 309 

In the Barind the only crop grown is winter rice ; but the grey sandy 

soil of the Gangetic thanas supports a variety of crops, and the black 

loam which is found elsewhere is also extremely 

Agriculture. fertil ^ Jn ^ twQ Mnas of Naogaon and Panchu- 

pur the land is somewhat higher and the drainage less obstructed 
than in the rest of the tract. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are reproduced below, 
areas being in square miles . 



Subdivision. 


Total. 


Cultivated 


Cultivable 
waste 


Rampur Boalia . 
Naogaon . 
Nator 

Total 


910 

867 
816 


599 

574 
539 


3 2 
31 
29 


2,593 


1,712 


92 



Rice is everywhere the staple crop, being grown on 1,458 square 
miles or more than four-fifths of the net cropped area. The eaily rice 
is sown broadcast on comparatively high lands at the time of the spring 
showers, and is reaped from July to September. The better kinds of 
winter rice are first sown in nurseries, whence the seedlings are after- 
'wards transplanted to low lands; this crop is harvested in November 
and December. The coarser varieties of long-stemmed rice are sown 
in the beds of marshes and in very low-lying land ; the stem grows with 
the rising of the water, and the gram reaches maturity about the end 
of December. The winter crop forms about 77 per cent, of the whole 
and the autumn crop about 18^ per cent., while the spring crop grown 
on inarsh lands contributes only a very small proportion of the total 
out-turn. Various pulses (215-6 square miles) and oilseeds (149 square 
miles) are raised, chiefly from the autumn rice-fields during the cold 
season. In addition, wheat (97 square miles), barley, oats, tobacco, 
sugarcane, and maize are grown to some extent. Of the non-food 
crops, jute (131 square miles) is the most important. Betel-leaf is 
exported to North Bengal and Calcutta. Indigo and mulberry used 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 165 

to be grown largely ; but the former has entirely disappeared, while the 
latter has for many years been declining, owing to the prevalence of 
silkworm epidemics. In older to revive the silk industry, a sericultural 
school has been opened at Rampur Boalia, which supplies the Bengal 
Silk Committee with trained sericultural overseers and also trains 
rearers' sons in the microscopical examination of seed. The cultiva- 
tion of gdnja is carried on in a small tract of 76 square miles in the 
Naogaon and Panchupur thanas^ which supplies not merely the needs 
of the whole of Bengal, but also those of Assam and of a part of the 
United Provinces ; some is also exported to Native States, and a small 
quantity is shipped to London, whence it is passed on to the West 
Indies, The area cultivated vanes from year to year, the average being 
812 acres with a normal out-turn of 6,952 maunds. The maximum 
area which may be cultivated in any year is at present fixed by the 
Government of India at 976 acres, but this limit is subject to periodical 
revision. 

Little waste land now remains except in the Barind, where it is 
rapidly being reclaimed. Scarcely any use is made of the Land Im- 
provement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts, but in 1897 advances were 
made to the extent of R&. 19,000. 

The local cattle are poor, probably on account of the deficiency of 
pasture and the absence of any attempts to improve the breed. Two 
veiy old fairs are held at KHETUR and MANDA. These are attended 
by from 25,000 to 28,000 persons, and take place in October and April 
respectively. 

Owing to the copious and regular rainfall and the annual rise of the 
rivers in the rainy season, artificial irrigation is rarely necessary, but 
it is occasionally practised on a small scale from the nearest tank or 
watercourse. 

Cotton- weaving is a decadent industry, but it still gives employment 
to over 2,000 persons , cotton cloths are printed and dyed at Rampur 
Boalia Copper, brass, and bell-metal utensils are 
pioduced at Kalam and Budhpara m the Nator 
subdivision, and pottery for domestic use and brick 
rings for earthen wells are also manufactured in the former village. 
Reed mats are made at Naogaon for local consumption. Silk is the 
most important industry of Rajshahi, as well as of the neighbouring 
Districts of Murshidabad and Malda, and silk-spinning and weaving 
have been carried on in the District for centuries. The East India 
Company established a factory at Rajshahi in the eighteenth century, 
and in 1832 the Company had two factories, each the seat of a Com- 
mercial Resident ; the Residency at Rampur Boalia was subsequently 
purchased by the firm of Messrs Watson & Co. The out-turn of the 
several filatures was formerly as much as 400,000 Ib, of raw silk, valued 



1 66 RAJSHAHI DISTRICT 

at 37 lakhs; but the average production for the thiee yeais ending 
1899-1900 was only 96,684 lb., valued at 8-2 lakhs, and in 1903-4 
the quantity manufactured fell to 67,790 lb, The bulk of the silk is 
exported to Europe, where it commands a ready sale at prices some- 
what lower than silk from continental worms , it is used largely in 
the manufacture of silk hats Some of the native spun silk is woven 
into a coarse cloth, called matkd, for local use. In 1901 there were 
three European silk factories at Sarda, Kajla, and Sarail each 
possessing subordinate filatures , and the industry supported over 
41,000 persons. 

The bulk of the trade is with Calcutta, the chief exports being jute, 
nce, pulses, silk, and ganja^ and the chief imports European piece-goods, 
salt, sugar, and kerosene oil. The principal marts are Sultanganj, 
GODAGARI, RAMPUR BOALIA, and Charghat on the Padma, Chang- 
dhupail and Gurudaspur on the Baral ; Kallganj on one of the feeders 
of the Chalan Bil, Prasadpur on the Atrai; and NAOGAON on the 
Jamuna. At Lakshmanhati an extensive business is done in the sale 
and hire of sugar-cane mills and evaporating pans 

The northern section of the Eastern Bengal State Railway intersects 
the District from north to south Including 747 miles of village roads, 
the District contains (1904) 1,299 miles f roads, of which 42 miles 
are metalled. The most important are those leading from Rampur 
Boaha northward to Naohata, via Baya, eastward via Nator to Bogra, 
and south-east to Pabna, north-westwards to Malda through Godagan, 
and northward from Godagan to Dmajpur. 

Road traffic is gradually increasing as the natural watercourses silt 
up; but the rivers still provide the chief means of communication, 
especially during the rams, when there aie few villages in the north 
and east of the District which cannot be approached by water. The 
daily steamer sei vices which ply from Goalundo up the Padma stop 
at Charghat, Rampur Boaha, and Godagan for passengers and cargo, 
and a branch service up the Mahananda river connects Godagan with 
Malda. 

The famine of 1874 caused some distress, which was, howevei, 
relieved by the import of gram. Relief works were again necessary 
in 1897, but only on a small scale. 

For general administrative purposes, the District is divided into three 
subdivisions, with head-quarters at RAMPUR BOALIA, NAOGAON, and 

Administration. NAT R * R * mpur Boabfl was formerl y the head ' 
quarters of the Division as well as of the District, 

but in 1888 the Commissioner's winter head-quarters were transferred 
to the more accessible station of Jalpaigun. The staff subordinate 
to the District Magistrate-Collector consists of an Assistant Magistrate- 
Collector, five Deputy-Magistiate-Collectors, two of whom are in charge 



AJDMINTSTRA TTON 



167 



of the subdivisions of Naogaon and Nator; the otheis being stationed 
at head-quarters, and four Sub-Deputy-Magistiate-Collectors, two of 
whom are stationed at Nator and two at Naogaon. 

For civil work theie arc the courts of the District and Sessions 
Judge, who is also Judge of Malda, a Sub-Judge and four Munsifs, 
two being stationed at Nator and one at each of the other subdivisional 
head-quarters. The criminal courts include those of the Sessions 
Judge, District Magistrate, and the Assistant, Deputy, and Sub-Deputy 
Magistrates. The majority of the cases before the courts arise out 
of disputes about land. 

An account of the land revenue history has been included in the 
paragiaph on the general history of the District. The current demand 
m 1903-4 was 10-26 lakhs, payable by 1,639 estates, of which 1,592, 
with a demand of 10-18 lakhs, were permanently settled, 20 small 
estates were temporarily settled, and 27 were managed direct by 
Government. The average revenue per cultivated acre is R. 0-13-1 r, 
or rather above the average of R. 0-13-2 per acre for the whole of 
Bengal. The revenue represents about 28 per cent, of the rental of 
the District. Rent rates vary from Rs, 3 to Rs. 9 per acie, the higher 
figure being paid for mulberry, sugar-cane, ganja, and garden lands. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and total 
revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : 





i 880-1 


1890-1. 


IQOO-I 


1903-4. 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


9,35 
12,96 


iS 


10,26 
l6,22 


10,12 



Outside the municipalities of RAMPUR BOALIA and NATOR, local 
affairs are managed by the District board, with a subordinate local 
board in each subdivision. In 1903-4 the income of the District board 
was Rs. 1,71,000, of which Rs. 90,000 was derived from rates; and the 
expenditure was Rs. 1,64,000, including Rs. 79,000 spent on public 
works and Rs. 44,000 on education. 

The District contains 20 thanas or police stations and 2 .outposts. 
The force under the District Superintendent consisted in 1903 of 3 
inspectors, 38 sub-inspectors, 30 head constables, and 402 constables. 
In addition to these, there was a rural police force of 3,444 ch&ukidar$ 
and 319 daffadars. A Central jail at Rampur Boalia has accommo-j 
dation for 872 prisoners, and sub-jails at the other subdivisions for 30. 

'Rajshahi is backward in educational matters, only 4-3 per 'cent. 'of 
the population (8 males and 0-4 females) being able to read and write 
in 1901. The total number of pupils under instruction increased from 
14,227 in 1892-3 to 21,423 in 1900-1, while 22,581 boys and 1,481 
girls were at school in 1903-4, being respectively 20-2 and 1-3 per cent, 



168 RAJSHAHI DISTRICT 

of those of school-going age. The number of educational institutions, 
public and private, in that year was 719, including an Arts college, 
35 secondary schools, and 664 primary schools. The expenditure on 
education was 1-73 lakhs, of which Rs. 19,000 was met from Provincial 
funds, Rs. 41,000 from District funds, Rs. 1,300 from municipal funds, 
and Rs. 70,000 from fees. The chief educational institutions are in 
Rampur Boalia, including the Rajshahi College and the sericultural 
school. 

In 1903 the District contained 17 dispensaries, of which 4 had 
accommodation for 64 in-patients. At these the cases of 103,000 out- 
patients and 748 in-patients were treated during the year, and 3,038 
operations were performed. The expenditure was Rs. 40,000, of which 
Rs. 1,500 was met from Government contributions, Rs. 14,000 from 
Local and Rs. 7,000 from municipal funds, and Rs. 12,000 from sub- 
scriptions. 

Vaccination is compulsory only within the municipalities of Rampur 
Boalia and Nator. The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 
1903-4 was 52,000, representing 36 per 1,000 of the population. 

[Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of 'Bengal, vol. viii (1877).] 

Rajula. Town in the State of Bhaunagar, Kathiawar, Bombay, 
situated in 21 3' N. and 71 30' E. Population (1901), 5,150. 
Rajula has for many years been a centre of local trade, and its build- 
ing stone is largely used in the State. About 8 miles north-east of the 
town is the striking hill of Babariadhar, crowned by a rude stone fort, 
which half a century ago was a favourite haunt of lions. The exports 
consist chiefly of cotton and building- stone, and the imports of grain, 
timber, and piece-goods. 

Rajura. Taluk in Adilabad District, Hyderabad State, with an 
area of 595 square miles. The population in 1901, including jagirs, 
was 24,807, compared with 25,677 in 1891, the decrease being due to 
emigration to more favoured parts of Sirpur and Adilabad. The taluk 
contains 128 villages, of which 29 arey^Jr, and Rajura (population, 
2,213) 1S the head-quarters. The land revenue in 1901 was Rs. 38,200. 
Rajura is very thinly populated, containing extensive areas of cultiv- 
able waste and forest. 

Rakhabh Dev. Walled village in the Magra zila of the State of 
Udaipur, Rajputana, situated in 24 5' N. and 73 42' E., in the midst 
of hills, about 40 miles south of Udaipur city, and 10 miles north-east 
of the cantonment of Kherwara. Population (1901), 2,174. A small 
school here, originally started for the benefit of the Bhils, is attended 
by about 40 boys, half of whom are of this tribe. Serpentine of a dull 
green colour is quarried in the neighbourhood, and worked into effigies 
and vessels of domestic use, which are sold to the numerous pilgrims 
who visit the place. The famous Jam temple, sacred to Admath or 



RAMAGIRI i6g 

Rakhabhnath, is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims from all 
parts of Rajputana and Gujarat. It is difficult to determine the age 
of this building, but three inscriptions mention that it was repaired in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The principal image is of black 
marble and is in a sitting posture about three feet in height } it is said 
to have been brought from Gujarat towards the end of the thirteenth 
century, Hindus, as well as Jains, worship the divinity, the former 
regarding him as one of the incarnations of Vishnu and the latter as 
one of the twenty-four Tirthankars or hierarchs of Jainism. The BhTls 
call him Kalaji, from the colour of the image, and have great faith in 
him. Another name is Kesaryajl, from the saffron (kesar) with which 
pilgrims besmear the idol. Every votary is entitled to wash off the 
paste applied by a previous worshipper, and in this way saffron worth 
thousands of rupees is offered to the god annually. 

[Indian Antiquary \ vol. i.] 

Rakhshan. River in Baluchistan, rising near Shireza, a point close 
to the eastern junction of the Central Makran and Siahan ranges. 
It traverses Panjgur, on the west of which it is joined by the Gwargo 
stream. It then turns northward, and joining the Mashkel river from 
Persia in 27 10' N. and 63 27' E., bursts through the Siahan range by 
the fine defiles of Tank-i-Grawag and Tank-i-Zurrati, and runs under the 
latter name along the western side of Kharan to the Hamun-i-Mashkel. 
Its total length is 258 miles. Water from the Rakhshan is used for 
irrigation in Nag-i-Kalat, Panjgur, and Dehgwar in Kharan. 

Ramachandrapuram Taluk. Taluk in the delta of Godavari 
District, Madras, lying between 16 41' and 17 3' N. and 81 49' and 
82 13' E., with an area of 296 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 220,356, compared with 198,596 in 1901. It contains one town, 
MANDAPETA (population, 8,380), and 117 villages, Ramachandrapuram 
being the head-quarters. The demand on account of land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 11,60,000. The taluk is the most 
densely populated and the richest in the District. Its soil is classed 
almost entirely as alluvial, and it is irrigated by numerous canals. The 
little French Settlement pf YANAM is situated within it ; while Koti- 
palli and Draksharama 3 two of its villages, are well-known places of 
pilgrimage. 

Ramagiri. Agency taluk in the west of Ganjam District, Madras, 
with an area of 1,191 square miles. The population, consisting mostly 
of Savaras, was 74,393 in 1901, compared with 64,143 in 1891. They 
live in 542 villages. No land revenue is realized, except a nazardna of 
Rs. 593 paid by the zammddrs of Peddakimedi and Surangi and four 
patros (headmen). The head-quarters are at Ramagiri-Udayagiri, which 
is connected with Berhampur by a good road. Ramagiri is the most 
sparsely populated taluk in the District and the worst in point of 



170 RAMAGJR1 

climate Timber and other hill produce are exported, but the supply 
of good sal trees in accessible positions is very limited. Excellent 
oranges are grown. The western part of the taluk is very mountainous 
and difficult of access. 

Ramallakota (literally, 'diamond fort'). Taluk of Kurnool Dis- 
trict, Madras, lying between 15 18' and 15 55' N. and 77 36' and 
78 io r E. 3 with an area of 846 square miles, The population in 1901 
was 142,855, compared with 124,971 in 1891, Musalmans are more 
numerous than in any other taluk of the District ; half of them are 
residents of Kurnool town. The density is 169 persons per squaie 
mile, compared with the District average of 115. It contains one 
town, KURNOOL (a municipality with a population of 25,376, the head- 
quarters of the taluk and District), and 106 villages (inclusive of 7 
c whole inams*\ The demand for land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 
amounted to "Rs. 2,66,000 On the north the Tungabhadra forms the 
boundary, separating it from the Nizam's Dominions. The only other 
nver is the Hindri, which, with its tributaries the Dhone Vagu and 
Hukn, drains the whole taluk and ultimately falls into the Tungabhadra 
at Kurnool. The KURNOOL-CUDDAPAH CANAL takes off from the 
Tungabhadra at Sunkesula in this taluk and is led along the northern 
portion of it, irrigating about 3,300 acres. The annual rainfall averages 
28 inches, about three-fourths of which is received during the south- 
west monsoon. Most of the taluk is covered with black cotton soil, 
It contains 65 square miles of 'reserved' forests, almost the whole of 
which is on the Erramalas. 

Ramanadapuram, Subdivision, zamlnddri tahstt, estate, and town 
m Madura District, Madras. See RAMNAD. 

Ramandrug, Sanitarium of Bellary, situated in 15 8' N. and 
76 30' E., within the limits of the Native State of SANDUR, attached 
to the Madras Presidency. Criminal jurisdiction has been made ovei 
by the Raja to the Madras Government (with certain restrictions), and 
affairs within it are controlled by the Collector of Bellary. The 
sanitarium consists of a small plateau, ij miles long by half a mile 
wide, on the top of the southern of the two ranges of hill which enclose 
the valley of Sandiir. It is 3,256 feet above the sea and about 1,400 feet 
above the bottom of the valley. On all sides the ground falls sharply 
away ; and this characteristic, though it affords numerous excellent views 
into the Sandur valley on the one side and over the western taluks of 
Bellary as far as the Tungabhadra on the other, gives the place a 
cramped air which the various paths cut along the hill-sides do not 
serve to remove. The place is called after the village and fort of the 
same name which stand at the southern end of the plateau. Remains 
of the old defences, in the shape of a considerable wall of enormous 
blocks of stone, are still visible. Local tradition says they were built 



RAMBHA 171 

by, and named after, a poligar called Komara Rama, who is still a 
popular hero. A favourite play in Sandur is one in which his step- 
mother treats him as Potiphar's wife did Joseph, but in which his 
innocence is ultimately established. The buildings on the plateau 
include barracks, a hospital, &c., built m 1855 and designed to accom- 
modate about 70 soldiers , and some fifteen bungalows belonging to 
various residents of Bellary. Two carriage roads run along the whole 
length of the station, There are several mineral springs in it. A 
short distance down the cliff on the southern side is a cave leading 
into a passage, which has been followed a great distance into the hill. 
The annual rainfall averages 39 inches, and the temperature is 12 
cooler than that of Bellary. The mean for April and May is about 
80, and the highest figure on record in the hottest months is 87 in 
the shade. During the south-west monsoon the chilly fogs which wrap 
the place about from sunset to 10 a.m., and often later, make fires 
almost a necessity. 

Three roads lead to the station ; one from Bavihalli, a village on the 
road between Sandur and Hospet ; a second from Hospet \ and the 
third from Narayanadevarakeri. They are all practicable for carts. 
The first was the usual route from Bellary before the railway line was 
extended to Hospet. The second road, that from Hospet, is now the 
usual route, the distance from the railway station being 14 miles. 
Europeans reside in the station only in the hotter months from March 
to June. A sub-magistrate is stationed here during this period. For 
the rest of the year the place is deserted, except by the inhabitants of 
the village of Ramandrug. 

Ramanka. Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay. 

Ramas. Petty State in MAHI KANTHA, Bombay. 

Ramayampet. Former taluk in Medak District, Hyderabad State, 
with an area of 403 square miles. The population m 1901, including 
jagtrs, was 75,364, compared with 73,217 in 1891. The land revenue 
in 1901 was 2-8 lakhs. In 1905 the taluk was split up, and its villages 
transferred to the Medak taluk of this District and the Kamareddipet 
taluk of Nizamabad. 

Rambha. Village m the Ganjam tahsll of Ganjam District, Madras, 
situated in 19 31' N. and 85 7' E,, on the trunk road and on the banks 
of the Chilka Lake. Population (1901), 4,028. While Ganjam was 
still the head-quarters of the District and contained a garrison, Rambha 
was a favourite resort of the Europeans who lived there ; and a large 
two-storeyed house, built by a former Collector in 1792 and now 
belonging to the Raja of Kallikota, stands in a beautiful situation 
overlooking the Chilka Lake. The chief trade consists in the impor- 
tation of large quantities of rice from Orissa by boats across the lake 
and the exportation of prawns to Rangoon. 

VOL. XXI. M 



RAMBRAI 

Rambrai. Petty State in the Khasi Hills, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. The population in 1901 was 2,697, and the gioss revenue m 
1903-4 was Rs. 600. The principal products are rice, millet, cotton, 
and maize. 

Ramdurg State. State under the Political Agent of Kolhapur and 
the Southern Maratha Jagirs, Bombay, with an area of 169 square miles. 
It is bounded on the north by the Torgal subdivision of Kolhapur 
State; on the south by Nargund m Dharwar District, on the east 
by the Badami taluka of Bijapur District, and on the west by the 
Navalgund taluka of Dharwar District. The population in 1901 was 
37,848, dwelling in 2 towns, of which the larger is RAMDURG (popu- 
lation, 9,452), the head-quarters, and 37 villages. Hindus numbci 
35,072 and Muhammadans 2,716 

The general appearance of the country is that of a plain surrounded 
by undulating lands and occasionally inteisected by ranges of hills. 
The prevailing soil is rich black. The Malpiabha liver flows through 
the State, and is utilized foi irrigation. The staple crops are wheat, 
gram, jowdr, and cotton. Coarse cotton cloth is the principal manu- 
facture. The climate is the same as that of the Deccan geneially, the 
heat from March to May being oppressive. 

Nargund and Ramdurg, two strong forts in the Kanarese-speaking 
country, were occupied by the Marathas m their early struggles } and, 
by favour of the Peshwas, the ancestors of the present Ramdurg family 
were placed in charge of them. About 1753 the estates yielded 
2-^ lakhs and were required to furnish a contingent of 350 horsemen. 
They were held on these terms until 1778, when the country was 
brought under subjection by Haidar All. In 1784 Tipu Sultan made 
further demands. These were resisted, and, in consequence, the foit 
of Ramdurg was blockaded by Tipu. After a siege of seven months, 
Venkat Rao of Nargund surrendered, and, m violation of the teims 
of capitulation, was carried off a prisoner with his whole family into 
Mysore. On the fall of Sermgapatam in 1799 Venkat Rao was 
leleased, and the Peshwa restored to him Nargund and lands yielding 
1 1- lakhs, and granted to Ram Rao the foit of Ramduig, with lands 
yielding Rs. 26,000. The two branches of the family continued to 
enjoy their respective States till 1810, when the Peshwa made a new 
division of the lands, in equal shares, between Venkat Rao and 
Narayan Rao, the sons of Ram Rao. On the fall of the Peshwa in 
18185 the estates were continued to these two chiefs by an engagement. 
Nargund subsequently lapsed, and is now included in the Navalgund 
taluka of Dharwar District. 

The chief, who is a Konkanasth Brahman, ranks as a first-class 
Sardar m the Southern Maratha Country, and has powei to try his 
own subjects for capital offences. He enjoys a levenue of nearly 



RAMES WAR AM 1 7 3 

2 lakhs. The family of the chief hold a sanad authorising adoption, 
and follow the rule of primogeniture. There are two municipalities, 
with an aggregate income in 1903-4 of Rs. 6,280. In the same year 
the police force numbered 80, and the only jail had a daily average of 
31 prisoners. The State contained 17 schools in 1903-4, with 1,059 
pupils. Two dispensaries were attended by about 11,000 patients in 
the same year, and nearly 900 persons were vaccinated. 

Ramdurg Town. Capital of the State of Ramdurg, Bombay, 
situated in 15 5' N and 75 2' E. Population (1901), 9,452. The 
forts of Ramdurg and Nargund are said to have been built by Sivaji. 
Hand-woven cloth is exported from the town, which is administered as 
a municipality with an income in 1903-4 of Rs. 4,000. It contains 
a dispensary. 

Rameswaram. Town m Madura District, Madras, situated in 
9 17' N. and 79 19' E., on the island of Pamban. Population (1901), 
(3,632. It contains one of the most venerated Hindu shrines in India, 
which was founded, according to tiadition, by Rama himself as a thank- 
offering for his success in his expedition against Ravana, the ten-headed 
king of Ceylon, who had carried off his wife, Sita. For centuries the 
temple has been the resort of thousands of pilgrims from all parts of 
India j and until recently they had to traverse on foot the inhospitable 
wastes of the Ramnad estate which separated it from the nearest 
railway station at Madura. The pilgrimage is now rendered easy by 
the railway which has lately been built from that place to Mandapam, 
a point on the mainland facing the town of Pamban, 8 miles from 
Rarneswaram, 

The gieat temple stands on slightly rising ground in the north- 
eastern part of the island. It is in the form of a quadrangular 
enclosure, 650 feet broad by about 1,000 feet long, and is entered by 
a gateway surmounted by a gopuram or tower 100 feet high. The 
oldest portion is built of a dark and hard limestone, traditionally said 
to have been brought from Ceylon, while the more modern parts are 
constructed of a friable sandstone quarried in the island itself. The 
inner prakaram or corridor is ascribed to the piety of an early Madura 
Naik, while the outer mantapam was the work of two of the Ramnad 
chiefs or Setupatis, with the history of whose line, as the 'lords of 
the causeway' leading from the mainland to Pamban Island and the 
protectors of the pilgrims, the history of the temple has for centuries 
been intimately connected. 

Mr. Fergusson, m his History of Indian Architecture^ thus describes 
the building . ' 

' If it were proposed to select one temple which should exhibit all 
the beauties of the Dravidian style m their greatest perfection and at 
the same time exemplify all its characteristic defects of design, the 

M 2 



174 RAMESWARAM 

choice would almost invariably fall upon that at Rameswaram. In no 
other temple has the same amount of patient industry been exhibited 
as here ; and in none unfortunately has that labour been ^ so thrown 
away, for want of a design appropriate to its display. It is not that 
this temple has grown by successive increments ; it was begun and 
finished on a previously settled plan, as regularly and undeviatingly 
carried out as Tanjore, but on a principle so diametrically opposed to 
it that, while the temple at Tanjore produces an effect greater than 
is due to its mass or detail, this one, with double its dimensions and 
ten times its elaboration, produces no effect externally, and internally 
can only be seen in detail, so that the parts hardly in any instance 
aid one another in producing the effect aimed at. 

'Externally, the temple is enclosed by a wall 20 feet m height with 
four gop u rams, one on each face, which have this peculiarity, that they 
alone, of all those I know in India, are built wholly of stone from the 
base to the summit. The western one alone, however, is finished. 
Those on the north and south are hardly higher than the Wall in which 
they stand, and are consequently called the ruined gateways. Partly 
from their form, but more fiom the solidity of their construction, 
nothing but an earthquake could well damage them. They have never 
been raised higher, and their progress was probably stopped in the 
beginning of the last century, when Muhammadans, Marathas, and 
other foreign invaders checked the prosperity of the land, and destroyed 
the wealth of the priesthood. The eastern fagade has two entrances 
and two gopurams. The glory of the temple, however, is in its corri- 
dors. These extend to a total length of nearly 4,000 feet. Their 
breadth varies from 20 feet to 30 feet of free floor space, and their 
height is apparently about 30 feet from the floor to the centre of the 
roof. Each pillar or pier is compound, and richer and more elaborate 
in design than those of the ParvatI porch at Chidambaram, and 
certainly more modern in date. 

' None of our English cathedrals is more than 500 feet long, and 
even the nave of St. Peter's is only 600 feet from the door to the apse. 
Here the side corridors are 700 feet Jong, and open into transverse 
galleries as rich in detail as themselves. These, with the varied devices 
and modes of lighting, produce an effect that is not equalled certainly 
anywhere in India. The side corridors are generally free from figure 
sculpture, and consequently from much of the vulgarity of the age 
to which they belong, and, though narrower, produce a more pleasing 
effect. The central corridor leading from the sanctuary is adorned 
on one side by portraits of the Rajas of Ramnad m the seventeenth 
century, and, opposite them, of their secretaries. Even they, however, 
would be tolerable, were it not that within the last few years they have 
been painted with a vulgarity that is inconceivable on the part of the 
descendants of those who built this fane, Not only these, but the whole 
of the architecture has first been dosed with repeated coats of white- 
wash, so as to take off all the sharpness of detail, and then painted 
with blue, green, red, and yellow washes, so as to disfigure and destroy 
its effect to an extent that must be seen to be believed. 

'The age of this temple is hardly doubtful. From first to last its 
style, excepting the old vimana, is so uniform and unaltered that 



RAMGARH 175 

its erection could hardly have lasted during a hundied years; and if 
this is so, it must have been during the seventeenth century, when 
the Ramnad Rajas were at the height of their independence and 
prospeiity, and when their ally or master, Tirumala Naik, was erecting 
buildings in the same identical style at Madura. It may have been 
commenced fifty years earlier (1550), and the erection of its gopitrams 
may have extended into the eighteenth century ; but these seem the 
possible limits of deviation.' 

Ramganga, East. River of the United Provinces, a tributary 
of the SARDA. 

Ramganga, West (also known as Ruhut or Ruput in its upper 
courses). River of the United Provinces, which rises in Garhwal Dis- 
trict (30 5' N., 79 12' E.) in the hills some distance south of the 
snowy range of the Himalayas. It flows for about 90 miles with a very 
rapid fall, first through Garhwal, then through Kumaun, and after 
again entering Garhwal debouches on the plains near the Kalagarh 
fort, south of the peak of the same name, in Bijnor District. It is now 
a large river, and 15 miles lower down receives on its right bank the 
Khoh, which also rises in Garhwal. Both these streams are liable to 
sudden floods owing to heavy rain in their upper courses. Their beds 
abound in quicksands, and their channels are shifting. The Ramganga 
passes south-east, through Moradabad District and the Rampur State, 
into Bareilly, after which it flows south between Budaun and Shah- 
jahanpur, and then, crossing the last-mentioned District, flows through 
the eastern tahsil of Farrukhabad and part of Hardol, falling into the 
Ganges a little above Kanauj, after a total course of about 370 miles. 
Throughout its course in the plains it receives many small streams 
from the Tarai, and a few larger tributaries whose sources are in the 
Himalayas. The Kosi in Moradabad, the Dojora, formed by the 
Kichha or West Bahgul, Dhakra, and Bhakra rivers in Bareilly, and 
the Deoha or Garra in Shahjahanpur are the most important of these. 
During its whole course in the plains the Ramganga flows in a shifting 
and uncertain bed. It changed its channel m the middle of the 
nineteenth century, so as to run into the Dojora and pass Bareilly 
city; in the rains of 1871 it returned to its former course ten miles 
distant, but has once more begun to approach the city. During floods 
it spreads out widely on either side, and carves out new channels for 
itself, often destroying the fertility of the land with a layer of sand. 
It is little used for irrigation. 

Ramgarh. Old District of Bengal, stretching on the north-west 
as far as Sherghati m Gaya and including on the east the Chakai 
pargana of Monghyr and the zamindari raj of Panchet, and on the 
south-west and south the present District of Palamau, while Ranch! 
owed a loose allegiance as a tributary estate administered by its own 
chief. This unwieldy District was broken up after the Kol insurrection 



T7 6 RAMGARH 

in 1831-2, parts of it going to Gaya, Monghyr, Manbhum, and Lohni- 
daga (now Ranch!), while the rest was formed into the modern 
District of Hazaribagh. 

Ramgarh State. Thakurat in the BHOPAL AGENCY, Central India 

Ramgarh Hill. Hill in the Surguja State, Central Provinces, 
situated m 22 $3' N. and 82 55' E. It consists of a rectangular 
mass of sandstone rising abruptly from the plain, about 12 miles west 
of Lakshmanpur village. It is ascended from the northern side by 
a path which follows the ridge of an outlying spur nearly as far as 
the base of the main rock. Here, at a height of 2,600 feet, is an 
ancient stone gateway, on the lintel of which is sculptured an image 
of Ganesh. A little to the west, but at the same level, a constant 
stream of pure water wells out, in a natural grotto, from a fissure in 
the massive bed of sandstone A second gateway crowns the most 
difficult part of the ascent Colonel Dalton considered this to be the 
best executed and most beautiful architectural relic in the entire region, 
which abounds in remains indicating a previous occupation of the 
country by some race more highly civilized than its present inhabi- 
tants. Though the origin of these gateways is unknown, the second 
is unquestionably the more modern work, and belongs to that descrip- 
tion of Hindu architecture which bears most resemblance to the 
Saracenic. On the hill are several rock caves and the remains of 
several temples made of enormous blocks of stone. One of the most 
striking features is the singular tunnel in the northern face of the rock, 
known as the Hathipol, which, as its name implies, is so large that 
an elephant can pass through it Its formation is supposed to be due 
to the trickling of water through crevices m the sandstone, and it 
bears no trace of human workmanship. It is about 150 feet long and 
20 feet in height by 32 m breadth. In the valley on which this tunnel 
opens are two caves with inscriptions dating back to the second 
century B.C. One of them, the Joglmara cave, has traces on its roof 
of wall paintings 2,000 years old; and the other, the Sitabenga cave, 
is believed to have been used as a hall in which plays were acted 
and poems recited. 

[Archaeological Survey Reports, vol xi, pp. 41-5 ; and Report of 
Archaeological Surveyor, Bengal Circle , for 1903-4.] 

Ramgarh Town (r). Town belonging to the Slkar chiefship in 
the Shekhawati nhdmat of the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 
28 10' N. and 74 59' E,, about 103 miles north-west of Jaipui city. 
Population (1901), 11,023. The town, which is handsomely built and 
neatly fortified, possesses a combined post and telegraph office, and 
many palatial edifices belonging to wealthy bankers. Some of these 
bankers maintain 6 primary schools, attended in 1904 by 342 boys, 
and there are also 4 indigenous schools. 



RAMNAD ESTATE 177 

Ramgarh Town (2). Head-quarters of a tahsil &t the same name 
in the State of Alwar, Rajputana, situated in 27 35' N. and 76 49' E., 
about 13 miles east of Alwar city. Population (1901), 5,179. The 
town possesses a post office, a vernacular school, and a hospital with 
accommodation for 6 in-patients. A municipal committee attends to 
the sanitation and lighting of the place, the average income, chiefly 
derived from octroi, and expenditure being about Rs. 1,900 yearly. 
The original settlers are said to have been Chamars, and the place was 
called Bhojpur after their leader, Bhoja. A Naruka Rajput, Padam 
Singh, received the village in jagir from Jaipur about 1746, made it 
piosperous, and built a fort ; but his son, Sarup Singh, came into 
collision with Pratap Singh, the first chief of Alwar, and was cruelly 
murdered, the town and tahsil passing into the possession of Alwar 
in 1777. Ramgarh is one of the central tahsts of the State, and is 
situated m MEW AT. It is made up of the head-quarters town and 119 
villages ; and of the total population of 54,043, nearly 60 per cent are 
Musalmans. 

RamjTbanpur. Town in the Ghatal subdivision x>f Midnapore 
Distiict, Bengal, situated m 22 50' N. and 87 37' E. Population 
(1901), 10,264 Bell-metal ware is manufactured, but the weaving 
industry which formerly flourished has been killed by the importation 
of European piece-goods. Ramjibanpur was constituted a municipality 
in 1876. The income and expenditure during the decade ending 
1901-2 averaged Rs. 2,800 and Rs. 2,700 respectively. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 3,550, two- thirds of which was derived from a tax on 
persons and the expenditure was Rs. 3,600. 

Ramnad Subdivision. Subdivision of Madura District, Madras, 
consisting of the RAMNAD and SIVAGANGA estates. The former of 
these is subdivided for purposes of administration into the zamlnddrl 
tahslls of Ramnad, Tiruvadanai, Paramagudi, Tiruchuh, and Muduku- 
lattur ; while Sivaganga, Tiruppattur, and Tiruppuvanam are comprised 
in the latter. 

Ramnad Estate. A permanently settled zamindari estate in the 
south and east of Madura District, Madras, lying between 9 6' and 
10 6' N. and 77 56' and 79 19' E., consisting of the five zamindari 
tahsih of Ramnad, Tiruvadanai, Paramagudi, Tiruchuli, and Muduku- 
lattur, with an area of 2,104 square miles. Population (1901), 723,886. 
It includes the whole of the sea-coast of the District. The peshkash 
(including cesses) payable to Government by the estate in 1903-4 was 
3- lakhs." 

Regarding the early history of the estate legends are plentiful but 
facts are few. Its chiefs are the titular heads of the numerous caste of 
the Maravans, and bear the title of Setupati, or ' lord of the causeway.' 
This causeway is the ridge of rock which used to connect the tongue 



1 78 RAMNAD ESTATE 

of the mainland running out into the Gulf of Manaar withthe island of 
Pamban. Pamban Island contains the holy temple of RAMESWARAM ; 
and tradition has it that when Rama crossed to the island from Ceylon 
by way of ADAM'S BRIDGE and founded the temple as a thank-offering 
for his victory over Ravana, he also appointed the first Setupati to 
protect the pilgrims who should traverse the causeway to visit it. The 
chiefs of Ramnad appear to have undoubtedly borne the title as far 
back as the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ; and in the early years 
of the seventeenth century it was formally conferred by one of the Naik 
kings of Madura on the head of the Maravans, from whom the present 
owners of the estate are descended. 

Of the earlier chiefs, Raghunatha Kilavan (1673-1708) is perhaps the 
best known. It was he who moved the capital of the country from 
Pogalur, the ancient family seat, to its present site to miles farther 
east at RAMNAD, which he fortified. About 1725 a usurper became 
Setupati ; but he treated his vassals so harshly that one of them joined 
the legitimate heir and, with the help of the Raja of Tanjore, attacked 
and defeated him. The country was divided by the victors, the Raja 
of Tanjore annexing that part of it which lay north of the Pambar 
river. The rebellious vassal took the more valuable two-fifths of the 
remainder, and founded there the line of the present zamindars of 
SIVAGANGA, while the other three-fifths, the present Ramnad estates, 
went to the lawful heir. Throughout the Carnatic Wars the troops 
of Ramnad frequently figure on one side or the other. In 1795 the 
Setupati was deposed by the British for insubordination and misrule, 
and died a state prisoner. The estate was formed into a zammddri in 
1803, a permanent sanad (title-deed) being granted to the deposed 
chief's sister. The rule of her successors has been in the main one 
long chronicle of mismanagement, litigation, and debt. The last Raja 
of Ramnad succeeded in 1873 as a minor, and the estate was accord- 
ingly managed for the next sixteen years by the Court of Wards. 
During this period 8J lakhs was spent on repairs to irrigation works, 
14 lakhs of debt was cleared off, and the estate was handed over to its 
owner in 1889, in good order, with a revenue which had been increased 
from 5 to 9 lakhs, and with a cash balance of 3^ lakhs. Within the 
next five years the Raja had spent this balance, incurred further debts 
of over 30 lakhs, and pledged the best portions of the estate to his 
creditors. The zammddri is now managed by trustees for the creditors 
and the present proprietor, who is a minor. 

The Ramnad estate is perhaps the most desolate and uninviting area 
of its size in the Presidency. Almost dead level throughout, and for 
the most part infertile, the coast is lined with blown sand and brackish 
swamps, diversified only by stunted scrub and palmyra palms. It has 
only two fair roads (those from Madura to Ramnad and to Tiruchuli) ; 



RAMNAD TOWN 179 

its hrigation works depend upon the capricious rivers Vaigai and 
Gundar, and are often in the last state of disrepair and neglect; and 
except Ramnad and Rameswaram, already, referred to, it contains 
no town of interest or importance. Its chief port, Kllakarai, is in 
a declining state, and two others of its principal towns, Kamudi and 
Abiramam, have advanced but little for many years. Paramagudi, on 
the road to Madura, has some reputation for hand-painted cloths } 
but the only flourishing town in the estate is Aruppukkottai on the 
western border, which derives much of its prosperity from trade with 
the neighbouring District of Tinnevelly. 

The South Indian Railway has recently been carried from Madura 
through Ramnad to Mandapam, at the extreme end of the tongue of 
mainland which runs out to meet PAMBAN ISLAND. Projects for carry- 
ing it over the remains of the old causeway on to the island, and for 
cutting a ship canal through the island and establishing a port for 
ocean-going vessels near by, are now under consideration, and if carried 
out will greatly increase the prosperity of this portion of the zamindarL 
Pamban and the other smaller coral islands in the Gulf of Manaar are 
even at present the pleasantest portions of the estate, and are noted for 
their turtles and oysters, 

Ramnad Tahsil. Zamindari tahsll in the subdivision and estate 
of the same name in Madura District, Madras. The population in 
1901 was 112,851, compared with 107,601 in 1891. It contains three 
towns, RAMNAD (population, 14,546), the head-quarters ; KILAKARAI 
(11,078), a decaying seaport on the coast; and RAMESWARAM (6,633), 
which stands on the island of Pamban and is noted for its beautiful 
temple. The tahsll is an unlovely tract, consisting for the most part 
of poor sandy or saline soils, covered with little growth beyond stunted 
scrub and palmyra palms. The sea-breezes, however, suffice to keep 
it cooler than most of the rest of the District. 

Ramnad Town (Ramanatha-puram^ 'the town of Ramanatha'). 
Head-quarters of the subdivision, zaminddri, and takftl of the same 
name in Madura District, Madras, situated in 9 22' N. and 78 51' E., 
with a station on the Madura-Pamban Railway. Population (1901), 
14,546. The town is the head-quarters of the divisional officer and 
of an Assistant Superintendent of police, and contains a church 
belonging to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and two 
Roman Catholic places of worship. It is also the residence of the 
Raja of Ramnad, whose palace, a large rambling building, stands at 
the end of the chief street. It lies in the midst of ugly and uninterest- 
ing country, and its redeeming point is its climate, which is never very 
hot and is generally tempered by a breeze from the sea. The town 
was taken by General Smith in 1772, and was under military occupation 
in 1792. The fortifications, now destroyed, consisted of a wall 27 feet 



iBo RAMNAD TOWN 

high and 5 feet thick, surrounded by a fosse, In the centre was the 
palace of the chiefs. 

Ramnagar TahsIL Tahsll of the Rewah State, Central India, 
lying between 23 12' and 24 23' N and 80 36' and 82 16' E., south 
of the Kaimur range, with an area of 2,775 square miles. The country 
consists of a medley of hill and valley with but little land suitable for 
cultivation, except in the bed of the Son river, which traverses the 
north-western corner. The population was 202,153 in 1891, and 
221,980 in 1901, giving the low density of 80 persons per square mile. 
There are 949 villages, the head-quarters being at RAMNAGAR. The 
land revenue is Us. 86,000 There are no good roads in this tract. 

Ramnagar Village (i ). Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same 
name in Rewah State, Central India, situated in 24 12' N. and 81 
12' E. Population (1901), 2,621. The village contains a school and a 
dispensary, and is connected by an unmetalled road, 15 miles in length, 
with Govindgarh, whence a metalled road leads to Rewah town. 

Ramnagar Town (r). Town in the Wazlrabad tahsil of Gujranwala 
District, Punjab, situated in 32 20' N. and 73 48" E., on the Sialkot- 
Multan road, on the left bank of the Chenab, 26 miles west of Gujran- 
wala town. Population (1901), 7,121. The town, originally known as 
Rasulnagar, was founded by Niir Muhammad, a Chatha chieftain, who 
possessed great power in the Punjab during the first half of the 
eighteenth century , and it rapidly grew to importance under his family. 
In 1795 it was stormed by RanjTt Singh, after a gallant resistance 
by Ghulam Muhammad, the reigning Chatha chief, and received from 
the Sikhs its new name of Ramnagar. Several fine buildings, erected 
during the Chatha supremacy, still remain. In 1848, during the 
second Sikh War, Lord Gough first encountered the Sikh troops of 
Sher Singh near Ramnagar. Akalgarh, on the North-Western Railway, 
is 5 miles off. The diversion of through trade caused by the opening 
of the Sind-Sagar Railway is ruining its trade, and its manufacture of 
leathern vessels is now extinct The municipality was created in 1867. 
The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs 7,000, 
and the expenditure Rs. 6,900. In 1903-4 the income was Rs 6,900, 
chiefly from octroi ; and the expenditure was Rs. 7,400. The town 
has a vernacular middle school, maintained by the municipality, and 
a Government dispensary. 

Ramnagar Town (2). Town in the Chandauli tahsil of Benares 
District, United Provinces, situated in 25 16' N. and 83 2' E., on the 
right bank of the Ganges nearly opposite Eenaies city. Population 
(1901), 10,882. The town owes its importance to its selection by 
Raja Balwant Singh of Benares as his lesidence. He built a massive 
fort rising directly from the nver bank, which is still the palace of his 
descendants. His successor, Chet Singh, constructed a beautiful tank 



RAMPA i8r 

and a fine temple richly adoined with carved stone. Two broad and 
well-kept roads, crossing at right angles from the centre of the town, 
are lined with masonry shops and a few ornamental private buildings. 
The rest of the town consists of the usual mud houses. Ramnagar is 
administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,500. 
There is a considerable trade in grain ; and riding-whips, wickerwork 
Stools, and chairs are largely made, The public buildings include 
a school. 

Ramnagar Village (2). Village in the Aonla faAtf/of Bareilly Dis- 
trict, United Provinces, situated in 28 22' N. and 79 8' E., 8 miles north 
of Aonla. The place is celebrated for the uiins in its neighbourhood. 
A vast mound rises on the north of the village, with a circumference 
of about 3-| miles, which still bears the name of Ahlchhattra and is 
identified with the capital of the ancient kingdom of Panchala and the 
place visited by Hiuen Tsiang in the seventh century. In one poition 
of the mound a conical heap of brick towers .68 feet above the plain, 
crowned by the ruins of a Hindu temple. Large quantities of stone 
carvings, Buddhist railings, and ornamental bricks have been found 
in various parts of these mounds, and a series of coins bearing inscup- 
tions which may be dated approximately in the first or second century 
B. c The kings who struck them have been conjecturally identified 
with the Sunga dynasty mentioned in the Puranas. 

[Cunningham, Archaeological Survey Reports, vol. i, p. 255 ; Coins of 
Ancient India, p. 79 ; V. A. Smith, Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
1897, p. 303; Progress Report, Epigraphical Branch, North- Western 
Provinces and Oudh, 1891-2.] 

Rampa. A hilly tract in the Agency of Godavari District, Madras, 
lying between 17 19' and 17 49' N. and 81 32' and 81 58' E., with 
an area of about 800 square miles. Commencing about 20 miles from 
Rajahmundry, the country presents a succession of hills from 2,000 
to 4,000 feet high, extending back from the northern bank of the 
Godavari almost to the Sileru river. It takes its name from the little 
village of Rampa, and was originally held as &jdgtr by the mansabdars* 
of that place. In 1858, owing to the unpopularity of the mansabdar, 
disturbances broke out which lasted till 1862. A police force was then 
recruited among the hillmen. In 1879 the Scheduled Districts Act 
was extended to this tract , and in the same year there took place 
a second rising called the Rampa rebellion, which involved the 
employment of troops. It was not finally quelled till 1881, when 
the leader Chendrayya was killed. The mansabdar had been deported 
early in 1880, and a settlement made with most of the muttahdars in 
1879. These latter still hold the greater part of the country, paying 
a light tribute (kattubadi}. The most important of them are the 
muttahdars of Vellamuru and Musarimilli j the former in particular t 



1 82 RAM PA 



is much looked up to by the hillmen of the suriounding tracts. The 
Rampa hill country is now almost entirely included in the minor taluk 
of Chodavaram. It contains extensive forests ; but the shifting culti- 
vation (fodu) practised throughout this region, to which the Forest Act 
is not applied, is very destructive. This practice involves burning 
down the forests, the crop being raised among the ashes. There are 
only two roads, one 14 and the other 19 miles long. A strong police 
force is maintained at Chodavaram, and a smaller body at Kota. Both 
stations are stockaded, The inhabitants are principally hill Reddis. 
The chief products are bamboos and tamarinds. 

Rampal. Village in the Munshiganj subdivision of Dacca District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 23 33' N. and 90 30' E, 
Population (1901), 519. The site of the old capital of Bikrampur is 
pointed out near the large tank called Rampal-dighi, which is three- 
quarters of a mile long by a quarter of a mile broad ; to the north of 
this tank is the Ballal-bari, or palace of Ballal Sen, the remains of 
which consist of a quadrangular mound of earth 3,000 square feet in 
area surrounded by a moat 200 feet wide. Foundations and remains 
of other buildings are found for miles around, and early in the 
nineteenth century a cultivator ploughed up in the neighbourhood 
a diamond worth Rs. 70,000. Inside the Ballal-bari is a deep excava- 
tion called Agnikunda, where tradition says the last prince of Bikram- 
pur and his family burned themselves at the approach of the Musal- 
mans. Close to the Ballal-bari stands a much venerated tomb of one 
Baba Adam or Adam Shahld. 

[Cunningham, Archaeological Sttrvey of India Reports, vol. xv, 
pp. 132-5.] 

Rampardar. Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay. 
Rampur State. Native State in Rohilkhand, under the political 
superintendence of the Government of the United Provinces, lying 
between 28 25' and 29 ro' N. and 78 52' and 79 26" E., with an 
area of 893 square miles. It resembles a wedge m shape, with the 
apex pointing south. On the north it is bounded by Nairn Tal District; 
on the east by Bareilly ; on the south by Budaun , and on the west by 
Moradabad. Rampur State is a level, fertile tract of country, the 
Physical northern Portion of which resembles the damp TARAI 
aspects. tract ty in g far ther north. It is crossed by many small 
streams, the chief of which are the Kosi and Nahal. 
The Ramganga, which flows from north-west to south-east across the 
southern part of the State, ultimately receives all the drainage. 

The whole State lies in the area occupied by alluvium, and no rocky 
or stony formation occurs in any pait 

The flora is that of the damp submontane tract. There is not much 
jungle, except m the north. Bamboos flourish everywhere, and the 



RAMPUR STATE 183 

country is dotted with groves of rnango-trees. There are many groves 
of ber (Zizyphus Jujubd). 

Leopards are not uncommon, and tigers have frequently been killed 
along the northern frontier. Game is fairly abundant. Hog, antelope, 
nilgai^ hares, partridges, quail, wild duck, florican, and small sand- 
grouse are found more or less throughout the territory ; but snipe are 
scarce. Rampur is celebrated for its breed of hounds, originally 
introduced from Southern India. They are generally of a grey colour, 
with a smooth coat, and larger than English greyhounds. An improved 
variety is now obtained by crossing with English greyhounds, and the 
animals so bred are easier to train than the pure breed. 

Regular meteorological records have been kept for only a few years. 
The climate resembles that of the neighbouring Districts of BAREILLY, 
MORADABAD, and the submontane portion of NAINI TAL. The north 
is very malarious. 

The early history of the State is that of ROHILKHAND. Two Rohilla 
brothers, Shah Alam and Husain Khan, came m the latter part of the 
seventeenth century to seek service under the Mughal 
emperor. The son of the first of these, Baud Khan, 
distinguished himself in the Maratha wars and received a grant of land 
near Budaun. His adopted son, All Muhammad, obtained the title 
of Nawab and a grant of the greater part of Rohilkhand in 1719. 
Having offended the Subahdar of Oudh, Safdar Jang, who was jealous 
of his rapid rise to power, All Muhammad was compelled to surrender all 
his possessions in 1745 and was kept a close prisoner at Delhi for six 
months, after which he was released and appointed governor of the 
Mughal province of Sirhmd, where he remained for a year. But taking 
advantage of the confusion consequent on the invasion of Ahmad Shah 
Durrani, he regained supremacy over Rohilkhand in 1 748, and eventually 
obtained a confirmation of this territory from the emperor, Ahmad Shah 
Bahadur. After the death of All Muhammad his estates were divided 
among his sons, and \h&jagir of Rampur Kotera fell to Faiz-ullah Khan, 
the younger son. On the incursion of the Marathas, the Rohilla chiefs 
applied for aid to the Nawab Wazlr of Oudh. This was granted on 
promise of a payment of 40 lakhs. The Rohillas, however, failed to 
fulfil their pecuniary obligations ; and the Nawab Wazir obtained from 
Warren Hastings the use of a British army, which defeated the Rohillas 
and brought Rohilkhand under the direct rule of Oudh. An exception, 
however, was made in the case of Faiz-ullah Khan, who was permitted 
to retain the estate or jaglr of Rampur on condition of military service. 
This obligation was afterwards commuted for a cash payment of 15 lakhs. 
On the death of Faiz-ullah Khan in 1793 dissensions brolce out in the 
family, the eldest son was murdered, and the estate usurped by a younger 
son. As it was held under British guarantee, the aid of British troops 



184 



RAMPUR STATE 



was given to the Nawab of Oudh in ejecting the usurper and installing 
Ahmad AH Khan, son of the murdered chieftain. 

On the cession of Rohilkhand to the British Government in 1801, 
the family were confirmed in their possesssions. For his unswerving 
loyalty during the Mutiny of 1857, Muhammad Yusuf AH Khan, Nawab 
of Rampur, received a grant of land, then assessed at i 3 lakhs, in 
addition to other honours and an increase of guns in his salute. He 
\vas succeeded in 1864 by his son, Nawab Muhammad Kalb All Khan, 
G. C.S.I., C.I.E., who, at the Imperial Assemblage at Delhi, received 
a standard and an addition for life of two guns to his salute, the 
ordinary salute of the chiefship being 13 guns. Sir Kalb AH Khan died 
in 1887 and was succeeded by Mushtak AH, who only survived for two 
years. The present Nawab, Hamid AH Khan Bahadur, was a minor 
at his accession ; and the affairs of the State were administered by a 
Council of Regency till 1896, when the Nawab was invested with full 
po\\ers. He holds the honoraiy rank of Major m His Majesty's army, 
and was created G.C.I.E. in 1908. 

Rampur contains 6 towns and 1,120 villages. Population mci eased 
Irom 1872 to 1891, but fell in the next decade owing to unfavourable 
seasons. The numbers at the four enumerations weie 
Population. ^ follows: ( r872 ) 507,004, (1881) 541,9*4, (1891) 
551,249, and (1901) 533,212. There are five tahslh the HUZUK 
or head-quarteis, SHAHABAD, MILAK, BILASPUR, and SUAR. The head- 
quarters of the first are at Rampur city, the capital of the State, and 
of the otheis at places which give their names to the taksits. The 
following table gives the chief statistics of population in 1901 . 





fi 


Number of 1 


su 


o c^ 


^5 




3 







P 


V Q Ct^ft 


O^TJ 




r (U 




en 


*j 


o 


y c 2 M o^ 


43 *rt ^ *j 


Tttksll 


c rj 


S 


& 1 3 


j2 e5 


c "S _ 


*c {S'O C 







I 


JS 

E- 


5. 




|l 


& 


^1" 


Huziir . 


176 


I 


-44 


178,333 


1?OJ3 






Shahabad 


166 


I 


197 


82,716 


4 qS 






Miiak . 


'56 


I 


201 


94,046 


603 






BIlas.pur 


204 


I 


223 


73,450 


360 






Suar 


191 


2 


^55 


104,667 


548 






! 














State total 


93 


6 


1,120 


533,212 


599 


- 33 


10,072 



Hindus form 55 per cent, of the total and Musalmans 45 per cent. 
a much higher proportion than in any District of the United Provinces. 
The density of population is high in the centre of the State, but 
decieases m the north and south. The Hindustani dialect of Western 
Hindi is the language in ordinary use. 

Among Hindus the most numerous castes are : Chamars (tanners 
and cultivators)j 40,000 ; Lodhas (cultivators), 34,000 , Kurmis (culti- 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 



185 



vators), 25,000, Malls (market-gardeners), 20,000,, Brahmans, 16,000 , 
and Ahlis (grazieis and cultivators), 14,000. Muhammadans include 
Pathans or Rohillas, 49,000 ; Turks (cultivators), 33,000 ; Julahas 
(weavers), 25,000 ; and Shaikhs, 24,000. As is usual in the sub- 
montane tract, Banjaras (8,000) are fairly numerous. Agriculture 
supports 61 per cent, of the population, and cotton-weaving 3-5 percent. 

Out of 440 native Christians enumerated in 1901, 386 were Metho- 
dists. There aie no missions in the State. 

The north of the State is composed of heavy clay and chiefly 
pi educes rice. Towards the centre and south a rich loam is found, 
in which a great variety of crops can be grown. 
The mam agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are given 
below, in square miles : 



Agriculture. 



Tahiti 


Total. 


Cultivated 


Iirjgated. 


Cultivable 
waste 












liuzut 


176 


J3 1 


o 


25 


Hhahabad 


166 


110 


s 


jH 


Milak 
Bilaspui 


156 

204 


115 
69 


24 
37 


15 
39 


Suai . 


191 


114 


14 


36 


Total 


93 


539 


9i 


H3 



Maize is the crop most largely giown, covenng 125 squaie miles, 
Wheat (103 squaie miles) and rice (98) are also important staples, and 
sugar-cane was grown on 28 square miles. Cultivation is spreading, 
but reliable statistics are not available to indicate the variations in the 
area under different crops. 

The cattle and ponies bred locally are very inferior. Ponies are, 
however, largely imported by the Banjaras, who use them as pack- 
animals. Mule-breeding has recently been introduced, 

A system of damming small streams to provide water for irrigation 
had long been in force in the State. It was wasteful and unscientific, 
and has now been replaced by a regular system of small canals, the 
chief of which are taken from the Bahalla and Kosi rivers. Masonry 
dams have been thrown across these two rivers, and others are con- 
templated. Almost the whole area north of the Ramganga is protected 
by canals. The area irrigated varies accoidmg to the season from about 
50 to 150 square miles. 

The most important industry is the weaving of cotton cloth, which is 
carried on in many places. A very fine cotton damask, called khes, 
which is produced at Rampur city, is not surpassed 
in any part of India. Ornamental pottery 1S also 
made, consisting ,of a led earthen body overlaid with 
opaque enamel, which is coloured dark blue or turquoise. Excellent 



t86 RAM PUR STATE 

sword-blades and other articles of steel are made, and matchlocks and 
guns Were formerly turned out Minor industries include sugar-refining 
and the manufacture of papier-mache and lacquer goods. 

The State exports sugar, rice, and hides, and imports piece-goods, 
metals, and salt. Goats are also imported in large numbers for food. 
Rampur was once noted for its trade m horses and elephants, but this 
has declined. 

The main line of the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway crosses the 
State from south-east to north-west. No kankar is found, and com- 
munications by road were defective, but have been much improved. 
Kankar is now imported and mixed with stone brought from the 
Bhabar. About 33 miles of metalled roads are maintained in and near 
Rampur city by the State, and the British Government repairs two 
metalled roads, one passing from Moradabad to Bareilly and the other 
towards Naml Tal. There are also 223 miles of unmetalled roads. 
Avenues -of trees are -kept up on 196 miles. 

Generally speaking the State has suffered little from famine. A 

severe visitation is recorded in 1813, when corpses were daily seen 

in the streets. In 1877 famine would have been 

severely felt, but relief works were opened and alms 

were freely given to the aged and infirm. In 1896 extensive public 

works were started, and a large quantity of grain was purchased and 

sold by the State below market rates. 

The Commissioner of the Bareilly Division is Political Agent to 
the Lieutenant-Governor of the United Provinces for Rampur. Since 

. , . . . the present Nawab was invested with full powers, the 
Administration. Y , t . . f . TT t f _ : 

services of a native official of the United Provinces 

have been lent to the State This officer is called the Minister, or 
Maddr-ul-maham^ and various departments are controlled by him sub- 
ject to the direction of the Nawab. The principal executive officials 
are the chief secretary, the home secretary, the legal remembrancer, 
and the Dlwan-i-sadr. 

In 1902 a legislative committee was formed, consisting of members 
of the ruling family, officials, and leading residents in Rampur city. 
The Minister presides over the committee, and the regulations framed 
are published for criticism. Codes dealing with rent and revenue law 
had been issued previously, and the chief measures so fai dealt with 
by the committee have been concerned with the municipality of 
Rampur and registration. 

Each tahsll is in charge of a tahslldar^ who has jurisdiction in rent, 
revenue, and civil cases, and is also a magistrate with powers corre- 
sponding to those of a magistrate of the second class in British territory. 
Appeals in rent and revenue cases lie to the Nazim, Jurisdiction in 
civil cases is limited to suits relating to movable property not exceed- 



ADMINISTRA TION 



187 



ing Rs. 1,000, Suits up to Rs. 10,000 are heard by the Mufti Dlwam 
or civil court at Rampur. More important cases and appeals in civil 
suits from the orders of tahsildars and the Mufti Dlwdni are de- 
cided by the District Judge. There is also a Court of Small Causes at 
Rampur. Magisterial powers are vested in a bench and in several 
special magistrates. The Chief Magistrate has powers of imprison- 
ment up to three years, the Sessions Judge up to five years, the 
Minister up to ten years, while sentences of life imprisonment or death 
require the sanction of the Nawab Appeals from the orders of subor- 
dinate magistrates lie to the court of the Chief Magistrate and then to 
the Sessions Judge. All cases, whether civil, criminal, or revenue, are 
further appealable to the Minister, and finally to the Nawab. 

The land revenue and total revenue of the State for a series of 
years is shown below, in thousands of rupees 





1880-1 


1890-1. 


1900-1 


1903-4- 


Land revenue 
Total ic venue 


15,58 
15.87 


19,58 
30,67 


18,36 
34,33 


19,19 
35,38 



Apart from land revenue, the chief items in 1903-4 were: interest 
on Government promissory notes (6-2 lakhs), cesses (2-4 lakhs), mis- 
cellaneous (2-5 lakhs), and irrigation (Rs. 49,000). The expenditure 
included : privy purse (4 lakhs), public works (5 lakhs), army (4-6 
lakhs), pensions (3-4 lakhs), land administration (r-6 lakhs), and police 
(r-6 lakhs). 

Property m land is not recognized in the greater part of the State. 
The rights of landholders in the area ceded by the British after the 
Mutiny were maintained ; but in the case of 28 villages out of 146, the 
proprietary right has since been purchased by the State. There is thus 
no distinction between rent and land revenue, except in the remaining 
ceded villages. Collections are made through lessees or farmers, who 
receive leases for ten years or even longer. Leases are sold by auction ; 
but the improvement of records and the establishment of a settlement 
department have materially facilitated the fixing of suitable amounts. 
Lessees are liable to a penalty in case of a decrease in cultivation. 
The cultivators acquire occupancy rights as in the Province of Agra 
(see UNITED PROVINCES), but after a period of sixteen years instead of 
twelve. The minimum term for new tenants has been fixed at five 
years. A complete survey of the State was made in 1890. 

Liquor is made within the State by licensed contractors, to whom 
the right of manufacture and vend is sold by public auction, the 
receipts m 1903-4 being Rs. 41,000. Opium is sold to the State by 
the British Government at cost price up to 14% cwt. annually, and at 
the rate fixed for sale to licensed vendors in Moradabad District for 

VOL. XXI. N 



1 88 RAMPUR STATE 

any amount in excess of 14% cwt. It is retailed at the rates prevalent 
m adjacent British Districts, The right to sell hemp drugs is farmed 
by auction. Charas is imported direct from the Punjab and bhang 
from the United Provinces. The profit on opium and drugs in 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 18,000. Other items of miscellaneous revenue in- 
cluded chaukldarl cess (Rs. 65,000), stamps (Rs. 41,000), salt and 
saltpetre (Rs, 15,000), tax on sugar-mills (Rs. 8,000), and registration 
(Rs 9,000). 

The only town under municipal administration is RA.MPUR CITY. 
The municipal commissioners are elected. 

Public works are in charge of a European Chief Engineer, formerly 
in British service. The chief public buildings are at Rampur city, 
Substantial offices have been constructed at the tahsil head-quarters, 
and the roads, bridges, and canals are well maintained. 

The State maintains three squadrons of cavalry, of which two 
squadrons (317 strong) are Imperial Service Lancers. The local 
forces include 1,900 infantry, and 206 aitillery with 23 guns 

The police force is organized on the system in the United Provinces. 
The Superintendent has an Assistant, and a force of 2 inspectors, 
101 subordinate officers, and 409 constables, distributed m 12 police 
stations and 7 outposts. There are also 149 municipal and road 
police, and 1,281 village police. In 1904 the jail contained a daily 
average of 494 prisoners. 

The State is backward as regards literacy, and in 1901 only 1-4 per 
cent, of the population (2-5 males and o-r females) could read and 
write. During the last few years, however, considerable attention has 
been devoted to education. The number of schools increased from 
10 with 316 pupils in 1880-1 to 104 with 3,741 pupils in 1900-1. By 
1903-4 the number of schools had further risen to 128, with 4,424 
pupils, of whom 150 were girls, in addition to 20 private schools 
attended by 850 pupils. A celebrated Arabic college, with 400 
students, which is maintained by the State, attracts students from all 
parts of India and even from Central Asia. The principal school for 
English education at Rampur city has 332 pupils. There is also an 
industrial school at Rampur. Of the total number of pupils, only 
777 are in secondary classes. The expenditure on education in 
1903-4 was Rs. 53,000, of which Rs 18,000 was derived from a 
special cess. 

There are 15 hospitals and dispensaries, with accommodation for 
200 in-patients. In 1903-4 the number of cases treated was 186,000, 
including 951 in-patients, and 3,616 operations were performed. The 
expenditure, including the cost of sanitation, amounted to Rs, 47,000 
Hospitals exist for treatment by both European and indigenous 
methods 



RAMPUR TOWN 189 

About 11,000 persons were vaccinated in 1903-4, showing a pio- 
portion of 21 per 1,000 of population. Vaccination is compulsory in 
Rampur city. 

[State Gazetteer, 1883 (under revision); Annual Administration 
Reports^ 

Rampur City. Capital of the State of Rampur, United Provinces, 
situated in 28 49' N. and 79 2' E., on the left bank of the Kosi or 
Kosilla, on a road from Moradabad to Bareilly and on the Oudh and 
Rohilkhand Railway, 851 miles by rail from Calcutta and 1,070 from 
Bombay, Population is increasing slowly but steadily. The numbers at 
the three enumerations were as follows : (1881) 74,250, (1891) 76,733, 
and (1901) 78,758. In 1901 the population included 58,870 Musalmans 
and 17,371 Hindus. Rampur first became of notice as the residence 
of Faiz-ullah Khan, younger son of All Muhammad. For a time it 
bore the name Mustafabad It is enclosed by a broad, dense, bamboo 
hedge, about six miles in circumference, which was formerly pierced 
by only eight openings and formed a strong defence. Within recent 
years dealings have been made in two places. In the centre of the 
city stands the new fort, surrounded by a wall 5,000 feet in circuit. 
It is built entirely of brick and is entered by two lofty gateways. The 
interior of the fort is a large open space, containing palaces and other 
buildings. A fine library contains an exceptionally valuable collection 
of manuscripts. West of the fort are the public offices, in an impos- 
ing range of buildings completed in 1892. The large Jama Masjid was 
built by Nawab Kalb All Khan at a cost of 3 lakhs. Other buildings 
for the use of the Nawab and his family include the Khas Bagh palace, 
the Khusru Bagh palace, and commodious stables for horses, camels, 
and elephants. The chief public buildings are the jail, police station, 
high school, tahslli) and male and female dispensaries. Houses are 
maintained for the European officials outside the city, and the canton- 
ments he beyond these. 

Municipal administration was introduced in 1890. Up to 1903 the 
only income raised by specific taxation consisted of a tax for watch and 
ward, which brought in about Rs. 4,000 or Rs 5,000. Octroi has now 
been introduced. In 1903-4 the expenditure was Rs. 61,000, including 
public works (Rs. 20,000), conservancy (Rs. 18,000), and lighting 
(Rs. 13,000). The city produces pottery, damask, sword-blades, and 
cutlery, and is the chief trading centre in the State. It is also the chief 
educational centre, and contains 43 schools with 2,254 pupils. The 
principal institutions are the high school, where English education is 
provided, a technical school with 100 pupils, and an Arabic college/ 
There are five girls' schools with 130 pupils. 

Rampur Town (i). Capital of the Bashahr State, Punjab, situated 
m 31 27' N. and 77 40' E. Population (1901), 1,157. It stands at 

N 2 



i 9 o RAMPUR TOWN 

the base of a lofty mountain, overhanging the left bank of the Sutlej, 
138 feet above the stream, and 3,300 feet above sea-level. Cliffs 
surround the town and confine the air, so that during summer the 
radiation from the rocks renders the heat intolerable. The houses rise 
in tiers, and many of them being built of stone suffered seriously from 
the earthquake in 1905. The town is famous for its fine shawls, the 
well-known Rampur chadars. The Raja's palace, at the north-east 
corner of the town, consists of several buildings with carved wooden 
balconies exhibiting traces of Chinese style. The Gurkhas did much 
damage to the town and its trade during the period of their supremacy, 
but it has recovered under British protection. The Raja resides at 
Rampur during the winter, and retires to the cooler station of Sarahan 
for the hottest months. 

Rampur Town (2) Town in the Deoband tahsil of Saharanpur 
District, United Provinces, situated in 29 48' N. and 77 28' E., on 
the old road from Saharanpur to Delhi. Population (1901), 7,945, the 
number of Hindus and Musalmans being about equal. The town is 
said to have been founded by one Raja Ram, and according to 
tradition it was captured by Salar Masud. There is a fine modern 
Jam temple, and also a tomb of a Muhammadan saint, Shaikh Ibrahim, 
near which a religious fair is held in June. The town is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,000. There is 
some trade in gram, and the town is noted for the manufacture of 
glass bangles. 

Rampura State (i). Petty State in MAHI KANTHA, Bombay. 

Rampura State (2) Petty State in REWA KANTHA, Bombay. 

Rampura. Old name of a district and town of the Tonk State, 
Rajputana. See ALIGARH. 

Rampura. Site of a celebrated Jain temple in Jodhpur State, 
Rajputana. See RANAPUR. 

Rampura-Bhanpura. District of the Indore State, Central India, 
made by combining the old zilas of Rampura and Bhanpura, Though 
consisting of several detached blocks of territory, the district lies 
generally between 23 54' and 25 7' N. and 74 57' and 76 36' E., 
with an area of 2,123 square miles. The southern sections he in the 
undulating Malwa plateau region ; but north of Rampura the district 
enters the hilly tract formed by the arm of the Vmdhyas which strikes 
across east and west from Chitor towards Chanden and forms the 
border of the table-land known as the Pathar. 

The numerous remains scattered through this district point to its 
having been of much importance m former times. From the seventh 
to the ninth century it offered an asylum to the Buddhists, then fallen 
on evil days. At DHAMNAR and Poladongar, and at Kholvi and other 
places close by, are the remains of their caves, both chaitya halls and 



RAMPURA TOWN 191 

S) all of late date, excavated in the latente hills which rise 
abruptly from the plateau in this region. From the ninth to the four- 
teenth century it was part of the dominions of the Paramara Rajputs, 
to whose rule the remains of numerous Jain temples testify. An 
inscription belonging to this dynasty was lately discovered at Mori 
village. In the fifteenth century it fell to the Muhammadan dynasty 
of MALWA, passing in the last years of their rule to the chiefs of 
Udaipur. Under Akbar the district lay partly in the Subah of Malwa 
and partly in that of Ajmer. The Chandra wat Thakurs, who claim 
descent from Chandra, second son of Rahup, Rana of Udaipur, settled 
at Antrl, which was granted to Sheo Singh Chandrawat by Dilawar 
Khan of Malwa in the fifteenth century. They gradually acquired the 
surrounding country from the Bhils. To this day the head of the 
family, on his succession, receives the ttka from the hand of a Bhil 
descendant of the founder of Rampura. These Thakurs, though 
virtually independent, appear to have recognized to some extent the 
suzerainty of Udaipur, to which State the District certainly belonged 
in the seventeenth century. In 1729 it was given to Madho Singh, 
second son of Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur, from whom it passed to 
Holkar about 1752. The district was intimately associated with the 
fortunes of Jaswant Rao Holkar, who practically made Rampura his 
capital instead of Maheshwar. 

The population decreased from 285,825 in 1891 to 156,021 in 1901, 
the density in the latter year being 73 persons per square mile. The 
district contains four towns, RAMPURA (population, 8,273), BHANPURA 
(4,639), MANASA (4,5 8 9)> SUNEL (3,655), with GAROT (3,456), the 
head-quarters ; and 868 other villages. For administrative purposes it 
is divided into ten parganas^ with head-quarters at Garot, Bhanpura, 
Chandwasa, Zirapur, Manasa, Nandwai, Narayangarh, Rampura, Sunel, 
and Talen-lataheri. The district is in charge of a Subah^ subordinate 
to whom are naib-subahs at Rampura and Bhanpura, and amlns in the 
remaining parganas. The total revenue is 6-9 lakhs. 

The district is traversed by the metalled road from Nimach to 
Manasa, where it meets a branch road from Piplia to Manasa and con- 
tinues to Rampura and Jhalrapatan in Rajputana. Other roads are 
in course of construction ; and the new Nagda-Muttra branch of 
the Bombay, Baroda, and Central Indian Railway will pass through 
Shamgarh, 6 miles from Garot. 

Rampura Town. Town m the Rampura-Bhanpura district of 
Indore State, Central India, situated in 24 28' N. and 75 27' E., 
1,300 feet above sea-level, at the foot of the branch of the Vmdhyan 
range which strikes across from west to east, north of Nimach. Popu- 
lation (1901), 8,273. Rampura derives its name from a Brill chief, 
Rama, who was killed by Thakur Sheo Singh, Chandrawat of Antrl, 



1 92 RAM PUR A TOWN 

in the fifteenth century. As a sign of their foimei sovereignty, the 
descendants of Rama still affix the ilka to the forehead of the chief of 
the Chandrawat family. As the town stands at present, it is entirely 
Muhammadan, the wall and principal buddings being constructed 
in the Muhammadan style. The town long belonged to the chiefs 
of Udaipur, but was seized in 1567 by Akbar's general, Asaf Khan, 
and was made the chief town of the sarkar of Chitor in the Subah of 
Ajmer. During the Maratha period it fell to Jaswant Rao Holkar, 
who made it one of his chief places of residence. The Chandrawat 
Thakurs, who were the original holders, gave much trouble, until they 
were subdued by force and later on received a jdgir in the neighbour- 
hood, where they still reside. The town was formerly famous for its 
silver-work and manufacture of swords. Besides the district offices, 
it contains a State post office, a jail, a police station, a school, and 
a dispensary. 

Rampur Boalia Subdivision. Head-quarters subdivision of 
Rajshahi District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 24 7' 
and 24 43' N. and 88 18' and 88 58' E., with an area of 910 square 
miles. The subdivision consists of three portions. To the north-west 
is the Barind, an elevated and undulating country ; along the Padma, 
which bounds it on the south, is a comparatively high and well-drained 
tract of sandy soil } and to the east the land is swampy and water- 
logged. The population was 563,936 In 1901, compared with 571,578 
in 1891, the density being 620 persons per square mile, It contains 
one town, RAMPUR BOALIA (population, 21,589), the head-quarters , 
and 2,271 villages. The chief centres of commerce are GODAGARI, 
Rampur Boalia, and Charghat on the Padma, which conduct a thriving 
river trade A large annual fair is held at KHETUR. 

Rampur Boalia Town. Head-quarters of Rajshahi District, 
Eastern Bengal and Abbam, situated in 24 22' N and 88 36' E , on 
the north bank of the Padma. Population (1901), 21,589, of whom 
51 per cent are Hindus, 48 pei cent. Musalmans, and i per cent. 
Christians, Rampui Boalia has long been an important centie of the 
silk industry It was first selected by the Dutch in the early part 
of the eighteenth century for the establishment of a factory, and was 
subsequently for many years the head-quarters of an English Com- 
mercial Residency. The seat of administration was transferred here 
from Nator in 1825. The town is of modern growth, and is built 
for the most part on river alluvium. It was formerly liable to en- 
croachment by the Padma and suffered severely from inundations, 
from which it is now protected by an embankment running along 
the river bank for 6 miles In recent years the river has receded 
from the town, and the considerable trade which it formerly enjoyed 
has declined , it hab albo buffered from the decay of the Bengal 



RAM REE ISLAND 193 

indigo industry. Rampur BoaM was constituted a municipality in 
1876. The municipal income during the decade ending 1901-2 
averaged Rs. 37,000, and the expenditure Rs. 31,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was Rs. 53,000, of which Rs. 12,000 was derived from a 
tax on persons (or property tax), Rs. 6,000 from a conservancy rate, 
and Rs. 7,000 from a tax on vehicles, while Rs. 13,000 represented 
a grant received for medical purposes. The expenditure in the same 
year was Rs 50,000. There is a Central jail, with accommodation 
for 872 prisoners ; the chief jail industries are the manufacture of 
mustard- and castor-oils, twine, dans^ and utensils of wood and 
bamboo, The Rajshahi College is a first-class Government college 
teaching up to the M.A. standard, with a collegiate school, Oriental 
classes, and a law department. It possesses endowments to the ex- 
tent of Rs. 10,000, in addition to which the Oriental classes are 
maintained from the Mohsin fund. Boarding-houses attached to the 
college accommodate 150 students. A sericultural school was opened 
in 1897, where practical training is given to sericultural overseers 
and the sons of silkworm-rearers. 

Rampur Hat Subdivision. Northern subdivision of Blrbhum 
District, Bengal, lying between 23 52' and 24 35' N. and 87 35' 
and 88 2' E., with an area of 645 square miles. The subdivision 
is a long and somewhat narrow tract, running up between Murshid- 
abad District and the Santal Parganas. It possesses a fertile soil, 
except to the west, where there is a rolling country with tracts unfit 
for cultivation, and in the Murarai thana to the north, where the 
land is comparatively infertile and there is a large proportion of 
uncultivable waste. The population in 1901 was 366,352, compared 
with 328,025 in 1891, the density being 568 persons per square 
mile. It contains 1,336 villages, of which RAMPUR HAT is the head- 
quarters , but no town. 

Rampur Hat Village. Head-quarters of the subdivision of the 
same name in Blrbhum District, Bengal, situated m 24 10' N. and 
87 47' E., on the East Indian Railway, 136 miles from Howrah. 
Population (1901), 3,908. A great part of the trade of the Santal 
Parganas passes through the village. It contains the usual public 
offices ; the sub-jail has accommodation for 18 prisoners. 

Ramree Island (Yan-lye). Island off the coast of Arakan, in 
Kyaukpyu District, Lower Burma, lying between 18 43' and 19 38' 
N. and 93 30' and 93 $6' E. It is about 50 miles in length, and 
at its broadest part about 20 in breadth. The town of KYAUKPYU, 
the head-quarters of the District, is built at the northern end. The 
island lies parallel with the general line of the coast, namely, north-west 
and south-east, and is traversed by a range of hills bearing generally in 
the same direction The population is composed chiefly of Arakanese. 



194 RAM REE TOWNSHIP 

Ramree Township (Burmese, Yanbye\ Township of Kyaukpyu 
District, Lower Burma, lying between 18 43' and 19 22' N. and 
93 40' and 94 2' E., with an area of 449 square miles. It comprises 
the south-eastern half of the island of Ramree. The head-quartei s 
are at Ramree (population, 2,540), near the eastern coast of the island. 
In 1901 it contained 247 villages and 46,058 inhabitants, or about 
i, 600 less than in 1891. A good deal of it is covered with low hills. 
The majority of the inhabitants aie Buddhists. In 1903-4 the area 
cultivated was 55 square miles, paying Rs. 52,000 land revenue. 

Ramsanehighat. South-eastern tahsil of Bara Bankl District, 
United Provinces, comprising the parganas of Daryabad, Surajpur, 
Rudauli, Basorhl, and Mawai Maholara, and lying between 26 35' 
and 27 2' N. and 81 21' and 81 52' E., with an area of 585 square 
miles Population increased from 377,527 in 1891 to 387,670 in 
1901. There are 616 villages and three towns, RUDAULI (population, 
11,708) and DARYABAD (5,928) bemg the largest. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 6,35,000, and for cesses Rs. 99,000. 
The density of population, 662 persons per square mile, is about the 
District average. The tahsil stretches from the Gogra on the north- 
east to the Gumti on the south, the central portion being drained by 
the Kalyani, a tributary of the Gumti. It contains a number otjhils 
or swamps, and drains have recently been made to improve water- 
logged areas. In 1903-4 the area under cultivation was 400 square 
miles, of which 144 were irrigated. Tanks or swamps supply about 
twice as large an area as wells, 

Ram Talao (or Sunabdev). Hot springs in the Shahada taluka 
of West Khandesh District, Bombay, 4 miles west of Unabdev, 
in a narrow gorge formed by two low projecting spurs of the Satpura 
Hills, and evidently supplied from the same source as Unabdev In 
the woodland, 2 miles from the village of Wardi, close to Sunabdev, 
are traces of a large weir of great thicknebb and stiength, which used 
to dam the hot water and form the Ram Talao. The water wells from 
the ground in one or two places at a temperature of about 90, and 
seems to have no healing power. The bricks of the embankment are 
very large and strong, about a foot and a half long and from 2 to 
4 inches thick. It is said that a Musalman, in the pay of the owner 
of the village, who was in charge of Wardi, used the bricks in building 
a step-well. But from the day the well was opened a curse from the 
offended deity of the spring fell on the villagers. They were stricken 
with guinea-worm and fled from the village After a time the village was 
again peopled, and the bricks were used in building a village office or 
chavdL No sooner was the office finished than the curse returned. 
Fever and dysentery broke out, and in two years the village was once 
more empty and has never since been inhabited. The new village 



RAMTEK TOWN 195 

of Wardi lies outside the walls of the old village, where it is believed 
the offended deity of the pond still angrily guards what is left of his 
ancient bricks. 

Ramtek Tahsil. Northern tahsll of Nagpui District, Central 
Provinces, lying between 21 5' and 21 44' N. and 78 55' and 
79 35' E., with an aiea of 1,129 square miles, The population in 
1901 was" 156,663, compared with 157,150 m 1891 The density is 
139 persons per square mile, The tahsll contains two towns, RAMTEK 
(population, 8,732), the head-quarteis, and KHAPA (7,615); and 451 
inhabited villages. Excluding 343 square miles of Government forest, 
77 per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation. The 
cultivated area in 1903-4 was 544 square miles. The demand for 
land revenue m the same year was Rs. 2,27,000, and for cesses 
Rs. 23,000. The tahsll contains a belt of hill and jungle at the foot 
of the Satpura range to the north, and in the south he two fertile plains 
producing wheat and cotton respectively, which are divided by the 
Pench river. 

Ramtek Town. Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name, 
Nagpur District, Central Provinces, situated in 21 24' N. and 
79 20' E , 24 miles north-east of Nagpur city by road and 13 miles 
from Salwa railway station. Population (1901), 8,732. The town lies 
round the foot of a detached hill forming the western extremity of the 
small Ambagarh range As is shown by its name ('the hill of Rama ' 
or Vishnu), it is a sacred place of the Hindus. On the hill, standing 
about 500 feet above the town, are a number of temples, which, owing 
to their many coats of whitewash, can be seen gleaming m the sun from 
a long distance. The principal temple is that of Ram Chandra, 
standing above the otheis in the inner citadel, which is protected by 
two lines of walls, both of recent origin, while a third line runs round 
the Ambala tank at the foot of the hill. The tank is lined throughout 
with stone revetments and steps ; it is said to be very deep, and fish 
abound in it. From the west end of the tank a long flight of steps 
leads up the hill, at the opposite end of which another flight descends 
to the town of Ramtek. About 2 7 tanks in all have been constructed 
round the town Ramtek was constituted a municipality in 1867. 
The municipal receipts during the decade ending 1901 averaged 
Rs. 8,400. In 1903-4 the receipts were Rs, 10,000, derived mainly 
from octroi. A large religious fair is held here in December and 
a smaller one m March. The December fair lasts for a fortnight, 
and a considerable amount of traffic in cloth and utensils takes place, 
dealers coming from Jubbulpore and Mandla. A large area in the 
vicinity of the town is covered with betel-vine gardens. The variety 
called kapuri is chiefly grown, and is much esteemed locally. The 
importance of the town is now increasing, owing to the manganese 



196 RAMTEK TOWN 

mines which are worked in the tract adjoining it. A weekly cattle market 
is held. The educational institutions comprise an English middle, 
girls', and branch schools, and a dispensary has also been established. 

Ranaghat Subdivision. Southern subdivision of Nadia Dis- 
trict, Bengal, lying between 22 53' and 23 20' N. and 88 20' and 
88 45' E., with an area of 427 square miles. The subdivision is 
a deltaic tract, bounded on the south-west by the Bhaglrathi ; it 
contains much jungle and numerous marshes and backwaters, and the 
whole tract is malarious and unhealthy. The population declined 
from 230,036 in 1891 to 217,077 in 1901, the density in the latter 
year being 508 persons per square mile , the decrease (563 per cent ) 
was due to the prevalence of malarial affections. The subdivision 
contains four towns, RANAGHAT (population, 8,744), the head-quarters, 
SANTIPUR (26,898), CHAKDAHA (5,482), and BIRNAGAR (3,124); and 
568 villages. 

Ranaghat Town. Head-quarters of the subdivision of the same 
name in Nadia District, Bengal, situated in 23 1 1 / N. and 88 34' E., on 
the Churn! river. Population (1901), 8,744. Ranaghat is an important 
station on the Eastern Bengal State Railway, and a tei minus of the 
light railway which runs to Knshnagar. Ranaghat was constituted 
a municipality in 1864. The income and expenditure during the 
decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs. 9,000. In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 13,000, including Rs. 6,000 derived from a tax on persons and 
lands, and Rs. 4,000 from a conservancy rate } and the expenditure was 
Rs. 12,000. The town contains the usual public offices , the sub-jail 
has accommodation for 12 prisoners. Ranaghat is an important trade 
centre, and the head-quarters of a Medical Mission started m 1893 
Several dispensaries are maintained here and at out-stations, and are 
very largely attended. 

Ranahu. Town in the Khipio taluka of Thai and Parkar District, 
Sind, situated in 20 55' N and 69 52' E. Population (1901), 5,187. 
It is a place of no importance, possesses no trade, and, m consequence 
of successive famines, a decreasing population. 

Ranapur (01 Rampura). Site of a celebrated Jam temple in the 
Desuri district of the State of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated in 25 7' N. 
and 73 28' E., about 88 miles south-east of Jodhpur city, and about 
14 miles east by south-east of Falna station on the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway. The temple was built in the time of Rana Kumbha of 
Mewar (fifteenth century), m a lonely and deserted glen running into 
the western slopes of the Aravallis, and is still nearly perfect. It 
is most complicated and extensive in design, covering a platform 
measuring 200 by 225 feet, exclusive of the projections on each face. 
In the centre stands the great bhiine, not, however, occupied as usual 
by one cell but by fom, in each of which is placed a statue of Admath, 



RANCH! DISTRICT 197 

the first of the Jain saints. On a second storey are foui similar niches 
opening on the terraced roofs of the building. Near the four angles 
of the couit are four smaller shrines, and around them, or on each 
side of them, are 20 domes supported by about 420 columns. The 
central dome in each group is three storeys m height and towers over 
the others ; and that facing the principal entrance is supported by the 
very unusual number of 16 columns and is 36 feet in diameter, the 
others being only 24 feet. Light is admitted to the building by four 
uncovered courts, and the whole is sui rounded by a range of cells, 
each of which has a pyramidal roof. Internally the forest of columns 
produces endless variety of perspective with play of light and shade. 
A wonderful effect also results from the number of cells which, besides 
being of varied form, are more or less adorned with carvings. 

'The immense number of parts in the building and their general 
smallness prevent its laying claim to anything like architectural 
grandeur , but their variety, their beauty of detail no two pillars in 
the whole building being exactly alike the grace with which they are 
arranged, the tasteful admixture of domes of different heights with flat 
ceilings, and the mode in which the light is introduced, combine to 
produce an excellent effect ' 

Imbedded in a pillar at the enLiance to the temple is a marble slab 
with an inscription recording the uilers of Mewar from Bapa Rawal 
to Rana Kumbha 

[J. Fergusson, History of Indian and Eastern Architecture^ pp. 240-2 

(1899)0 

Ranasan. Petty State in MAHI KANTHA, Bombay. 

Ranch! District. District in the Chota Nagpur Division of 
Bengal, lying between 22 20' and 23 43' N. and 84 o' and 85 54' E. 
It is the largest District in Bengal, having an area of 7,128 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by the Districts of Palamau and 
Hazanbagh, on the east by Manbhum; on the south by Smghbhum 
and the Tnbutary State of Gangpur; and on the west by the Jashpur 
and Surguja States and Palamau District. 

The District consists broadly of two plateaux, the higher of which, 
on its northern and western sides, has an elevation of about 2,000 feet 
and covers about two-thirds of its area, while the 
lower plateau lies on the extreme eastern and aspects 
southern borders and has only half this elevation. 
The ghats or passes which connect the two are for the most part steep 
and rugged, and are covered with a fair growth of timber. In the 
north-western cornei of the District are situated several lofty ranges 
of hills, some of them with level tops, locally called fiats, a few having 
an area of several square miles, but sparsely inhabited and with very 
little cultivation. The highest point in the District is the Saru hill, 



198 RANCHI DISTRICT 

about 20 miles west of the town of Lohardaga, which uses to 3,615 
feet above sea-level. With the exception of the hills in the north-west 
and of a lofty lange which divides the main portion of the lower 
plateau from the secluded valley of Sonapet in the south-eastern comer 
of the District, the plateaux themselves are flat and undulating, with 
numerous small hills. The District possesses varied beauties of 
scenery, especially in the west and south, where bare and rugged rocks 
alternate with richly wooded hills enclosing secluded and peaceful 
valleys Not least among the scenic features are the various waterfalls, 
any of which would in a Western country be regarded as worthy of 
a visit even from a distance. The finest is the Hundrughagh on the 
Subarnarekha river about 30 miles east of Ranch! town , but several 
others are hardly inferior, e.g. the Dasamghagh near Bundu, two 
Peruaghaghs (one in Kochedega and one in the Basia thana)^ so called 
because of the hundreds of wild pigeons which nest in the crevices of 
the rocks round about all these falls, and the beautiful though almost 
unknown fall of the Sankh river (known as the Sadnighagh from the 
adjacent village of Sadn! Kona), where it drops from the lofty Rajdera 
plateau on its way to the plains of Barwe below. The river system 
is complex, and the various watersheds scatter their rivers in widely 
divergent directions. Near the village of Nagra, 12 miles west and 
south-west of Ranch! town, rise the SUBARNAREKHA (the 'golden line 
or thread ') and the South Koel (a very common name for rivers m 
Chota Nagpur, but apparently without any specific meaning) ; the 
former on the south side and the latter on the north. The Subar- 
narekha, of which the chief affluents in this District are the Kokro, the 
KanchI, and the Karkarl, flows at first in a north-easterly direction, 
passes the town of Ranch! at a distance of about 2 miles, and eventually 
running due east flows through a narrow and picturesque valley along 
the Hazanbagh border into the District of Manbhum. The South 
Koel, on the other hand, starting m a north-westerly direction, runs 
near Lohardaga, and turning south again, flows across the District from 
north-west to south-east into Gangpur State and there joins the Sankh? 
which, rising in the extreme west of the District, also runs south-east, 
the united stream being known as the BRAHMAN! Withm almost 
a few yards of the Sankh rises another Koel, known as the North 
Koel , but this stream flows to the north and eventually, aftei tiaversing 
Palamau District, joins the Son under the plateau of Rohtas. None 
of these rivers contains more than a few inches of water during the dry 
season ; but in the rains they come down in sudden and violent fieshes, 
which for a few hours, or it may be even days, render them wellnigh 
impassable. Lakes are conspicuous by their absence, the explanation 
being that the granite which forms the chief geological feature of the 
District is soft and soon worn away. 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 199 

The geological formations are the Archaean and the Gondwana 
Of the latter, all that is included within the District is a small strip 
along the southern edge of the Karanpura coal-fields. The rock 
occupying by far the greatest area is gneiss of the kind known as 
Bengal gneiss, which is remarkable for the great variety of its com- 
ponent crystalline rocks. The south of the District includes a portion 
of the auriferous schists of Chota Nagpur. These form a highly 
altered sedimentary and volcanic series, consisting of quartzites, quartz- 
itic sandstones, slates of various kinds, sometimes shaly, hornblendic, 
mica, talcose, and chloritic schists. Like the Dharwar schists of 
Southern India, which they resemble, they are traversed by auriferous 
quartz veins. A gigantic intrusion of igneous basic diorite runs through 
the schists from east to west, forming a lofty range of hills which 
culminate in the peak of Dalma in Manbhum, whence the name 
Dalma trap has been derived. In the neighbourhood of this intrusion 
the schists are more metamorphosed and contain a larger infusion 
of gold 1 . 

The narrower valleys are often terraced for rice cultivation, and the 
rice-fields and their margins abound in marsh and water plants. The 
surface of the plateau land between the valleys, where level, is often 
bare and rocky, but where undulating, is usually clothed with a dense 
scrub jungle, in which Dendrocalamus strictus is prominent. The steep 
slopes of the ghats are covered with a dense forest mixed with climbers. 
Sal (Shorea robustd) is gregarious \ among the other noteworthy trees 
are species of Buchanania, Semecarpus, Terminalia, Cedrela^ Cassia, 
Butea^ Bauhinia^ Acacia, and Adina^ which these forests share with the 
similar forests on the Lower Himalayan slopes. Mixed with these, 
however, are a number of characteristically Central India trees and 
shrubs, such as Cochlospermum^ Soymida, Boswellia, Hardwickia^ and 
Bassia^ which do not cross the Gangetic plain. One of the features 
of the upper edge of the ghats is a dwarf palm, Phoenix acaulis ; 
striking too is the wealth of scarlet blossom in the hot season pro- 
duced by the abundance of Butea frondosa and B* superba^ and the 
mass of white flowers along the ghats in November displayed by the 
convolvulaceous climber Parana paniculata* The jungles also contain 
a large variety of tree and ground orchids. 

The Indian bison (gaur) is probably extinct as an inhabitant of the 
District, but a wanderer from Gangpur State or Palamau may occa- 
sionally even now be encountered near the boundary. Tigers, leopards, 
hyenas, bears, and an occasional wolf are to be found in all jungly and 
mountainous parts, while sdmbar (Cervus unicolor)^ nilgai (Boselaphus 
tragocamelus\ antelope, chital or spotted deer, and the little kotra or 

1 The gold-bearing rocks of Chota Nagpur have been described by S. M. Maclaren 
in Records, Geological Survey of Ind^a > vol. xxxi, pt. li. 



200 RANCH! DISTRICT 

barking-deer (Cervitlus mitntjac] are common in all the largei 
jungles. 

The temperature is moderate, except during the hot months of April, 
May, and June, when the westerly winds from Central India cause high 
temperature with low humidity. The mean temperature increases from 
76 in March to 85 in April and 88 in May, the mean maximum 
from 88 in March to 100 in May, and the mean minimum from 63 
to 76. During these months humidity is lower in Chota Nagpur than 
in any other part of Bengal, falling in Ranch! to 43 per cent, m March. 
During the cold season the mean temperature is 63 and the mean 
minimum 51. The annual rainfall averages 52 inches, of which 
8-1 inches fall in June, 13-6 in July, 13-7 in August, and 8*8 in 
September. 

The history of Chota Nagpur divides itself into four well-marked 
periods. During the first the country was in the undisturbed possession 
of the Munda and Oraon races, who may be pre- 
18 ory * sumed to have reclaimed it from a state of unculti- 
vated forest , it was at that time called Jharkand or the 'forest tract.' 
The second period embraces the subjection of the aboriginal village 
communities to the chiefs of the Nagbansi family. The birth at 
Sutiamba, near Pithauna, 10 miles north of Ranch! town, of the first 
of this race, Phani Mukuta Rai, the son of the Brahman's daughter 
Parati and the snake god, Pundarika Nag, is a well-known incident of 
mythology. Whatever the real origin of the family, it is certain that 
at some unknown time the aborigines of Chota Nagpur, either by 
voluntary submission or by force of arms, came under the sway of the 
Nagbansi Rajas, and so continued until they in turn became subject to 
the Musalman rulers of Upper India. This event, which may be taken 
as inaugurating the third period in the history of Chota Nagpur, took 
place in the year 1585, when Akbar sent a force which subdued the 
Raja of Kokrah, or Chota Nagpur proper, then celebrated for the 
diamonds found in its rivers 3 the name still survives as that of the 
most important pargana of Ranch! District. Musalman rule appears 
for a long time to have been of a nominal description, consisting of an 
occasional laid by a Muhammadan force from South Bihar and the 
carrying off of a small tribute, usually in the shape of a few diamonds 
from the Sankh river. Jahanglr sent a large force under Ibrahim 
Khan, governor of Bihar, and carried the forty-fifth Kokrah chief, 
Durjan Sal, captive to Delhi and thence to Gwalior, where he was 
detained for twelve years. He was eventually reinstated at Kokrah 
with a fixed tribute ; and it would appear that the relations thus 
formed continued on a more settled basis until the depredations of 
the Marathas in the eighteenth century led, with other causes, to the 
cession of the Chota Nagpur country to the British in 1765. A settle- 



HISTORY 20T 

merit was arnved at with the Nagbansi Maharaja m 1772, but aftei 
a trial of administration in which he was found wanting, the country 
now included in Ranch! District was, along with other adjoining 
territories, placed under the charge of the Magistrate of Ramgarh in 
Hazaribagh District. This was in 1816 or 1817. Meanwhile the gulf 
between the foreign landlords and their despised aboriginal tenants 
had begun to make itself felt. A large proportion of the country had 
passed from the head family, either by way of maintenance grants 
(khorposti) to younger branches or of service grants (jdgtr) to Brahmans 
and others, many of whom had no sympathy with the aborigines and 
only sought to wring from them as much as possible The result was 
a seething discontent among the Mundas and Oiaons, which manifested 
itself m successive risings in the years 1811, 1820, and 1831 In the 
last year the revolt assumed very senous proportions, and was not sup- 
pressed without some fighting and the aid of three columns of troops, 
including a strong body of cavalry It had long become apparent that 
the control from Ramgaih, which was situated outside the southern 
plateau and m reality formed part of a more northern administrative 
system, was ineffective , and in 1833 Chota Nagpui proper with Dhal- 
bhum was formed into a separate piovince, known as the South- 
western Frontier Agency, and placed in the immediate charge of an 
Agent to the Govemor-Geneial aided by a Senior and Junior Assistant, 
the position of the former corresponding closely with that of the 
present Deputy-Commissioner of Ranch!. In 1854 the system of 
government was again altered, and Chota Nagpur was constituted 
a non-regulation province under a Commissioner In the Mutiny of 
1857 the head bianch of the Chota Nagpui family held firm, though 
the Ramgarh Battalion at Ranch! mutinied and several of the inferior 
branches of the Nagbansis seceded. Chief among these in Ranch! 
District was the zamlndar of Barkagaih, whose property was confiscated 
and now forms a valuable Government estate The subsequent history 
of the District has been uneventful, with the exception of periodical 
manifestations of the discontent of the Munda population in the south 
and south-east This was fanned dunng the last fifteen years of the 
nineteenth century by the self-interested agitation of so-called sarddrs 
or leaders, whose chief object has been to make a living for themselves 
at the expense of the people, and also by the misrepresentations of 
a certain section of the German missionaries. It culminated in a small 
rising in 1899 under one Birsa Munda, who set himself up as a God- 
sent leader with miraculous powers. The movement was, however, 
wanting in dash and cohesion, and was suppressed without difficulty 
by the local authorities, the ringleader being captured, and ending his 
days from cholera in the Ranch! jail When the South-Western 
Frontier Agency was established in 1833, the District, which \\as then 



202 



RANCHI DISTRICT 



known as Lohardaga, included the piesent District of Palamau and 
had its head-quarters at Lohardaga, 45 miles west of Ranch!. In 1840 
the head-quarters were transferred to their present site, and in 1892 the 
subdivision of Palamau with the Tori fargana was formed into a 
separate District. 

Doisanagar, which lies about 40 miles to the west and south ot 
Ranch!, contains the ruins of the palaces built in the last quarter of the 
eighteenth century by Maharaja Ram Sahi Deo and his brother the 
Kuar Gokhal Nath Sahi Deo, and also of some half-dozen temples 
erected for the worship of Mahadeo and Ganesh The stronghold of 
the former Raja of Jashpur, one of the old chiefs brought into sub- 
jection by the Mughals, is situated about 2 miles north of Getalsud in 
the Jashpur pargana. The only other relic worthy of note is the 
temple at CHUTIA, on the eastern outskirts of the town of Ranch!. 
Chokahatu, or c the place of mourning,' is a village in the south-west 
of the District famous for its large burial-ground, which is used by 
both Muhammadans and Mundas 

The recorded population of the present area rose from 813,328 in 
1872 to 1,058,169 in 1881, to 1,128,885 in 1891, and to 1,187,925 
in 1901. The large apparent increase m the first 
decade may be in part attributed to the imperfections 
of the first Census. The subsequent growth would have been greater 
but for the drain of cooly recruiting for the tea and other industries, 
coupled with a year of sharp scarcity just before the Census of 1901. 
The more jungly tracts are very malarious, but on the whole the 
climate compaies favourably with that of other parts of Bengal. The 
principal statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below : 



Population. 



Subdivision 


Area in square 
miles 


Number of 


Population 


Population per 
square mile 


Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 1901 


Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write 


g 

1 


u 

i 
> 


Ranch! 
Gumla 

District total 


3,506 
3,622 


3 

I 


2,016 

1^57 


753,2 }6 
434,689 


215 
T2O 


+ 3 i 
+ 9-1 


24,845 

7,686 


7,128 


4 


3,173 


1,187,925 


I6 7 


+ 52 


3^,531 


NOTE In 1905 a new subdivision, Khunti, with an area of 1,140 square miles, was con- 
stituted, and the area of the Ranch! subdivision was reduced to 2,360 square miles The 
copulation of the RSnchi and Khunti subdivisions is 527,829 and 225,407 respectively. 



The four towns are RANCHI the present, and LOHARDAGA the 
former head-quarters, BUNDU, and PALKOT. The density of population 
declines steadily from the north-east to the west and south-west ; the 
greatest growth has taken place along the south of the District. 
Emigration has for many years been very active. In 1897, 4,096 
coolies were dispatched to the Assam tea gardens, in 1898, 4,329, and 



POPULATION 203 

in 1899, 3,244; in 1900, owing to a failure of the ciops, the number 
rose to 6,307; but since then it has fallen to 2,750 in 1901, and to 
1,799 i n 1902. The recent diminution is due in part to the very much 
closer supervision over the operations of the recruiters provided by 
recent legislation. 

There is also a large but unrecoided exodus to the tea gaidens of 
Darjeeling and the Duars, which aie worked with free labour, and to 
the coal-mines of Manbhum and Burdwan ; during the wmtei months 
many visit the Districts of Bengal proper to seek employment on earth- 
work and in harvesting the crops The total number of emigrants at 
the time of the Census of 1901 was no less than 275,000, of whom 
92,000 were in Assam and 80,000 in Jalpaiguri District. Hindi is 
spoken by 42^ per cent, of the population. The dialect most in vogue 
is a variety of Bhojpurl known as Nagpuna, which has borrowed some 
of its grammatical forms from the adjoining Chhattlsgarhl dialect. 
Languages of the Munda family aie spoken by 30 per cent, of the 
population, the most common being Mundan, \\hich is the speech of 
299,000 peisons, and Khana, \\hich is spoken by 50,000, Kurukh or 
Oraon, a Dravidian language, was returned at the Census as the parent 
tongue of rather moie than a quarter of the population , but as a matter 
of fact many of the Oraons have abandoned their tribal language in 
favour of a debased form of Hindi. Hindus number 474,540 persons 
(or 40 per cent, of the total); Ammists, 546,415 (46 per cent.), Musal- 
mans, 41,972 (3-! per cent.), and Christians, 124,958 (10^ per cent). 
Animism is the religion, if such it can be called, of the aboriginal 
tubes , but many such persons now claim to be Hindus, and the native 
Christians of Ranch! District have come almost entirely from their 
lanks. 

Of aboriginal tribes, the most numeious are the ORAONS (279,000), 
MUNDAS (236,000), and Kharias (41,000). The Oiaons are found 
chiefly along the north and west, the Mundas in the east, and the 
Kharias m the south-west of the District. Among the Hindu castes, 
Kurmls (49,000) and Ahlrs (Goalas) and Lohars (each 37,000) are 
most largely represented, the last named probably include a large 
number of aboriginal blacksmiths, Agnculture supports 79 per cent. 
of the population, industries n per cent., commerce 0-6 per cent, and 
the professions 1-2 pei cent. 

Christians are moie numeious than in any other Bengal District, and 
in fact number five-elevenths of the whole Christian population of 
Bengal and Eastern Bengal. Missionary effort commenced shortly 
before the middle of the nineteenth century, the converts consisting 
almost entirely of Oraons (61,000), Mundas (52,000), and Kharias 
'(10,000), The German Evangelical Lutheran Mission was established 
in Ranch! in 1845, and was originally known as Gossner's Mission, 

VOL xxi. o 



204 



RANCH! DISTRICT 



An unfortunate disagreement subsequently took place., and m 1869 it 
was split up into two sections, the one enrolling itself under the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the other letammg the name of 
Gossner's Mission. The progress made during recent years has been 
remarkable, the numbei of converts having increased from 19,000 in 
1891 to three times that number in 1901. The Mission now possesses 
10 stations in the District,, and the workers include 21 European 
missionaries, 19 native pastors, and 515 catechists, teachers, &c The 
Church of England Mission, which had its origin from the split in 
Gossner's Mission, had in 1901 a community of 13,000, compaied with 
10,000 in 1891. The Roman Catholic Mission is an offshoot from 
a mission founded at Singhbhum in 1869, which was extended to 
Ranch! in 1874. It has now n stations in the District, and its con- 
verts in 1901 numbered 54,000, or about three-fifths of the total 
number of Roman Catholics in Bengal and Eastern Bengal. The 
Dublin University Mission, which commenced work at Hazanbagh m 
1892, opened a branch at Ranch! in 1901. 

The greater part of the District is an undulating table-land, but 
towards the west and south the surface becomes more broken , the hills 
are steeper, and the valleys are replaced by ravines 
where no crops can be grown. Cultivable land 
ordinarily falls into two main classes : don or levelled and embanked 
lowlands, subdivided according to the amount of moistuie which they 
naturally retain ; and tdnr or uplands, which include alike the ban 01 
homestead lands round the village sites and the stony and infertile 
lands on the higher ground. Generally speaking, the low embanked 
lands are entirely devoted to rice, while on the uplands rice is also 
grown, but in company with a variety of other crops. 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles : 



Agriculture. 



Subdivision 


Total 


Cultivated 


Cultivable 
waste 


Forests 


Ranch! 
Gumla 

Total 


3,56 
3,622 


1,254 
9 J 5 


537 
6 59 


2 


7,128 


2,169 


1,196 


2 



NOTE In 1905 a new subdivision, with head-quarters at Khuuti, was con- 
stituted from a portion of the Ranchi subdivision The areas of the Ranch! 
and Klmnti subdivisions are 2,366 and 1,140 square miles respectively 

The chief staple is rice, grown on 1,914 square miles, the upland 
rice being invariably sown broadcast, while the lowland rice is eithei 
sown broadcast or transplanted. Other important cereals are gondh or 
the small millet (Panicum mtliare) and mania , pulses, especially itrd^ 
and oilseeds, chiefly sarguja and mustard, are also extensively grown. 



A GRICUL TURE 2 o 5 



The bhadoi harvest, reaped in August and Septembei, 
upland nee crops, millets, and pulses; and the khanj^ leaped 
latter part of November, December, and January, includes the whole of 
the nee crops on the embanked lands, sargnja^ and one of the varieties 
of urd pulse. Though in area there is apparently not much difference 
between these harvests, the latter is by far the more important of the 
two owing to the weight of rice taken off the don lands. The rabi 
harvest in Febiuary is relatively very small, the only important crops 
being rahar (Cajamts indicus) and s arson. Tea was at one time some- 
what extensively cultivated, but the soil and the rainfall do not appear 
to be suited to the production of the finei varieties, and the industry has 
of late years sensibly declined. In 1903 there were 21 gardens with 
2,256 acres under tea and an out-turn of 306,000 Ib Market-gardening 
is carried on to a small extent in the neighbourhood of the large towns 
by immigiant Koins from Bihar. 

The low land most suitable for embanked rice cultivation has already 
been taken up, and as the cost of levelling and embanking the higher 
ground is considerable, the extension of cultivation proceeds but slowly. 
The native cultivator employs primitive methods and displays no 
interest in the intioduction of improvements In Go\ernment estates 
experiments have been made with improved seeds, especially of the 
potato plant, and on the Getalsud tea estate some tanr land has been 
put under the sisal aloe and experiments m nbie extraction are being 
made. The construction of tanks for irrigation purposes by erecting 
dams across the slopes, though they would be cheap and effective, has 
been but little resorted to, except at Kolebira and in a few villages 
in Government estates. Cow-dung is used for manuring lowland rice, 
and ashes for the fertilization of the uplands, especially for cotton. 
In the lean years 1897 and 1900 advances of Rs. 20,000 were made 
under the Land Improvement Loans Act, and of Rs. 1,43,000 under 
the Agriculturists' Loans Act. 

No good cattle are bred. Pigs and fowls are largely kept by the 
aboriginal inhabitants, especially in the remoter parts and on the higher 
plateaux. 

Extensive jungles under private ownership exist in the north-west 
and south, but the only Government forest is a small Reserve covering 
2 square miles near Ranch! town. 

The Sonapet area in the south-east corner of the District, which is 
almost entirely surrounded by the Dalma tiap, has long been known to 
contain gold , but, from the recent investigations of experts, it appears 
very doubtful whether its extraction either from the alluvium or from 
any of the quartz veins can ever prove remunerative. Iron ore of an 
inferior quality abounds throughout the District, and is smelted by the 
old native process and used for the manufacture of agricultural imple- 

o 2 



206 RANCH I DISTRICT 

ments, &c. In the south-east of the Tamai pargana a sott kind of 
steatite allied to soapstone is dug out of small mines and converted into 
various domestic utensils. The mines go down in a slanting dnection, 
and m one or two instances a depth of about 150 feet has been leached 
The harder and tougher kinds of trap make good road-metal, while the 
softer and more workable forms of giamte are of easy access and are 
much used for the construction of piers and foundations of bridges and 
othei buildings. Mica is found in several localities, especially near 
Lohaidaga and elsewhere in the north of the District, but not in suffi- 
cient quantities or of a quality good enough to make it worth mining. 

The chief industiy is the manufacture of shellac. The lac insect is 
bied chiefly on the kusum (Schleichera tnjugd] and pald^ (Butea 
frondosa) trees, and shellac is manufactured at some 
, ^If-do^n factones, the largest being at Ranch! and 
Bundu. Brass and bell-metal aiticle^ are manu- 
factured at Lohardaga, and coarse cotton cloths are woven throughout 
the Distuct. 

The chief exports are lice, oilseeds, hides, lac, and tea, Myrabolams 
(Termmaha Chebula) aie also extensively exported. The chief imports 
aie wheat, tobacco, sugai, gur, salt, piece-goods, blankets, and kerosene 
oil. The principal places of trade are Ranch!, Lohardaga, Bundu, 
Falkot, and Gobindpur. In the west of the District, owing to the 
fiequent ghats with only bridle-paths across them, the articles of com- 
merce are carried by strings of pack-bullocks, of which great numbeis 
may be met after the crop-cutting season, passing in or out of Barwe to 
tiade either in Ranch! or m the Jashpur and Surguja States 

No railways enter the District, and practically the whole of the 
external trade is carried along the cait-road which connects Ranch! 
town with Purulia on the Bengal-Nagpui Railway This road, and 
those to Chaibasa and Hazanbagh, with an aggregate length in the 
District of about 100 miles, are maintained by Government. There 
aie also 919 miles of road (including 170 miles of village tracks) main- 
tained by the District boaid The most important of these are a 
gravelled load, 52 miles in length, connecting Ranch! with Lohardaga, 
and unmetalled roads from Ranch! to Bundu and Tamar, Palkot, Bero, 
and Kurdeg, and Sesai, whence one branch runs to Lohardaga and 
another through Gumla There is a ferry over the Koel nver, where 
it crosses the road to the new subdivisional head-quarters at Gumla, 
but as a lule femes are little used, as the rivers, when not easily 
fordable, become furious hill tonents which it is dangerous to cross. 

The District was affected by the famine of 1874, and the harvests 

F . were very deficient in 1891, 1895, 1896, and 1899, 

but it was only on the last two occasions that lelief 

operations \\eie found necessary. In 1897 the test works at first failed 



. WMLVISTR. I TTON 207 

to attiact labour, and it was hoped for a time that the people would 
be able to surmount then tiouble without help fiom Government. Dis- 
tress subsequently manifested itself in the centre of the District, but 
relief operations were at once undertaken and the acute stage was of 
very short duration, Altogether 52,710 persons found employment in 
relief works, and gratuitous relief was given to 153,200 persons, the 
expenditure from public funds being Rs. 18,000. The District was, 
however, never officially declaied affected, and relief operations were 
cairied on only for a few months on a small scale. In 1900 lelief 
works were opened in ample time , the attendance on them was fai 
higher than in the pievious famine ; and the distress that would othei- 
wise have ensued was thus to a great extent aveited. The area affected 
was 3,052 square miles, with a population of about 493,000 persons; 
and in all, 1,134,287 persons (in terms of one day) received lelief in 
return foi work and 516,400 persons gratuitously, the expendituie from 
public funds being 2-3 lakhs. The distress was most acute in the centre 
and west of the District, but, as fai as is known, there were no deaths 
from starvation 

In 1902 the District was divided into two subdivisions with head- 
quaiteis at Ranch! and Gumla, and in 1905 a third subdivision was 

formed with head-quarters at Khunti. The staff at . . . . A . 
. , 11' i_ -r^ r* Administration, 

head-quarters subordinate to the Deputy-Commis- 
sioner consists of a Joint and five Deputy-Magistrate-Collectois, while 
the Gumla subdivision is in charge of a Joint, and the Khunti sub- 
division of a Deputy-Magistrate-Collector. 

The chief court of the District, both civil and criminal, is that of the 
Judicial Commissioner, who is the District and Sessions Judge. The 
Deputy-Commissionei has special powers under section 34 of the Code 
of Criminal Procedure to try all cases not punishable with death. The 
civil courts include those of the Deputy-Collectors who try all original 
rent suits, of two Munsifs at Ranch! and Gumla who have also the 
powers of a Deputy- Collector for the trial of rent suits, and of a special 
Subordinate Judge for the combined Districts of Hazaribagh and 
Ranch! The most common crimes are burglaries and those which 
arise from disputes about land ; the lattei are very frequent owing to 
the unsettled nature of rights and areas, the ignorance of the common 
people, and the greed of indifferent and petty landlords. Murders are 
unusually frequent, as the abonginal inhabitants are heavy drinkers, 
believe in witchcraft, and have small regard for life. 

The country was originally in the sole possession of the aboriginal 
settlers, whose villages were divided into groups or paras each undei 
its manki or chief. These chiefs were subsequently brought under the 
domination of the Nagbansi Rajas, who became Hmduized and by 
degrees lost sympathy with their despised non-Hindu subjects The 



208 RANCH I DT STRICT 

Maharajas in couise of time made large grants of land for the main- 
tenance of their relatives, military supporters, and political 01 domestic 
favourites, who fell into financial difficulties and admitted the dikku 
or alien adventurer to prey upon the land To one or othei of these 
stages belong all the tenures of the District They are very numerous, 
but can be generally classified under foui heads the Raj 01 Chota 
Nagpur estate, tenures dependent on the Mahaiajas and held by 
subordinate Rajas ; maintenance and service tenuies ; and cultivating 
tenures The second and third classes of tenures are held on a system 
of succession peculiar to Chota Nagpui, known as putra-pittrddik^ 
which renders them liable to lesumption in case of failure of male heirs 
to the original grantee. As the Chota Nagpur Raj follows the custom 
of primogeniture, maintenance grants are given to the near relatives of 
the Maharaja. The chief service grants are larmk, given for military 
service and the upkeep of a militia ; bhiiiya, a similar tenure found in 
the south-west of the District , ohdur^ for work done as dlwdn \ gkafwa/, 
for keeping safe the passes , and a variety of revenue-free grants, brdhm- 
ottar or grants to Brahmans, and debottar or lands set apart for the 
service of idols. Cultivating tenures may be classified as privileged 
holdings, ordinary ryoti land known as rajhas> and proprietors' private 
land or manjhihas. The privileged holdings are those which were m 
the cultivation of the aboriginal settlers before the advent of the Hindu 
landlords and the importation of cultivators alien to the village. They 
include bkulnhafl^ with the cognate tenures known as bhutkhetd (land 
set aside for support of devil propitiation), ddhkatdr^ pahnai^ and 
inahati. The last two are lands held by the pahn and mdhato^ the village 
priest and headman. In some parts the privileged lands of the old 
settlers are known as khuntkhatti^ and include the pahn khunt, mundd 
khunt, and the mdhato khunt. The mundd is the village chief respon- 
sible for the payment of the khuntkkatti rents to the mdnki of the cncle 
of the villages, while the mdhato ^ a later importation, is the headman 
from the point of view of the Hindu landlord, whose interests he guards 
by assisting in the realization of the rent of the rajhas and cultivation of 
the manjhihas lands These latter include bethkhetd, or land set aside 
for the provision of labour for cultivation of the remaining private lands. 
As in other parts of Bengal, attempts to add to private lands aie con- 
stantly made ; but the tendency received a salutary check from the 
demarcation, mapping, and registering of bhuinhari and pnvate lands 
under the Chota Nagpur Tenures Act of 1869 By the original custom 
of the country, now gradually passing away, rent was as a rule assessed 
only on the low lands or dons. On an average of ten villages in the 
Goveinment estates in 1897, the rates per acre for low lands were found 
to range between Rs 1-2-3 an( ^ R S - 2-1-6, and for high lands between 
1 1 and 4 annas, These lates aie very much lower than those prevalent 



ADMINISTRA TION 



209 



in zamtndan villages, where Rs. 8 to Rs. 10 is often charged for an acre 
of first-class low land. The uplands, when not paying cash rent, are 
usually liable to the payment of produce rent known as rukumat^ which 
varies a good deal in different parts, and the cultivators are liable to 
give a ceitain amount of free labour (beth begar) to the landlord. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and total 
i evenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : 





1880-1 


1890-1 


1900-1 * 


1903-4 


Land revenue . 


95 


1,06 


48 


5 2 


Total revenue 


4.9 1 


7,14 


5.93 


6,61 



* The diminution m the receipts is due to the fact that Palfimau was formed 
into a separate District in 1892 

Outside the municipalities of RANCH! andLoHARDAGA, local affairs aie 
managed by the District board. In 1903-4 its income was Rs. 1,04,000, 
including Rs. 39,000 derived from mtes } and the expenditure was 
Rs. 1,09,000, the chief items being Rs. 50,000 spent on public works 
and Rs. 39,000 on education. 

The District contains 16 police stations or thanas and 16 outposts. 
In 1903 the force subordinate to the District Superintendent consisted 
of 3 inspectors, 33 sub-inspectors, 42 head constables, and 352 con- 
stables , there was, in addition, a rural police force of 24 daffaddrs and 
2,442 chaukidars. The District jail at Ranch! has accommodation for 
217 prisoners, and a subsidiary jail at Gumla for 21. 

Education is backward, only 2-7 per cent, of the population (5-1 males 
and 0-5 females) being able to read and write in 1901, Great progress 
is now being made, and the number of pupils under instruction rose 
from 12,569 in 1892-3 to 19,132 in 1900-1. In 1903-4, 19,074 boys 
and 2,514 girls were at school, being respectively 220 and 2-7 per cent, 
of the children of school-going age. There were in that year 857 schools, 
including 15 secondary, 825 primary, and 17 special schools. The most 
important of these are the District schools, the German Evangelistic 
Lutheran Mission high school, the first-grade training school, the 
Government industrial school, and the blind school, all in Ranch! town. 
The expenditure in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,55,000, of which Rs. 19,000 was 
derived from Provincial revenues, Rs. 38,000 from District funds, 
Rs. 700 from municipal funds, Rs. 22,000 from fees, and Rs. 75,000 
from other sources. 

The District contains 6 dispensaries, of which 3 possess accommo- 
dation for 49 in-patients. The cases of 18,348 out-patients and 369 
m-patients were treated in 1903, and 768 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 18,000, of which Rs. 1,100 was contributed 
by Government, Rs. 1,000 by District funds, Rs. 5,000 by Local funds, 
Rs. 3,000 by municipal funds, and Rs. 9,000 by subscriptions. The 



2 TO RANCH I DISTRICT 

principal institution is the Ranch! dispensary. A small lepei asylum 
at Lohardaga is conducted by the German mission. 

Vaccination is compulsory only in municipal areas, but good progress 
is being made throughout the District, and in 1903-4 the numbei of 
persons successfully vaccinated was 43,000, or 37-3 per 1,000 of the 
population 

[Sir W. W. Huntei, Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xvi (1877); 
F. A. Slacke, Report on the Settlement of the Estate of the Maharaja of 
Chota Nagpur (Calcutta, 1886) , B. C Basu, Report on the Agriculture 
of the District of Lohardaga (Calcutta, 1890) , Papers relating to the 
Chota Nagpur Agrarian Disputes (Calcutta, 1890) ; E. H. Whitley, 
Notes on the Dialect of Lohardaga (Calcutta, 1896), F B. Bradley- 
Birt, Chota Nagpitr (1903).] 

Ranch! Subdivision. Head-quarters subdivision of the Bengal 
District of the same name, lying between 22 2i / and 23 43' N. and 
84 o' and 85 54' E., with an area of 2,366 square miles The sub- 
division consists of an elevated undulating table-land, where permanent 
cultivation is almost confined to the terraces cut in the slopes of the 
depressions which lie between the ridges. The population in 1901 
was 753,236, compared with 730,642 in 1891, the density being 215 
persons per square mile. In 1901 it comprised 3,506 square miles } 
but owing to the formation of the Khunti subdivision in 1905, the 
area was reduced to 2,366 square miles with a population of 527,829 
and a density of 223 persons per square mile. The subdiusion con- 
tains two towns, RANCH! (population, 25,970), the head-quarters, and 
LOHARDAGA (6,123) ^ anc ^ I >4 1 7 villages. 

Ranch! Town. Head-quarters of the District of the same name 
and also of the Chota Nagpur Division, Bengal, situated in 23 
23' N. and 85 20' E., on the Chota Nagpni plateau, about 2,100 
feet above sea-level. Population (1901), 25,970 (including 2,844 
within cantonment boundaries), of whom 12,968 were Hindus, 7,547 
Musalmans, 3,640 Christians, and 1,807 Ammists. Ranch! is a station 
of the Lucknow division of the Eastern Command, and the wing of 
a native infantry regiment is stationed in the cantonments (formerly 
known as Dorunda cantonments), which lie 2 miles to the south of the 
town. It is also the head-quarters of the Chota Nagpur Volunteer 
Mounted Rifles, of the Superintending Engineer of the Western Circle, 
and of the Executive Engineer of the Chota Nagpur Division It is 
connected by good metalled loads with Purulia, Hazanbagh, and 
Chaibasa, and is a large trade centre. It is the chief seat of Christian 
missionary enterprise in Bengal, and is the head-quarters of three 
important missions (see RANCH! DISTRICT). Ranch! was constituted 
a municipality in 1869 The income during the decade ending 
1901-2 averaged Rs 23,000, and the expenditure Rs. 22,000. In 



RANDER 211 

1903-4 the income was "Rs. 35,000, mainly derived from a tax on 
houses and lands and a conseivancy rate ; and the expenditure was 
Rs. 32,000. The natural drainage of the town is excellent, and plenty 
of good water can be obtained from wells. The town contains the 
usual public buildings; the District jail has accommodation for 217 
prisoners, who are employed on the manufacture of oil and of rope 
from aloe fibre. The most important schools are the Distiict school, 
with 338 pupils on its rolls in 1902, the German Evangelistic Lutheran 
Mission high school, intended chiefly for the education of Christian 
converts, with 230 pupils , the first-grade school for vernacular teacheis, 
with 22 pupils, the Government industrial school, and the blind school. 
In the industrial school the pupils, who in 1902 numbered 50, receive 
stipends varying from R. i to Rs. 3 per month, and are taught carpen- 
tering and blacksmiths' work, &c., together with a certain amount of 
reading, writing, free-hand drawing, elementary arithmetic, and practical 
geometry. The course of instruction at the blind school, which had 
20 pupils, includes reading by means of laised type representing letters, 
cane-work, newar weaving, and mat-making. It is proposed to build 
a large asylum foi European and Eurasian lunatics from Northern 
India at Ranch! 

Rander. Town in the Chorasi tdluka of Surat District, Bombay, 
situated in 21 13' N. and 72 48' E., on the right bank of the Tapti, 
2 miles above Surat city. Population (1901), 10,478, including suburb. 
Rander is supposed to be one of the oldest places in Southern Gujarat. 
It is said to have been a place of importance about the beginning 
of the Christian era, when Broach was the chief seat of commerce 
in Western India, Albiruni (1031) gives Rander (Rahanjhour) and 
Broach as dual capitals of South Gujaiat. In the early pait of the 
thhteenth century a colony of Aiab mei chants and sailors is stated to 
have attacked and expelled the Jains, at that time ruling at Rander, 
and to have converted their temples into mosques. Under the name 
of Nayatas, the Rander Arabs traded to distant countries. In 1514 
the traveller Barbosa described Rander as a nch and agreeable place 
of the Moors (Nayatas), possessing very large and fine ships, and 
trading with Malacca, Bengal, Tawasery (Tennasserim), Pegu, Mar- 
taban, and Sumatra, m all sorts of spices, drugs, silk, musk, benzoin, 
and porcelain. In 1530 the Portuguese, after sacking Surat, took 
Rander. With the growing importance of Surat, Rander declined in 
prosperity, and, by the close of the sixteenth century, became a port 
dependent on Surat At present, Bohras of the Sunni sect carry on 
trade westwards with Mauritius, and eastwards with Rangoon, Moul- 
mem, Siam, and Smgapoie. By the opening of the Tapti bridge in 
1877 Rander was closely connected with Surat city. The municipality, 
established in 1868, had an average income of about Rs. 20,000 during 



212 RANDRR 

the decade ending 1901 ; in 1903-4 the income was Rs. 23,000. 
The town contains a dispensary, an English school with 47 pupils, and 
6 vernacular schools, 5 for boys with 517 pupils and one for girls with 95 

Randhia. Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay 

Rangamati Town. Ancient town in the Berhampore subdivision 
of Murshidabad District, Bengal, situated in 24 i' N. and 88 ri' E., 
on the right bank of the Bhaglrathi, 6 miles south of Berhampore. 
Population (1901), 400. The clay here rises into bluffs 40 feet high, 
which form the only elevated ground in the neighbourhood, and are 
very conspicuous fiom the river. Few remains have been found except 
pottery and the traces of buildings, tanks, and wells \ but Rangamati is 
rich in traditional history. The legend respecting the origin of the 
name, which means c red earth,' is that Bibhlshana, brother of Ravana, 
being invited to a feast by a poor Brahman at Rangamati, rained gold 
on the ground as a token of gratitude. By others the miracle is referred 
to Bhu Deb, who through the power of his austerities rained gold. 
Rangamati has been identified by Mr. Bevendge with the city of Kama 
Suvarna, the capital of the old kingdom of the same name visited by 
the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang about A.D. 639. It may also have 
been the site of the chief of the monasteries mentioned by Hiuen 
Tsiang as Lo-to-wei-chi-seng-kia-lan, a phonetic rendering of the Sanskiit 
Ractamti sanghdrdma. 

After the Muhammadan conquest in 1203, Rangamati (according to 
Mr. Long) fonned one of the tenfaiyddris into which Bengal was then 
divided. Its Hindu zamtnddr was a considerable person, and on the 
occasion of the great puny a at Motijhil in 1767 he received a khilat 
worth Rs. 7,278, or as much as the zamlnddr of Nadia. The site of 
Rangamati was at one time selected in preference to Berhampore as 
a healthy spot for the erection of barracks. The East India Company 
formerly had a silk factory here. All that is now left of this ancient town 
is a bungalow and a silk filature belonging to the Bengal Silk Company. 

[H Beveridge, 'The Site of Kama Suvarna/ Journal -of the Asiatic 
Society, Bengal, vol Ixii, pt i, No. 4 ; Capt. Wilford, Asiatic Researches ', 
vol. ix, p. 39 ; and Capt. Layard, Journal of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, 
vol. xxii.] 

Rangamati Village. Head-quarters of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 22 39' N. and 92 12' E., on 
the banks of the Karnaphuli river. Population (1901), 1,627. Ranga- 
mati contains a high school and hospital. It is the residence of the 
Chakma chief. The London Baptist Mission has a branch here. 

Rangamatia Village. Small village in the east of Goalpara 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26 19' N. and 90' 
36' E. It was for many years the frontier outpost of the Muham- 
madans, the country farther east being occupied by the Ahoms 



RANGOON CITY 213 

Rangia. Village in the Gauhati subdivision of Kamrup District, 
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 26 27' N. and 91 37' E, on 
the bank of the Baralia river, 23 miles north of Gauhati town. The 
public buildings include a dispensary. Most of the tiade is in the 
hands of Marwan merchants known as Kayahs The principal imports 
aie cotton piece-goods, grain and pulse, kerosene and othei oils, and 
salt , the chief exports are rice and silk cloth. All sorts of country 
produce are procurable in the village market. 

Rangna Fort (or Prasidhagarh) A favourite fort of Sivajl, situated 
on a flat-topped hill in the Kolhapur State, Bombay, about 55 miles 
south-west of Kolhapur city. The hill is steep on three sides, with an 
easy ascent on the north. The top is girt by a wall of rough blocks, 
leaving thiee pathways down the hill. The fort is 4,750 feet from east 
to west, by 2,240 feet from north to south. It was taken in 1659 by 
Sivajl and repaired, and has since remained in Maratha hands, but 
was dismantled in 1844 by order of the British. 

Rangoon City. Capital of Burma and head-quarters of the Local 
Government, situated in 16 46' N and 96 n' E., on both sides of 
the Hlamg or Rangoon river at its point of junction 
with the Pegu and Pazundaung streams, 21 miles from 
the sea The greater part of the city the town proper, with its main 
suburbs of Kemmendme and Pazundaung lies along the left or northern 
bank of the river, which at this point, after a southerly course through 
level paddy-fields and along the city's western side, turns towards the 
east for a mile or so before bending southwards to the Gulf of Martaban. 
Behind the array of wharves and waiehouses that line the northern 
bank rise the buildings of the mercantile and business quarter, and 
thence the ground slopes upwards through a wooded cantonment to the 
foot of the slight eminence from which the great golden Shwedagon 
pagoda looks down upon the town and harbour. On the south bank of 
the Rangoon river are the suburbs of Dala, Kamakasit, Kanaungto, 
and Seikgyi, a narrow strip of dockyard premises and native huts on the 
fringe of a vast expanse of typical delta paddy-fields These mark the 
southern limit of the city. To the west the boundary is the western 
bank of the Hlamg , to the east the Pazundaung and Pegu streams hem 
the city in , to the north the municipal boundary mns through the 
slightly undulating wooded country into which the European quarter is 
gradually spreading. 

The population of the city at each of the last four enumerations was 
as follows (1872) 98,745, (1881) 134,176, (1891) 180,324, and (1901) 
234,881. After the three Presidency towns and the 
cities of Hyderabad and Lucknow, Rangoon is the 
most populous city in the Indian Empire. Its rate of growth is, as the 
census figmes show, considerable, The actual increase between 1891 



2T 4 RANGOON* CITY 

and 1901 (54,557) was little less than that of Madras, a city of moie 
than double its population, while the growth between 1872 and 1901 
(136,136) is exceeded only by that of Calcutta among all Indian cities. 
A large portion of the increase is due to immigration from India. The 
number of persons born in India resident in the city was 65,910 in 1891 
and 117,713 in 1901 (of whom only 16 per cent, were women). Nearly 
two-thirds of these foreigners came from Madras, and about one-fifth 
from Bengal. The Chinese colony has incieased from 8,029 in 1891 
to 11,018 in 1901. Of the population in 1901, 83,631, or more than 
one-third, were Buddhists, but the Hindu aggregate (82,994) was almost 
as large. Musalmans numbered 43,012, and Christians 16,930, of whom 
about one-half were Europeans and Eurasians, the number of native 
Christians being 8,179. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
and the American Baptist Mission labour in the city. The VVesleyans, 
Presbyterians, and other Piotestant denominations are also represented, 
and there is a large Roman Catholic mission. 

Rangoon has been the administrative head-quarteis of the Province 

ever since the second Burmese War added Pegu to the Indian Empire. 

It was never, however, a royal capital, and its impoi- 

tance as a mercantile centre is of comparatively 

recent development. 

According to Talamg tradition, the fust village on the site of modern 
Rangoon was founded about 585 B.C. by two brothers, Pu and Ta Paw, 
who had received some of Gautama's hairs from the Buddha himself, 
and, acting on his instructions, enshrined them in the famous Shwe- 
dagon pagoda. Punnanka, who reigned m Pegu from A.D. 746 to 761, 
is said to have refounded the town, and called it Aramana, and it was 
not till later that it regained its original name of Dagon. The Talamg 
records relate how it was occupied by the Burmans in 1413 ; how 
Byanyakm, the son of Razadint, was appointed governor , and how 
Shinsawbu, his sister, in whose memory a national festival is celebrated 
each year, built herself a palace here in 1460. After this, however, 
the town gradually sank into a collection of huts. Dala, now a suburb 
on the right bank of the Hlaing, and Synam on the opposite side 
of the Pegu river, are repeatedly noticed , but of Dagon little or nothing 
is said. 

In the wars between the sovereigns of Burma and Pegu, Dagon 
frequently changed hands; and when in 1753 Alaungpaya (Alompra) 
drove out the Taking garrison of Ava (then the Burmese capital), and 
eventually conquered the Talaing dominions, he came down to Dagon 
and repaired the great pagoda. Alaungpaya for the most part lebuilt 
the town, gave it the name of Van Kon (' the end of the war ') or 
Rangoon, which it has ever since borne, and made it the seat of 
a viceroy. Until 1790 it was the scene of incessant stiuggles between 



HISTORY 215 

the Burmans and Peguans. In that year the place was captured by 
the latter, but the using was speedily quelled by Bodawpaya, 

About this period the East India Company obtained leave to 
establish a factory in Rangoon, and the British colours were hoisted 
over it In 1794 differences arose in Arakan and Chittagong between 
the East India Company and the Burmese government, and in the 
following year Captain Symes was sent on an embassy to Ava, one of 
the results of his mission being the appointment of a British Resident 
at Rangoon in 1798, Symes thus describes Rangoon as he saw it : 

' It stretches along the bank of the nvei about a mile, and is not 
moie than a third of a mile in breadth. The city or myo is a square 
surrounded by a high stockade, and on the north side it is fuithei 
strengthened by' an indifferent fosse, across which a wooden budge 
is thrown. In this face there aie two gates, in each of the others only 
one. On the south side, towards the north, there aie a numbei of 
huts and three wharves with cranes for landing goods. A battery 
of 12 cannon (six- and mne-poimdeis) raised on the bank commands 
the liver, but the guns and carriages aie in such a wretched condition 
that they could do but little execution. The streets of the town are 
nairow and much inferior to those of Pegu, but clean and well paved 
The houses are raised on posts from the giound All the officers of 
the government, the most opulent merchants, and persons of con- 
sideiation live within the foit ; shipwrights and persons of inferior rank 
inhabit the suburbs.' 

In the first Burmese Wai (1824) Rangoon was taken by the British 
During the early part of the campaign strenuous effoits were made by 
the Burmans to recapture it ; but it was occupied, though not without 
heavy losses from sickness, as well as from casualties in action, till 
1827, when it was evacuated in accordance with the teims of the 
Tieaty of Yandabo. In 1840 the appearance of Rangoon was described 
ab suggestive of meanness and poverty. In 1841 king Konbaung Mm, 
better known as prince Tharrawaddy, ordered the town and stockade 
to be removed about a mile and a quarter inland to the site of Okka- 
laba, and to be called by that name. The royal older was to a certain 
extent obeyed, the principal buildings and government offices were 
placed in the new town, and were there when the British force landed 
and captured Rangoon in April, 1852, on the outbieak of the second 
Burmese War From this time onwards the place has remained in 
possession of the British, its history being one of marvellous develop- 
ment, but, with one or two exceptions (such, for instance, as a not that 
occurred in June, 1893), devoid of striking incidents. The city was 
separated from Hanthawaddy District, of which it formed part, in 
1879. 

The principal pagodas are the Shwedagon to the north-east of the 
cantonment, said to contain the lelics of no less than four Buddhas, 



216 RANGOON CITY 

namely, the water-strainer of Krakuchanda, the staff of Kasyapa, the 
bathing robe of Konagamaru, and eight hairs of Gautama , the Sule 
pagoda, a more ancient but less pretentious shrine in the centre of the 
business quarter; and the Botataung pagoda on the river face in the 
south-east of the town. 

Rangoon is famous for its carveis in wood and ivory, and for the 

beauty of its silver-work, which mostly takes the shape of embossed 

bowls An art exhibition is held annually, and is no 

doubt helping to stimulate an inteiest in art among 

native workers. Many beautiful specimens of wood-carving are to be 

found in the shrine of the Shwedagon pagoda 

The factories are for the most part concerned with the preparation of 
the three principal exports : rice, timber, and oil. Of rice-mills, where 
the paddy brought from the surrounding rural areas is husked and 
otherwise prepared for the market, there are about fifty, and of saw- 
mills about twenty. The petroleum refinery deals with the produce 
of the earth-oil wells of the dry zone of Upper Burma. The total 
number of factories in 1904 was 99 

About five-sixths of the maritime trade of Burma passes through 
Rangoon, and a history of the commerce of the Province is very little 
more than a history of the progress of this single 
port Since Rangoon became an integral part of the 
British dominions, its trade has inci eased by leaps and bounds In 
1856-7 the value aggregated only a crore. By 1881-2 this figuie had 
risen to n crores, and by 1891-2 to 19 crores In 1901-2, m spite of 
a more stringent tariff than m the past, it had mounted up to close on 
26 crores, while 1903-4 showed a fuither advance of nearly 6 crores 
on the figures for the previous >ear. Under practically all the main 
heads of import and export the growth has been steady Imports of 
cotton piece-goods, which in 1881-2 were valued at 6| lakhs, were 
valued at nearly 15 lakhs in 1901-2. Provisions have risen in value 
from 3 to ii lakhs within the same period, coal from i to 3-^ lakhs, 
tobacco from 2 to 4 lakhs, spices from 2| to 4-| lakhs. Among exports 
the development has been even more marked The staple produce 
of the country is rice. The value of exports in this single commodity 
amounted in 1901-2 to 9-| crores, compared with 6 croies in 1891-2 
and 3^ crores in 1881-2. Next in importance comes teak timber, with 
a growth in value from 22 lakhs in 1881-2 to 91 lakhs in 1901-2, 
followed by oil, which has risen from 2 lakhs in the former year to 81 
m the latter, Cutch is the only important export that has shown 
a falling off in recent years. 

The following table shows, in thousands of rupees, the actual figures 
of imports and exports (excluding Government stores and treasure) for 
the three >ears selected, and for 1903-4 . 



ADMINISTRA TION 



217 





1881-3 


1891-2. 


1901-2 


1903-4 


Imports . 
Exports . 

Total 


5,66,96 

5,65,83 


10,13,58 
9,04,20 


11,16,69 
14,66,17 


14,24,68 
17.54,56 


".32,79 


19,17,78 


25,82,86 


3^79^4 



During the same period the customs revenue rose from 44 lakhs in 
1 88 1-2 to 60 lakhs in 1891-2, to 91 lakhs in 1901-2, and finally to 
over a crore in 1903-4. Owing to the increasing employment of 
vessels of large burden, the number of ocean-going steamers entering 
Rangoon has not risen to an extent proportionate to the growth in 
trade and tonnage, the figures for 1881-2 being 931 vessels with an 
aggregate capacity of 655,000 tons, while those for 1903-4 were 1,190 
vessels with a capacity of 2,005,000. 

Rangoon has entered upon an era of prosperity which shows no 
immediate prospect of waning. The port is administered by a Port 
Trust constituted undei the Rangoon Port Act, 1905, which supervises 
the buoying and lighting of the nver, and provides and maintains 
wharf and warehouse accommodation. The receipts of the Trust in 
1903-4 aggregated nearly 18 lakhs. Rangoon is the terminus of all 
the lines of i ail way in the Province. S taitmg from Phayre Street 
station, the lines to Prome and Bassein pass westwards between the 
municipality and the cantonment, and thence northwards through 
the suburb of Kemmendme. There are frequent local trains along 
this section of the railway, and seveial stations within the limits of the 
city. The mam line to Mandalay and Upper Burma runs generally 
eastwards from the terminus through the suburb of Pazundaung, and, 
skirting the mills that line the Pazundaung creek, passes north-east- 
wards into Hanthawaddy District There are So miles of roads within 
city limits, of which about 60 are metalled. A steam tramway runs 
east and west through the heart of the business quarter, as well as 
northwards as far as the Shwedagon pagoda. It is now being 
electrified. A railway on the eastern side of the city is used for 
bringing the earth required for the reclamation of the low-lying swampy 
area near the banks of the river. 

Rangoon city consists of the municipality, the cantonment, and the 
port For the purposes of judicial and general administration it is 
a District of Lower Burma, m charge of a Deputy- Adm j n j stration 
Commissioner who is District Magistrate, and who is 
assisted by a Cantonment Magistrate, two subdivisional magistrates, 
and other officials. The Chief Court sits in Rangoon. It is a Court 
of Session for the trial of sessions cases in the city, and hears appeals 
from the District Magistrate. There is a bench of honorary magistrates 
consisting of twenty-three members On the civil side, the Chief Court 



2i8 RANGOON CITY 

disposes of original civil cases and of civil appeals Petty civil cases 
are disposed of in the Small Cause Court, in which two judges sit, 
There is a good deal of crime in the city. The Indo-Burman com- 
munity is addicted to theft, and acts of violence are not uncommon, 
while the proximity of the port appeals to make the temptation to 
smuggle irresistible to certain classes. 

The administiation of the Rangoon Town Lands is at present con- 
ducted under the provisions of the Lower Bui ma Town and Village 
Lands Act of 1898. Since 1890 the Town Lands have been managed 
by a special Deputy-Commissioner, under the control of the Com- 
missioner of Pegu and the Financial Commissioner For revenue 
pui poses the whole area comprising the Town Lands is divided into 
eight circles. The le venue collections in the District approximately 
average Rs. 31,900, the whole of which is credited to Imperial funds. 
The giound icnts, togethei with piemmms and the sale pioceeds fiom 
lands and building bites, avei aging in the past mthei moie than 3 lakhs, 
arc credited to a special revenue head, from which a contribution of 
Rs. 1,85,000, diminishing each year by Rs. 25,000 till extinguished in 
1908-9, is paid to the Rangoon municipality to be expended on works 
of utility. The balance is used to finance a scheme for leclaiming and 
laying out on sanitary lines the low-lying areas of the city. A few acres 
of rice land are assessed at Rs. 2 an acre, but other lands ordinarily 
pay a land revenue rate of Rs. 3 an acre The revision of the rate is 
under consideration. Other sources of non-municipal revenue within 
city limits, besides customs and land rate, are excise and income tax. 
The former brought in about 14 lakhs, and the lattei (which has been 
in foice in Rangoon since 1888) more than 6^ lakhs in 1903-4. 

The Rangoon municipality covers an area of about 31 square miles, 
with a population in 1901 (inclusive of the lesidents of the port) of 
221,160. It was constituted on July 31, 1874. The committee con- 
sists of 25 members, of whom 19 aie elected by the ratepayers and 
6 are nominated by Government. Various taxes are levied at a pei- 
centage on the annual value of lands and buildings within municipal 
limits namely, the 8 per cent, tax foi geneial purposes, the 7 per cent, 
scavenging tax, the 4 per cent water tax, and the i per cent, lighting 
tax. The scavenging tax is charged at the rate of 4 per cent, in areas 
not served by the municipal drainage system. As elsewhere, market 
tolls are a fruitful source of municipal income in Rangoon. 

During the ten years ending 1900 the ordinary income of the munici- 
pality (excluding special loans) averaged 1 7 lakhs, and the ordinary ex- 
penditure 15 lakhs. In 1903-4 the ordinary income was 24 lakhs, the 
principal sources being 14 lakhs from rates, and 3 lakhs from markets 
and slaughter-houses. The gross income in 1903-4 was 46! lakhs, 
including a loan of 15 lakhs. The ordinaiy expenditure during that 



ADMINISTRATION 219 

year was 21 lakhs, and the gross expenditure 55 lakhs. Of this total 
public works and conservancy absorbed 3^ lakhs each, water-supply 
23 lakhs, and hospitals and education about a lakh each. 

The cantonment lies to the north of the city. It formerly comprised 
most of the European residential quarter \ but building operations have 
now been extended outside its limits, mainly in the dnection of what 
is known as the Royal Lake, an ar Uncial stretch of water lying to the 
north-east of the city, and the cantonment boundary itself is now being 
curtailed The population in 1901 was 13,721. There is a canton- 
ment fund administered by the cantonment committee. Its income 
m 1903-4 was Rs. 84,000, derived largely from house and conservancy 
lates. The expenditure amounted to Rs. 82,000, demoted in the mam 
to conservancy and police 

The city is at present lit with oil lamps, but electric lighting will 
probably be introduced at an early date. 

The drainage system consists of gravitating sewers which receive the 
sewage from house connexions and carry it to ejectors These dis- 
charge their contents automatically into a main sewer, through which 
all the night-soil and sullage water are foiced into an outfall near the 
mouth of the nver, immediately to the south-west of Monkey Point 
Batteiy to the east of the city. This system has been working since 
1889 with most satisfactoiy results The water-supply for Rangoon 
has till recently been drawn from an aitificial reservoir about 5 miles 
from the city, called the Victoria Lake, from which water is carried 
by a main pipe to the city and supplied at low pressure Water is 
also pumped up to a high-level reservoir on the Shwedagon pagoda 
platform about 100 feet above Rangoon, whence it is supplied to the 
city by gravitation. This arrangement has piovided drinking-water 
to the city for the past twenty years 3 but the supply having been found 
insufficient, a large reservoir lake has been constructed at Hlawga, 
about 10 miles beyond the Victoria Lake, which is calculated to supply 
all requirements for an indefinite period. 

The city contains several handsome buildings. Among the most 
conspicuous are the new Government House to the north-west of the 
cantonment area, the Secretariat buildings to the east of the business 
quarter, and the District court buildings facing the river in the centre 
of the city. The new Roman Catholic cathedral, which is approaching 
completion, promises to be a very handsome structure. The Jubilee 
Hall, at a coiner of the biigade parade ground in the neighbourhood 
of the cantonment, is one of the more recent additions to the aichi- 
tecture of the city. It is used for public meetings and for recreation 
purposes. The town hall, m which the municipal offices are located, 
adjoins the Sule pagoda in the business quarter. The Rangoon 
College, the General Hospital, and the Anglican cathedral are grouped 

VOL. XXI. P 



220 RANGOON CITY 

together and merit notice. A new hospital, a Provincial Museum, 
new currency buildings, and a Chief Court are being constructed 
There are several public squares and gardens, and a picturesque park 
(Dalhousie Park) surrounds the Royal Lake referred to above. 

Rangoon is garrisoned by British and Native infantry and by two 
companies of artillery. There are three volunteer corps. 

Before June, 1899, the Rangoon police weie under the orders of 
the Inspector-General of Police, but a Commissioner has now been 
appointed for Rangoon and the police placed directly under his charge. 
For police purposes the city is divided into three subdivisions, each 
in charge of a Superintendent. There aie 10 police stations and 
10 outposts The total strength of the force under the ordeis of 
the Commissioner of Police and the Superintendents is 14 inspectors, 
9 head constables, 57 sergeants, and 727 native constables, besides 
17 European constables and one European sergeant 

Rangoon has a laige Central jail with accommodation for 2,518 
native and 80 European prisoners, in charge of a whole-time Supei- 
intendent, who is an officer of the Indian Medical Service. The 
principal industries carried on in it are caipentry, wood-carving, coach- 
building, weaving, wheat-grinding, and printing A considerable portion 
of the printing work for Government is carried out by the jail branch 
of the Government Press. 

The following are the chief educational institutions in Rangoon . 
the Rangoon College and Collegiate School, established in 1874, 

_, x . administered by the Educational Syndicate from 

Education. 00^111 ^ , 

1886, and placed in 1904 and 1902 respectively 

under the direct control of Government , the Diocesan Boys' School, 
founded in 1864, for the education of Europeans ; the Baptist College, 
opened in 1872 as a secondary school, and in 1894 affiliated to the 
Calcutta University, St. John's College (S.P.G.), founded in 1864, 
and affiliated as a high school to the Calcutta University , St John's 
Convent School for girls, started in 1861 ; the Lutheran Mission School 
for Tamil children, opened in 1878, and St. Paul's (Roman Catholic 
boys') school, opened in 1861 

In 1903-4 there were 27 secondaiy schools, no primary schools, 
206 elementary (private) schools, and 19 training and special schools. 
The number of pupils in registered schools and in the two collegiate 
establishments was 8,031 in 1891, 13,514 in 1901, and 17,166 m 
I 93~4 (including 4,123 females). The expendituie on education in 
1903-4 was borne as follows : Provincial funds, Rs. 90,700 , municipal 
funds, Rs. 71,500, fees, Rs. 2,04,300; and subscriptions, Rs. 11,500. 

The chief epidemic and contagious diseases prevalent in the city 
are small-pox, cholera, and enteric fever. Small-pox appears to be intro- 
duced annually from the neighbouring Distucts, where it is always rife 



RANGOON RIVER 221 

Cholera is endemic along the banks of the river and cieeks, and is, no 

doubt, closely related to an impure drinking-water 

supply Enteric fever occurs spoiadically throughout 

the city and suburbs. It is probably due to defective drainage and 

defective water-connexions. Since 1905 plague has been epidemic. 

The most impoitant medical institutions are the Rangoon General 
Hospital and the Dufferm Hospital, a new and handsome building 
recently erected in the north-west coiner of the city. In connexion 
with the Geneial Hospital, there are a contagious diseases hospital 
and an out-dooi dispensary at Pazundaung. A lunatic asylum is 
situated close to the Central jail, in charge of a commissioned Medical 
officer, and a leper asylum is maintained outside the city. 

[Capt M Lloyd, District Gazetteer (1868).] 

Rangoon River. River of Burma on the left bank of which stands 
Rangoon city. It rises about 150 miles to the north-west of the city 
m Prome District, not far from a piece of water known as the Inma 
Lake, through which it flows, and pursues a south-easterly course down 
the centre of the narrow strip of lowland in Prome, Tharrawaddy, and 
Hanthawaddy Districts, which separates the Rangoon-Prome Railway 
from the channel of the Inawaddy. In the north it is known as the 
Myitmaka, and is divided from the Irrawaddy by a low but fairly 
well-defined watershed, The Myitmaka is an important waterway m 
Tharrawaddy District Fed by the streams from the Pegu Yoma m 
the east, it is the main outlet for the timber which is extracted from the 
forests of this range. The most important village on its banks m this 
area is Sanywe, where there is a forest revenue station. Farther south 
the river is known as the Hlamg, and on this poition steam traffic of 
light draught is practicable The Hlamg is connected by various side 
cieeks with the Irrawaddy, the last of which above Rangoon city is the 
Panhlaing, which joins it almost opposite the western suburb of Kem- 
mendme. From thence onwards the waterway is known as the Rangoon 
river. The stream, on which ocean steamers can ride at their moorings, 
separates the city proper and the cantonment of Rangoon from the 
dockyard suburb of Dala, which lies on the right bank, close to the 
mouth of the TWANTE CANAL. After skirting the western edge of 
Rangoon city, the river bends to the east and meets the waters of the 
Pazundaung creek and the PEGU RIVER to the east of the city, imme- 
diately above a shoal known as the Hastings. Thence its course is 
south-easterly, and it flows eventually into the Gulf of Martaban be- 
tween Elephant Point and the Eastern Grove lighthouse. Ocean 
steamers can go up the river as far as Rangoon, but no higher. Skilled 
pilotage is required for the navigation of the 2 1 miles that lie between 
Rangoon and the sea, but the difficulties of the river are not to be 
compared with those of the Hooghly. 

P 2 



222 RANGPUR DISTRICT 

Rangpur District. District in the Raj shah i Division of Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, lying between 25 3' and 26 19' N. and 88 44' 
and 89 53' E,, with an aiea of 3,493 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by Jalpaiguri District and the State of Cooch Behar, 
on the east by the Brahmaputra river, which separates it from Goalpara, 
the Garo Hills, and Mymensingh , on the south by Bogra , and on the 
west by Dmajpur and Jalpaiguri. 

Rangpur is one vast alluvial plain, without natural elevations of any 
kind. Towards the east, the wide valley of the Brahmaputra is annually 
laid under water during the rainy season; and the 
aspects' remaindei of the Distuct is traversed by a network 
of streams, which frequently break through their 
sandy banks and plough for themselves new channels over the fields. 
These river changes have left theii traces in the numerous stagnant 
pools 01 marshes which dot the whole face of the country, but do not 
spread into wide expanses as in the lower delta The general inclina- 
tion of the surface is from north-west to south-east 3 as indicated by the 
flow of the rivers. The BRAHMAPUTRA practically forms the eastern 
boundary for a distance of 80 miles, but some sand-flats on its farther 
bank also belong to Rangpur Though only skirting the eastern 
frontier, its mighty stream exercises a great influence ovei the District 
by the fertilizing effect of its inundations, and also by its diluviating 
action The principal tributaries of the Brahmaputra on its western 
bank, within Rangpur, are the TISTA, Dharla, Sankos, and Dudhkumai. 
The Tista receives numerous small tributary streams from the north- 
west and throws off many offshoots, the most important of which is 
the Ghaghat, which meandeis through the centre of the District for 
114 miles. The Ghaghat was formerly an important branch of the 
Tista, and, previous to the change in the course of that river in the 
eighteenth century, was an important channel of communication, pass- 
ing by Rangpui town. The residents' bungalows, the Company's 
factories, and the old capital, Mahiganj, stretched along its banks. 
The opening from the Tista has now, however, nearly silted up, and 
the Ghaghat has deserted its old bed. 

The KARATOYA, the most important nvei in the west, forms for some 
distance the boundary with Dmajpur. In its course through Rangpur, 
it receives two tributaries from the east, both of greater volume than 
itself, the Sarbamangala and Jabuneswari. The Dharla marks for a 
few miles the boundary with Cooch Behar, and then turns south 
and enters the District, which it traverses in a tortuous south-easterly 
course for 55 miles before it falls into the Brahmaputra. The bed 
of this river is sandy and the current rapid, and numerous shallow and 
shifting sands render navigation extremely difficult. The only other 
rivers deserving mention are the Manas and Gujana , but the District 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 223 

is eveiywhere seamed by small streams and watercourses, many of 
which are navigable by small craft in the rainy season Theie are 
numerous stagnant marshes, some of them in inconvenient proximity 
to Rangpur town, foimmg a source of unhealthmess These marshes 
aie gradually silting up, a process which was accelerated, in some 
instances, by the upheaval of then beds during the earthquake of 1897 

The surface is covered with alluvium, the soil being a mixture of clay 
and sand deposited by the great rivers which dram the Himalayan 
region. For the most part this is of the recent alluvial type known 
as pah) but a strip of hard red clay in the south-west forms a con- 
tinuation of the BARIND and contains nodules of kankar. This old 
alluvium is known as kheyar. 

Where the ground is not occupied by the usual ciops of Northern 
Bengal, it is covered with abundant natural vegetation. Old river-beds, 
ponds and marshes, and streams with a sluggish current have a copious 
vegetation of Valhsmna and othei plants. Land subject to inundation 
has usually a covering of Tamarix and reedy grasses ; and in some 
parts, where the ground is more or less marshy, Rosa involucrata is 
plentiful Few trees occur on these inundated lands ; the most plenti- 
ful and largest is Bamngtoma, acutangula. The District contains no 
forests ; and even on the higher ground the tree vegetation is sparse, 
the individuals rather stunted as a rule, and the greater portion of the 
surface is covered with grasses, the commonest of these being Imperata 
arundinacea and Andropogon adculatus. Among the trees the most 
conspicuous are varieties of Ficus and the led cotton-tree (Bombax mala- 
baricuni). The sissu (Dalbergia Sissoo), the mango, the areca palm 
(Areca Catechu), jack (Artocarpus integnfoha\ bamboo, plantain, 
species of Citrus ^ bakitl (Mimusops Elengi), ndgeswar (Mesua f erred), 
and jam (Eugenia Jambolana) occur as planted or sometimes self-sown 
species. The villages are generally embedded in thickets or shrubberies 
of semi-spontaneous and more or less useful trees. The tejpat (Laurus 
Cassia) is grown for its aromatic leaves which are exported as a con- 
diment, and pineapples are common. 

Leopards and wild hog are still met with, especially in the alluvial 
islands of the Brahmaputia , but tigers, which were formerly numerous, 
have disappeared before the spread of cultivation, 

In the cold-season months northerly or north-easterly winds from 
the Himalayan region prevail, and the temperature is comparatively 
low, the mean minimum falling to 49 in January. The highest mean 
maximum temperature is 91 in April. Rainfall commences early, 
with 4 inches in April and n in May, and is heavy, the average fall 
for the year being 82 inches, of which 19^ inches occur in June, 15 in 
July, 12 in August, 13 in September, and 5 in October. 

The eaithquake of 1897 was very severely felt in Rangpur. Not 



224 RANG PUR DISTRICT 

only did it destroy buildings and cause damage estimated at 30 lakhs, 
but by upheaving the beds of rivers it effected serious alterations in the 
drainage of the country Rangpur town, for instance, was seriously 
affected by the laising of the beds of its drainage channels, and the 
public buildings and masonry houses were entirely or paitially wrecked 
Moreover, the earth opened in fissmes, from which torrents of mud 
and watei poured on to the fields, causing widespread destruction of 
the standing crops and lendermg the lands uncultivablc. Consider- 
able subsidences also occurred, especially in the neighbourhood of 
Gaibanda, where marshes were formed. 

The District is liable to inundation } but no notable disaster has 
occurred since the great flood of 1787, which not only caused terrible 
loss of life and widespread destruction of crops, resulting in famine, 
but by foicmg the Tlsta to change its course, completely altered the 
hydrography of the District In the same disastrous yeai a cyclone 
swept over the stricken country , hundreds of trees were blown down 
01 torn up by the roots , the houses of the Europeans were almost all 
unroofed, and there was scarcely a thatched house left standing. 

According to the Mahabharata, Rangpui formed the western outpost 
of the ancient Hindu kingdom of Kamarupa, or Pragjyotisha, which 
extended westwards as fai as the Karatoya nvei. 
The capital was generally much farther east; but 
the great Raja Bhagadatta, whose defeat is recorded in the epic, is 
said to have built a country residence at Rangpui, which is locally 
interpreted to mean the ' abode of pleasure ' Local traditions have 
preserved the names of thiee dynasties that ruled over this tract of 
country prior to the fifteenth century. The earliest of these is 
associated with the name of Puthu Raja, the extensive rums of whose 
capital are still pointed out at BHITARGARH in Jalpaiguri District 
Next came a dynasty of four kings, whose family name of Pal recurs 
in other parts of Bengal and also in Assam , and lastly a dynasty of 
three Khen kings Niladhwaj, Chakradhwaj, and Nilambar the fust 
of whom founded KAMATAPUR in Cooch Behar. Raja Nilambar is 
said to have been a great monarch, but about 1498 he came into 
collision with Ala-ud-dm Husain, the Afghan king of Gaur, who took 
his capital by stratagem, and carried him away prisoner in an iron 
cage The Muhammadans, however, did not letain their hold upon 
the country A period of anaichy ensued; among the wild tribes 
which then overran Rangpui, the Koch came to the front and their 
chief, Biswa Singh, founded the dynasty which still exists m COOCH 
BEHAR, and of which an account is given m the article on that State. 
As soon as the Mughal emperors had established their supremacy in 
Bengal, their viceroys began to push their north-eastern frontier across 
the Brahmaputra By 1603 the Muhammadans were firmly established 



HISTORY 225 

at Rangamati in Goalpara; but Rangpur proper was not completely 
subjugated until 1661, though it had been nominally annexed to the 
Mughal empire in 1584. In the extreme north the Cooch Behar Rajas 
weie able to offer such a resolute resistance that in 1711 they obtained 
a favourable compromise, in accordance with which they paid tribute 
as zamlndars for the parganas of Boda, Patgiam, and Purbabhag, but 
retained their independence in Cooch Behar proper. 

When the East India Company acquired the financial administration 
of Bengal in 1765, the province of Rangpur, as it was then called, was 
a frontier tract bordering on Nepal, Bhutan, Assam, and Cooch Behar, 
and included the District of Rangamati, east of the Brahmaputra, as 
well as a great part of the present District of Jalpaigurl. Its enormous 
area, and the weakness of the administrative staff, prevented the Col- 
lector from preserving order in the remote corneis of his District, 
which thus became the secure refuges of banditti The early records 
of Rangpur and the neighbouring parts of Bengal are full of complaints 
on this head, and of encounters between detachments of sepoys and 
armed bands of dacoits. In 1772 the banditti, reinforced by disbanded 
troops from the native armies, and by the peasants ruined in the famine 
of 1770, were plundering and burning villages in bodies of fifty thou- 
sand. A small British force sent against them received a check ; and 
in 1773 Captain Thomas, the leader of another paity, was cut off, 
and four battalions had to be employed. In the year 1789 the Collector 
conducted a regular campaign against these disturbers of the peace, 
who had fled to the great forest of Baikuntpur, now in JalpaigurT 
There he blockaded them with a force of 200 barkandaz and compelled 
them to surrender, and no less than 549 robbers were brought to trial 
At first the British continued the Muhammadan practice of farming out 
the land revenue to contractors , but in 1783 the exactions of a notori- 
ous farmer, Raja Devi Singh of Dmajpur, drove the Rangpur cultivators 
into open rebellion, and the Government was induced to invite the 
zamlndars to enter into direct engagements for the revenue. 

In recent times Rangpur has had no history beyond the recital of 
administrative changes. The tract east of the Brahmaputra was formed 
into the District of Goalpara in 1822, and in 1826 was transferred to 
the province of Assam. Three northern parganas now constitute part 
of the District of Jalpaigurl, and a considerable area in the south has 
been transferred to Bogra. One large estate, known as the Patiladaha 
estate, is situated partly in Rangpur and paitly in Mymensingh District, 
it pays revenue into the Rangpur treasury, but the greater poition is 
under the criminal supeivision of the Magistrate of Mymensingh. 

On the east bank of the Karatoya at KAMATAPUR, about 30 miles 
south of Rangpur, are the rums of an old fort, which according to 
tradition was built by Nilambar, the last and greatest of the Khen 



226 



RANGPUR DISTRICT 



Rajas. It is about thiee-quarters of a mile in diametei, and is enclosed 
by a lofty earthen rampart and moat. Close by is a dargah or Muham- 
madan smine, which is said to have been erected ovei the staff of the 
Muhammadan saint Ismail Ghazi, governor of Ghoraghat, who is famed 
for having foicibly converted the neighbouimg zamindars to Islam. A 
few miles south of Dimla are the lemains of a fortified city, which letams 
the name of Dharma Pal. It is in the form of an irregular parallelo- 
gram, rather less than a mile from north to south and thiee-quaiters of 
a mile from east to west, and is surrounded by raised ramparts of earth 
and ditches Tradition connects these luins with the Pal Rcijas. A 
brick temple of Sarbamangala, 250 years old, stands 2^ miles east of 
the Gobindganj police station ; the battles described in the Ramayana, 
Mahabhaiata, and other Hindu works are depicted on the walls. 

Theie has been no real increase in the population since 1872, and no 
othei pait of Bengal shows so little progress in this respect. Owing to the 
prevalence of malarial fever, the inhabitants decreased 
from 2,153,686 in 1872 to 2,097,964 in 1881, and to 
2,065,464 in 1891 Since 1891 the lost ground has been recovered, 
and though this is mainly due to immigration, there has undoubtedly 
been a great improvement in public health. The principal diseases are 
malarial feveis, small -pox, and cholera. Goitre and elephantiasis aie 
also common. Insanity is prevalent, owing to the large proportion of 
persons of Koch ongin who are especially subject to this infirmity 
The chief statistics of the Census of 1901 are shown below 



Population. 





t 

rt 


Number of 




fc 


o s M 


^o 




3 
^*OJ 




s 


1 


fU *" s M 

rt o M \ 








Subdivision 


G"S 


c 


feo 


"5 


3S 




gg|c 




< 


i 


t> 




1* 


2 IB" 


IIP 


Rangpur . 


r,T 4 i j i 


1,897 


658,291 


577 


+ i 8 


35-153 


Nilphaman 


648 


3 


370 


461,314 


712 


+ 3' 


19,361 


Kurigram . 


94 2 


i 


1,518 


514,392 


546 


+ T> 3 


15,011 


Gaibancla 


762 


i 


1,427 


520,184 


683 


-T- 12 2 


14,299 


District total 


3.493 


6 


5,212 


2,154,181 


617 


+ 43 


73 5 8 24 



The principal towns are RANGPUR and SAIDPUR Thanks to its 
very fertile soil, Rangpur, in spite of its long-continued unhealthmess, 
has still a far denser population than most of the surrounding Districts 
The only parts wheie there are less than 500 persons per square 
mile are the two unhealthy and ill-drained thdnas of Plrganj and 
Mitapukur m the south-central part of the District, and Allpur on 
the eastern boundary, which includes in its area the bed and sandy 
islands of the Brahmaputra. The densest population is found in the 
north-west, in the Nilphaman subdivision, where jute cultivation and 
trade are carried on very extensively. The immigrants consist of 



AGRICULTURE 



227 



temporary labourers from Bihar and the United Provinces, and more 
permanent settlers from Dacca, Pabna, and Nadia. The result of 
the large temporary immigration is a remarkable preponderance of the 
male population, which exceeds the number of females by 8-5 per cent. 
The language spoken is the dialect of Bengali known as Rangpuri or 
Rajbansi Muhammadans number 1,371,430, or nearly 64 per cent, 
of the total; and Hindus 776,646, 01 36 pei cent. The former are 
much the more prolific, and have steadily inci eased from 6r per cent, 
in 1 88 1 to their present proportion, 

The Aryan castes are very poorly represented Nearly two-thirds of the 
Hindu population are Rajbansis, a caste of mixed origin, partly descended 
from Mongoloid Kochs, and partly of Dravidian stock , many Baishnabs 
have been recruited from this caste. Members of the great aboriginal 
castes of Eastern Bengal, Chandal and Kaibartta, are also numerous. Of 
the Musalmans, 92 per cent call themselves Shaikhs and nearly all 
the rest Nasyas (converted Rajbansis); all are probably descendants 
of converts from the aboriginal Hindu castes Of the total population, 
85 per cent are supported by agriculture, 6 per cent, by industry, and 
i per cent, by one or other of the piofessions, while earthwork 
and geneial labour employ nearly 4 per cent. The proportion of 
agriculturists far exceeds the general average foi Bengal, while the 
industrial population is only half 

The Christians numbei 453, of whom 92 are native Christians, and 
are chiefly railway employes in Saidpur town, most of whom belong to 
the Anglican communion or the Roman Catholic Church A Baptist 
mission at Rangpur has made some 60 converts. 

The soil is lemarkably fertile, being generally a sandy loam deposited 
by the rivers when in flood. In the noith theie are extensive sandy 
plains, the remains of old watercourses, especially of . 

the numerous old beds of the Tista, admirably suited 
to the cultivation of tobacco, foi which the District is noted. A strip 
of hard red clay m the west, which is part of the BARIND, is favourable 
for the cultivation of fine qualities of winter rice and sugai-cane 

The chief agricultural statistics for 1903-4 are shown below, areas 
being in square miles 



Subdivision 


Total 


Cultivated 


Cultivable 
waste 


Rangpur 
Nilphaman 


1,141 
648 


763 
444 


141 
95 


JcCungram 


942 


404 


139 


Gaibanda 


762 


304 


94 


Total 


3,493 


^915 


469 



No less than 1,222 square miles, 01 64 per cent of the net cultivated 



228 RANGPUR DISTRICT 

area, are twice cropped The principal staples are rice, jute, rape and 
mustard, and tobacco. By far the most extensive crop is rice, which 
occupies 88 per cent, of the net cropped area. More than three-quarters 
of the crop is harvested in the wintei, and the lest in the autumn. The 
early rice is grown principally on high lands, but one variety thrives on 
low marshy soil. The light alluvial soils are admirably suited to jute 
cultivation, and Rangpur yields an eighth of the whole output of 
Bengal, being second only to Mymensmgh. Tobacco, another speciality 
of the District, thrives best on the sandy lands along the banks of the 
Tfsta river. Rape and mustaid are also grown largely m Rangpur, and 
are especially common on the islands in the Brahmaputra. Potatoes 
are coming into favoui. 

During the past twenty years there has been a considerable spiead 
of cultivation by the reclamation of waste and silted-up marshy lands, 
and there is now little room for further extension. The progiess of jute 
cultivation has been extraordinary, and to some extent this has been at 
the expense of rice. There is little or no irrigation, which is rendered 
unnecessary by the copious and regular rainfall. Owing to the fertility 
of the soil and the prosperity of the people, little use has been made of 
the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts; but m 1897-8, 
a year of poor crops, Rs. 3,400 was advanced under the latter Act. 

The country-bred cattle are poor, and animals from Upper India 
are purchased in large numbers at the Darwani fair. Buffaloes, though 
small, are largely reared and are exported in considerable numbeis to 
Assam. Very little pasturage is left except in the river islands, and it 
is difficult to feed the cattle, especially during the rams. 

Indigenous manufactures are insignificant and decaying. Cotton 
carpets and cloth, gunny cloth, and rough silk (endi) are woven on 
a small scale, and a few brass-ware and bell-metal 
utensils are manufactured There are jute presses 
at DOMAR and SAIDPUR, and lailway workshops 
at the latter place. 

The trade is now almost entirely carried by tail. The chief imports 
are cotton piece-goods, salt, kerosene oil, coal, and rice ; and the chief 
exports are jute, tobacco, mustard, unrefined sugar, and rice. The 
centres of the jute export business are Domar, Darwani, Saidpur, and 
Rangpur town. Tobacco is bought by the Arakanese and exported to 
Burma, where it is manufactured into cigars. Rice is imported chiefly 
from the neighbouring Districts of Dinajpur and Bogra, and exported 
to Calcutta , coal is imported from Burdwan and Manbhum, and some 
tobacco goes to the neighbouring Districts ; but the rest of the trade 
is with Calcutta. The merchants are for the most part Euiopeans, 
Marwans, and Sahas. The brokers are local Muhammadans, with 
a sprinkling of Rajbansis. 



A DMINISTRA TION 2 2 9 

Few Districts are bettei provided with railway communication, which 
has been rapidly extended within recent years The northern branch 
of the Eastern Bengal State Railway intersects the west of the District 
from south to north. From the Parvatipui station, on this line, the 
Assam line strikes eastward, passing through Rangpur town and 
ciossing the Tista and Dharla rivers by large bridges. In 1901 this 
line had its terminus at Gitaldaha m Cooch Behar, but it has since 
been extended to Dhubn in Assam , a branch line starts from the left 
bank of the Tista and runs to Kurigram. The Bengal-Duars Railway 
starts from the Lalmanir Hat station on the Assam line, and, after 
traversing the north of the District, meets the Eastern Bengal State 
Railway at Jalpaiguri Finally, a branch line, called the Brahmaputra- 
Sultanpur Branch Railway, from the Eastern Bengal State Railway at 
Santahar traverses the Gaibanda subdivision to Phulcharl, on the right 
bank of the Brahmaputra. A new line fiom Kaunia to Bonarpara, on 
the Brahmaputra-Sultanpur Branch Railway, has been recently sanc- 
tioned In 1903-4 the total length of roads was 2,477 miles, but of 
these only 14 miles weie metalled. They aie maintained by the District 
board, with occasional help from Provincial revenues for the upkeep 
of feeder loads for the railways, The principal roads are those to Bogra, 
Dmajpur, Jalpaigurl, Cooch Behar, Dhubn, Chilman, and Phulcharl. 

The steamers of the India General and the Rivets Steam Navigation 
Companies, which ply up and down the Brahmaputia, stop at four 
stations within the District The Tista and Dharla are navigable 
throughout the year, and most of the other rivers during the lainy 
season, by ordinary native trading boats and dug-outs. There are 
146 public ferries, yielding an income of Rs 48,000 per annum to 
the District board, as well as numerous private ferries. 

The famine which followed the storm and cyclone of the disastrous 
year 1787 is said to have carried off one-sixth of the population. 
Since that date no severe famine has visited the Dis- 
trict, though in 1874 some relief was necessary. 

For administrative purposes the District is divided into four sub- 
divisions, with head-quarters at RANGPUR, NILPHAMARI, KURIGRAM, 

and GAIBANDA. The staff at head-quarters comprises, . . 

,, ITVT ^11^ r T\^ Administration. 

in addition to the Magistrate-Collector, four Deputy- 

Magistrate-Collectors, while each of the other subdivisions is in chaige 
of a Deputy-Magistrate-Collector. 

There are in all 14 criminal courts (including those of honorary 
magistrates) and 9 civil courts : namely, those of the District and 
Sessions Judge, Subordinate Judge, and two Munsifs at Rangpur town, 
two at Kurigram, two at Gaibanda, and two at Nilphaman. Offences 
against marriage and the abduction of girls are very common, and 
cases of at son and petty burglary are also numerous 



230 



RANGPUR DISTRICT 



The changes which have taken place in its boundaries render it 
difficult to trace the early revenue history of the present District. In 
1740 the land revenue was 3-4 lakhs ; and by 1764, the year preceding 
the British occupation, it had risen to 5 i lakhs, the actual collections 
being 4*9 lakhs. In 1765, the first year of British administration, no 
less than 9-1 lakhs was realized. The revenues were then farmed, and 
it was not until 1778 that the zamlndars weie admitted to settlement 
The District was permanently settled in 1793 for 8-2 lakhs. 

The current land levenue demand foi 1903-4 was 10-1 lakhs, of 
which all but Rs 4,000 was due from permanently settled estates. The 
increase since 1793 is due to the lesumption and assessment of lands 
held free of levenue under invalid titles. At the time of the Permanent 
Settlement the District compnsed only 75 estates ; these have inci eased 
to 659 by paititions, lesumptions, and transfers from othei Districts 
The revenue is collected with extreme punctuality. Its incidence is 
light, as it is only equivalent to R. 0-12-2 per cultivated acre, or to 
one-fifth of the zamindars* rent-rolls. The/0/ (holding) is here occa- 
sionally a very big tenure, especially in the east of the District, where 
the biggest jotddr has a lent-roll of Rs. 80,000. Chukani is the name 
of an undei-tenure subleased from a jotddr^ the actual cultivator below 
the chaukanidar being generally an ddhiar, who pays half the crop as 
rent. Lfanchakl is the name of a tenuie gi anted for chantable or 
religious purposes at a quit-rent in perpetuity ; the majkun is a similar 
tenure, but liable to enhancement of rent. The average rates of rent 
paid by actual cultivators to their immediate landlords vary from Rs 3-6 
to Rs. 6 an acre , higher rents are paid for good loam lands and lower 
for hard clays. The great majority of the ryots possess occupancy 
rights, and the number who hold either at fixed rents or without a right 
of occupancy is very small. 

The following table shows the collections of land revenue and total 
revenue (principal heads only), in thousands of rupees : 





1880-1. 


1890-1 


1900-1 


i9 3-4 


Land revenue 
Total revenue 


10,19 
17,22 


10,15 
18,16 


10,15 
20,17 


9 8 3 
2o,6S 



Outside the RANGPUR municipality local affairs are managed by 
the District board, with a local board at each of the subdivisions. 
In 1903-4 the income of the District board was Rs. 3,41,000, of 
which Rs. 1,23,000 was derived from rates; and the expenditure was 
Rs 2,82,000, including Rs. 1,83,000 spent on public works, and Rs 
60,000 on education. 

The District contains 17 thdnas or police stations and 9 outposts. 
In 1903 the force under the control of the District Supeimtendent 



RANGPUR TOWN 231 

numbered 4 inspectors, 44 sub-inspectors, 34 head constables, and 
387 constables. In addition, the village police numbered 441 daffadars 
and 4,655 chaukldars. The District jail has accommodation for 263 
prisoners, and the subsidiary jails at the subdivisional head-quarters 
for 53- 

Education is very backward, and in 1901 only 3-4 per cent of the 
population (6 males and 0-2 females) could read and write. A con- 
siderable advance has, however, been made in recent years, the total 
number of pupils under instruction having increased from about 17,000 
in 1883 to 22,875 in 1892-3 and to 31,001 in 1900-1, while 37,576 
boys and 1,742 girls were at school in 1903-4, being respectively 22-2 
and i -i per cent, of those of school-going age. The number of educa- 
tional institutions, public and private, in that year was 1,227, including 
64 secondary and 1,131 primary schools The expenditure on educa- 
tion was 2 lakhs, of which Rs 22,000 was met from Provincial funds, 
Rs 54,000 from District funds, Rs, 1,000 from municipal funds, and 
Rs. 95,000 from fees The most important educational institution is 
the technical school in Rangpur town, 

Rangpur is well provided with medical relief, as it contains 25 chari- 
table dispensaries, of which 7 have accommodation for 102 m-patientb. 
The number of cases treated in 1903 comprised 1,257 in-patients and 
163,000 out-patients, and 3,411 operations weie performed The ex- 
penditure was Rs. 50,000, of which Rs 8,000 was met from Government, 
contributions, Rs 6,000 from Local funds, Rs. 3,000 from municipal 
funds, and Rs. 12,000 from subscriptions 

Vaccination is compulsory only in Rangpur town In the rest of 
the District 77,000 successful opeiations were performed m 1903-4, 
representing 36 per 1,000 of the population. 

[Martin, Eastern India^ vol. in (1838) ; Farther Notes on the Rangpur 
Records (Calcutta, 1876); and Sir W. W. Hunter, Statistical Account of 
Bengal^ vol. vii (1876).] 

Rangpur Subdivision. Head-quarters subdivision of Rangpur 
District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, lying between 25 18' and 26 
16' N. and 88 56' and 89 31' E , with an area of 1,141 square miles 
The subdivision is mainly an alluvial tract, drained on the extreme 
west by the Karatoya and intersected by the Ghaghat, a small tortuous 
river, on either side of which are swamps and many channels clogged 
with vegetation The population in 1901 was 658,291, compared with 
646,388 in 1891. It contains one town, RANGPUR (population, 15,960), 
the head-quarters, and 1,897 villages, and has a density of 577 persons 
per square mile The subdivision is unhealthy, and two of its thdnas, 
Mahiganj and Mitapukur, have lost population since 1891 and still 
more since 1872. 

Rangpur Town. Head-quarters of the District of the same name 



2 3 2 RANG PUR TOWN 

in Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 25 45' N. and 89 15' E. 
Population (1901), 15,960. The name of Rangpui (the 'abode of 
bliss') is said to be derived fiom the legend that Raja Bhagadatta, who 
took part in the wai of the Mahabharata, possessed a countiy lesidence 
here. Rangpur was captured by the Afghan king Ala-ud-dm Husam, 
who ruled at Gaur from 1493 to 1519 It is an unhealthy place, and 
suffered severely in the earthquake of 1897, when nearly all its build- 
ings were wrecked. Rangpur was constituted a municipality in 1869 
The municipal income during the decade ending 1901-2 aveiaged 
Rs 31,000, and the expendituie Rs 26,000 In 1903-4 the income 
was Rs. 53,000, of which Rs. 9,000 was derived from a tax on persons 
(or property tax), Rs. 8,000 from a conservancy rate, and Rs. 9,000 
from a tax on vehicles ; the expenditure in the same year was Rs. 59,000. 
Two channels have been dug to drain the marshes m the neighbour- 
hood of the town, but one of them was rendered useless by the earth- 
quake of 1897 The town contains the usual public offices. The 
District jail has accommodation for 263 prisoners. The principal jail 
industries carried on are oil-pressing, fwr^-pounding, string- and rope- 
making, bamboo and cane-work, cloth-weaving, carpentry, paddy-husking, 
and wheat and pulse-grinding. The Rangpur District school was 
founded m 1832 by the local zammddrs, and was taken over by 
Government in 1862 , there were 385 pupils m 1901. The Tajhat 
estate maintains a high school, for which a good building has recently 
been erected A technical school, known as the Bayley-Gobmd Lai 
Technical Institute, was founded in 1889, and is affiliated to the Sibpur 
Engineering College ; it has 101 pupils on its rolls. 

Rambagh. Village in the Outer Himalayas, Nairn Tal District, 
United Provinces. See KATHGODAM. 

Rambennur Taluka. South-easternmost taluka of Dharwai Dis- 
trict, Bombay, lying between 14 24' and 14 48' N, and 75 27' and 
75 49' E., with an area of 405 squaie miles The population m 1901 
was 104,274, compared with 92,978 in 1891 The density, 257 persons 
pei square mile, slightly exceeds the Distnct average. There aie three 
towns, RANIBENNUR (population, 14,851), the head-quaiters, BYADGI 
(6,659), and TUMINKATTI (6,341); and 116 villages The demand 
for land revenue m 1903-4 was 1-78 lakhs, and for cesses Rs 13,000 
The country is generally flat, with a low range on the north and a group 
of hills in the east, and is well supplied with water The prevailing 
soil is black m the low-lying parts and red on the hills and uplands. 
Important protective irrigation works have been constructed at Asundi 
and Medlen The capital outlay to the end of 1903-4 on these tanks 
was 1-6 lakhs, and they supplied 341 acres in that year. 

Rambennur Town. Head-quarters of the taluka of the same 
name in Dharwar District, Bombay, situated in 14 37' N and 75 38' E., 



RANIKHET 



233 



on the Southern Mahratta Railway, and on the road from Poona to 
Madras Population (1901), 14,851. A municipality was established 
in 1858, the average receipts during the decade ending 1901 being 
Rs. 7,900. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 9,400 This is a thriving 
town, noted for the excellence of its silken and cotton fabrics, and 
having a considerable trade in raw cotton In 1800, while in pursuit 
of the Maratha freebooter Dhundia Wagh, Colonel Wellesley (after- 
wards the Duke of Wellington), being fired on by the garrison, attacked 
and captured the town. In 1818 a party of Geneial Munro's force 
occupied Rambennur. In February and August the local shepherds 
visit Choi Maradi, or 'scorpion hill, 3 2 miles south of the town, to 
worship Bir Deo, an incarnation of Siva. While the god is present 
on the hill the scorpions, it is said, do not sting The town contains 
a dispensary and 7 schools, including a municipal middle school. 

Ramgam. Petty State m KATHIAWAR, Bombay. 

Ramganj. Town in the Asansol subdivision of Burdwan District, 
Bengal, situated in 23 36' N and 87 & E , on the north bank of 
the Damodar river. Population (1901), 15,841 The town, which has 
a station on the East Indian Railway and was the head-quarters of 
the subdivision until 1906, owes its importance to the development 
of the coal industry and is one of the busiest places in Bengal. Exten- 
sive potteries give employment to 1,500 hands, the value of the out-turn 
in 1903-4 being estimated at 6-45 lakhs. Paper-mills employ nearly 
800 hands, and 2,884 tons f p^per \alued at 8-65 lakhs were manu- 
factuied in 1903-4, 3 oil-mills are also at work. There is a consider- 
able trade m rice and oil. Ramganj was constituted a municipality 
in 1876. The income during the decade ending 1901-2 averaged 
Rs. 19,000, and the expendituie Rs. 16,000 In 1903-4 the income was 
Rs. 22,000, of which Rs. 12,000 was derived from a tax on houses and 
lands; and the expenditure was Rs. 20,100. A Wesleyan Methodist 
mission maintains a leper asylum 3 an orphanage, and day schools. 

Ranijula. Hill in the Jashpur State, Central Provinces, situated 
in 23 o' N. and 83 $6' E, rising to a height of 3,527 feet above 
sea-level. 

Ranlkhet. Military sanitarium in the District and tahsll of Al- 
mora, United Provinces, situated m 29 38' N. and 79 26' E., at the 
junction of cart-roads leading to the foot of the hills at Kathgodam (49 
miles) and Ramnagar (56 miles). Population in summer (1900), 7,705, 
including 2,236 Europeans, and in winter (1901) 3,153 The canton- 
ment is situated on two ridges, Ranlkhet proper, elevation 5,983 feet , 
and Chaubattia, elevation 6,942 feet. It is occupied by Bntish troops 
throughout the summer, and the accommodation is being enlarged. 
A dispensary is maintained here. It was at one time proposed to 
move the head-quarters of the Government of India from Simla to 



234 RANIKHET 

Ramkhet The income and expenditure of the cantonment fund 
averaged Rs, 21,000 during the ten years ending 1901, In 1903-4 
the income was Rs 29,000 and the expenditure Rs. 33,000 An excel- 
lent system of water-works has recently been carried out. 

Ranipet Subdivision. Subdivision of North Arcot District, 
Madras, consisting of the taluks of WALAJAPET and CHANDRAGIRI and 
the zamlnddn tahslls of KALAHASTI and KARVETNAGAR. 

Ranipet Town (' queen's town '). Town m the Walajapet taluk 
of North Arcot District, Madias, situated in 12 56' N. and 79 2o y E , 
on the north bank of the Palar river. Population (1901), 7,607. The 
place comprises the European quaiters of Arcot, and is said to have 
been founded about the year 1713 by Saadat-ullah Khan, in honour 
of the youthful widow of Desing Raja of Gingee, who committed sail 
when her husband was slain by Saadat-ullah's forces, The place 
was of no importance till it became a British cantonment, when it was 
made a large cavalry station and rapidly extended IL is now the 
head-quarters of the divisional officer The Roman Catholics and 
the American Mission have churches in the town, There is a large 
dispensary ; and every Friday a fair is> held on the old parade ground 
north of the town, where a larger number of cattle are sold than in 
any other market in the District The Naulakh Bagh or ' nine-lakh 
garden ' of mangoes and other trees, planted by one of the early 
Nawabs of Arcot, is near the town. 

Ranipura. Petty State in MAH! KANTHA, Bombay, 

Rann of Cutch, Salt waste m Bombay. See CUTCH, RANN OF. 

Ranpur, One of the Tributary States of Onssa, Bengal, lying 
between 19 54' and 20 12' N. and 85 8' and 85 28' E., with an 
area of 203 square miles. It is bounded on the north, east, and south 
by Purl District, and on the west by the State of Nayagarh. The 
south-west is a region of forest-clad and almost entirely uninhabited 
hills, which wall m its whole western side, except at a single point, 
where a pass leads into the adjoining State of Nayagarh. To the 
north and east there are extensive fertile and populous valleys. The 
State claims to be the most ancient of all the Onssa Tributary States, 
and its long list of chiefs covers a period of ovei 3,600 years. It is the 
only State whose ruler refrains from pretensions to an Aryan ancestry ; 
and in 1814, m i espouse to an inquiry addiessed to all the chiefs, the 
Raja was not ashamed to own his Khond origin. The State yields an 
estimated revenue of Rs. 54,000, and pays a tribute of Rs. 1,401 to the 
British Government. The population increased from 40,115 m 1891 
to 46,075 in 1901. The number of villages is 261, and the density 
is 227 persons per square mile. Hindus number 45,762, by far the 
most numerous caste being the Chasas (14,000). The capital of the 
State is 14 miles from the Kalupara Ghat station of the East Coast 



RANTHAMBHOR 



235 



section of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, and about 10 miles from the 
Madras trunk road, with which it is connected by a feeder road partly 
bridged and metalled. The State maintains a middle English school, 
3 upper primary and 38 lower primary schools, and a dispensary. 

Ranpur. Town in the Dhandhuka taluka of Ahmadabad Dis- 
trict, Bombay, situated in 22 21' N. and 71 43' E., on the north 
bank of the Bhadar nvei, at its confluence with the Goma. Population 
(1901), 6,423. On the raised strip of land between the two nvers 
is an old fort, partly m ruins. Ranpur was founded about the 
beginning of the fourteenth century by Ranaji Gohil, a Rajput chief- 
tain, the ancestor of the Bhaunagar family. Here his father Sekaji 
had settled, and named the place Sejakpur^ but the son, having 
strengthened Sejakpur with a foit, called it Ranpur. Some time in 
the fifteenth centuiy the ruling chief embraced the Muhammadan 
religion and founded the family of the present Ranpur Molesalams 
About 1640 Azam Khan built the fort of Shahapui, whose rums still 
ornament the town In the eighteenth century Ranpur passed to the 
Gaikwar, and from him to the British in 1802 Ranpui is a station 
on the Bhavnagar-Gondal Railway. The municipality, established m 
1889, had an average income during the decade ending 1901 of about 
Rs. 6,000. In 1903-4 the income amounted to Rs. 6,800. The town 
contains a dispensary and three schools, of which one is an English 
middle school with 33 pupils, and two are vernacular, one for boys and 
one for girls, attended respectively by 317 and 125 pupils. 

Ranthambhor (Ranastambhapura^ or ' the place of the pilbr v . 
war '). Famous fort in the Sawai Madhopur mzdmat in the sowCh-east 
corner of the State of Jaipur, Rajputana, situated in 26 & N. and 
76 28' E., on an isolated rock 1,578 feet above sea-^evel, and sur- 
rounded by a massive wall strengthened by towels and bastions. 
Within the enclosure are the remains of a palace, a mosque with the 
tomb of a Muhammadan saint, and barracks x for the garrison. The 
place is said to have been held by a branch of the Jadon Rajputs 
till they were expelled by the famous PrithwT Raj m the twelfth century, 
when the Chauhan Rajputs took possession. Altamsh, the third king 
of the Slave dynasty, seized the fort in 1226, but held it only for a 
time. In 1290 or 1291 Jalal-ud-dm Khilji, and m 1300 an army sent 
by Ala-ud-dln, both besieged the place without success. Ala-ud-dm 
then proceeded m person against the fort, and eventually took it m 
1301, putting the Raja, Hamlr Deo Chauhan, and the garrison to 
the sword. It was subsequently wrested from the sovereign of Delhi, 
perhaps during the distractions consequent on the invasion of Timur 
at the close of the fourteenth century, and in 1516 is mentioned 
as belonging to Malwa. Shortly afterwards it was taken by Rana 
Sangram Singh of Mewar, but it was made over to the emperor Babar 

VOL. xxi, Q 



2 3 6 RA NTHAMBHOR 

in 1528. About twenty-five years latei its Musalman governor sur- 
lendered it to the chief of Bundi, and it passed into the possession 
of Akbar about 1569 Accounts differ as to the manner in which this 
came about. According to the Musalman historians, the emperoi 
besieged it in person and took it in a month , but the Bundi bards say 
that the siege was ineffectual, and that he obtained by stratagem what 
he had failed to secure by force of aims. In Akbar's reign Rantham- 
bhoi became the first sarkar 01 division in the province of Ajmer, and 
consisted of no less than eighty-three mahals 01 fiefs, in which weie 
included not only Kotah and Bundi and their dependencies, but most 
of the territory now constituting the State of Jaipui On the decay 
of the Mughal empire, towaids the end of the seventeenth century, 
the fort was made ovei by its governor to the Jaipur chief, to whom it 
now belongs. 

Rapri. Village in the Shikohabad tahsll of Mainpmi District, 
United Provinces, situated in 26 58' N. and 78 36' E., in the Jumna 
ravines, 44 miles south-west of Mampurl town. Population (1901), 
900. The importance of Rapri lies in its past history. Local tiadi- 
tion ascribes its foundation to Rao Zorawai Sen, also known as Rapar 
Sen, whose descendant fell in battle against Muhammad Ghon in 
A.D. 1194. Mosques, tombs, wells, and leservoirs mark its former 
greatness ; and seveial inscriptions found among the ruins have thrown 
much light on the local history. The most important of these dates 
'from the leign of Ala-ud-din KhiljT. Many buildings were erected 
by^Sher Shah and Jahanglr } and traces of the gate of one of the royal 
residences still exist, indicating that Rapri must at one tune have been 
a large and prosperous town. Rapri has always been important as 
commanding one of the crossings of the Jumna ; and a bridge of boats 
is maintained here, forming one of the main loutes to the cattle fair at 
BATESAR in Agra District, which is one of the largest m the United 
Provinces 

Rapti [identified by Lassen with the Solomatis of Ainan = Skt, 
Saravati , by Pargiter with the Sadamra ( f evei -flowing ') of the epics , 
also called Irdvati ('lefreshmg ')] River which rises m the lowei 
ranges of Nepal (27 49' N, 82 44' E ), and joins the GOGRA in 
Gorakhpur District of the United Provinces Its course is first south 
and then north-west and west, after which it again turns south and 
crosses the bolder of Oudh in Bahraich District. It then flows south- 
east or south through Bahraich, Gonda, BastT, and Gorakhpur Dis- 
tricts, with a total couise of about 400 miles Its wide bed is confined 
within high banks, but the actual channel shifts considerably Floods 
are not uncommon, but do little damage, if they subside in time for 
spimg crops to be sown, as the silt deposited acts as a fertilizer The 
feeders of this river are chiefly small livers using m the tarai north 



RASIPUR 237 

of its course, the largest being the Dhamela, joined by the Ghunghi, 
and the Rohmi, m Gorakhpur. In Gonda and Bast! an old bed of the 
river, called the Burhi Rapti, some miles north of its present course, 
brings down a consideiable amount of watei in the rains. The 
BAKHIRA LAKE in Basti District and the Chilua lake in Gorakhpur 
dram into it. The Rapti is navigable for small boats as high as 
Bhinga in Bahraich, and for large boats to the town of Gorakhpur, 
which stands near its banks. Much timber and grain from Nepal and 
the British Districts which it traverses are earned down into the Gogra, 
and thence into the Ganges } but the traffic has fallen off since the 
extension of the Bengal and North-Western Railway. The RaptT 
is rarely used for irrigation. 

Rapur. Taluk in the south-west of Nellore District, Madras, lying 
between 14 7' and 14 31' N. and 79 21' and 79 5i / E., with an 
area of 596 square miles, The population in 1901 was 70,130, com- 
pared with 61,311 in 1891 The taluk contains 112 villages, of which 
Rapui is the head-quarteis. The demand on account of land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,55,000. The Velikonda 
range forms the westein boundaiy, and Penchalakonda (3,635 feet), 
one of the peaks in this, is the highest point m the District. There 
aie also some scattered hills. The Kandleru and Venkatagin rivers, 
which rise in the Velikondas, dram the taluk The formei runs 
through the centre and empties itself into the Kistnapatam backwater 
after passing through Gudur. It is navigable up to 25 miles from the 
sea at all seasons by boats drawing not more than 4 or 5 feet. The 
taluk possesses many i reserved ' forests, but they mostly contain very 
poor growth. The soil is black and loamy in parts, but there is much 
sterile stony land. Wells are deep and costly, and irrigation is mostly 
from lain- fed tanks. The Tungabhadra-Penner irrigation project, 
which is now under investigation, would command a good deal of 
the taluk, Cholam^ ragi, cambu, rice, tobacco, and chillies are the 
principal crops. Timber and tanning and dyeing barks are the chief 
natural products. 

Rarh. Ancient name of a portion of Bengal, west of the Bhagl- 
rathi river. This was one of the four divisions cieated by king Ballal 
Sen, the others being Barendra between the Mahananda and Karatoya 
rivers, Bagn or South Bengal, and Banga or East Bengal. Rarh 
corresponded roughly with the kingdom of KARNA SUVARNA, and with 
the modern Districts of Bmdwan, Bankura, western Murshidabad, 
and Hooghly. 

Rasipur. Town in the Distiict and taluk of Salem, Madras, 
situated in 11 28' N. and 78 n' E., in the fertile valley between 
the Bodamalais and the Kollaimalais. Population (1901), 11,512. 
Silk and cotton cloths are extensively woven here, and large iron 

Q 2 



* 3 S RASIPUR 

boilers foi the manufacture of jaggeiy (coarse sugai) and biass and 
bell-metal vessels of all kinds aie made 

Rasra Tahsil, Western tahsll of Balha Distnct, United Provinces, 
comprising the parganas of Lakhnesar, Sikandarpur (West), Kopachit 
(West), and Bhadaon, and lying between 25 46' and 26 n' N. and 
83 38' and 84 3' E , with an area of 433 square miles. Population 
fell from 307,645 m 1891 to 288,226 m 1901, the deciease being the 
most consideiable in the District. There aie 697 villages and two 
towns, including RASRA (population, 9,896), the tahstl head-quarteis. 
The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs. 1,97,000, and foi 
cesses Rs 54,000. The density of population, 666 persons per squaic 
mile, is the lowest m the District The tahszl stretches from the Gogra 
on the noith to the Chhoti Sarju on the south, and is also drained by 
the Budhi or Lakhra, a small stream. Sugar-cane and rice are more 
largely grown here than m othei parts of the District. The area undei 
cultivation in 1903-4 was 270 square miles, of which 167 were irrigated 
Wells supply about four-fifths of the nngated area, and tanks and 
streams most of the remainder. 

Rasra Town, Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same name in 
Ballia District, United Provinces, situated in 25 51' N and 83 52' E , 
on the Bengal and North-Western Railway. Population ( 1901), 9,896. 
Rasra is a thriving, well-laid-out town, and is commercially the most 
important place m the District. It is the head-quarters of the Sengai 
Rajputs, and contains a large tank surrounded by a grove sacied to 
Nath Baba, their patron saint Near the tank are some scores of 
earthen mounds which are memorials of satis Rasra is administered 
under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 2,400. Sugar, 
hides, and carbonate of soda are exported, and cotton cloth, iron, 
and spices are imported for local distribution. During the rams a 
good deal of traffic passes by the Chhoti Sarju The town contains 
a dispensary, and a school with about 80 pupils. 

Ratangarh. Head-quarters of a tahsll of the same name m the 
Sujangarh mzamat of the State of Bikaner, Rajputana, situated m 
28 5' N. and 74 37' E., about 80 miles almost due east of Bikaner 
city, and 10 miles from the Shekhawati border. Population (1901), 
11,744 The town was founded on the site of a village named Kolasar 
by Maharaja Surat Singh at the end of the eighteenth century, and was 
improved by his successor, Ratan Singh, who gave it his name. It is 
surrounded by a stone wall and possesses a small fort, a neatly laid out 
and broad bazar, some fine houses (the pioperty of wealthy Mahajans), 
a combined post and telegraph office, a vernacular school attended 
by 70 boys, and a hospital with accommodation for 7 in-patients 

Ratanmal. Thakitrat in the BHOPAWAR AGENCY, Central India, 

Ratanpur. Town in the District and tahsll of Bilaspur, Central 



RATH TOWN 239 

Provinces, situated in 22 if N. and 82 n'E., 16 miles north of 
Bilaspur town by road. It lies in a hollow below some hills. Popula- 
tion (1901), 5,479. Ratanpur was for many centuries the capital of 
Chhattlsgarh under the Haihaivansi dynasty, its foundation being 
assigned to king Ratnadeva in the tenth century. Rums cover about 
15 square miles, consisting of numerous tanks and temples scattered 
among groves of mango-trees. There are about 300 tanks, most of 
them very small, and filled with stagnant, greenish water, and several 
hundred temples, none of which, however, possesses any archaeological 
importance. Many sail monuments to the queens of the Haihaivansi 
dynasty also remain. Ratanpur is a decaying town, the proximity of 
Bilaspur having deprived it of any commercial importance. It pos- 
sesses a certain amount of trade in lac, and vessels of bell-metal and 
glass bangles are manufactured. Its distinctive element is a large 
section of lettered Brahmans, the hereditary holders of rent-free 
villages, who are the interpreters of the sacred writings and the 
ministers of religious ceremonies for a great portion of Chhattlsgarh. 
The climate is unhealthy, and the inhabitants are afflicted with goitre 
and other swellings on the body. The town contains a vernacular 
middle school, with branch schools. 

Ratanpur Dhamanka. Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay. 
Ratesh. A fief of the Keonthal State, Punjab, situated in 31 3' N. 
and 7725 / E., with an area of 12 square miles. The population in 
1901 was 449, and the revenue is about Rs. 625. The present chief, 
Thakur Hira Singh, exercises full powers, but sentences of death 
require the confirmation of the Superintendent, Simla Hill States. 

Rath Tahsil. North-western tahsll of Hamlrpur District, United 
Provinces, comprising the parganas of Jalalpur and Rath, and lying 
between 25 28' and 25 56' N. and 79 21' and 79 55' E., with an 
area of 574 square miles. Population fell fiom 126,920 in 1891 to 
125,731 in 1901, the decrease being the smallest m the District. 
There are 179 villages and one town, RATH (population, 11,424)5 tne 
tahsll head-quarters. The demand for land revenue in 1904-5 was 
Rs. 2,64,000, and for cesses Rs. 44,000. The density of population, 
219 persons per squaie mile, is the highest in the District The tahsll 
is enclosed on the west by the Dhasan, on the north by the Betwa, and 
on the east by the Birma The centre contains rich black soil , but 
the north-east includes some of the poorest land in the District, and 
ravines occupy a large area. In 1903-4 only 2 square miles were 
irrigated, out of 329 square miles under cultivation. It is proposed to 
irrigate this tahsll by a canal from the Dhasan. 

Rath Town. Head-quarteis of the tahiil of the same name in 
Hamlrpur District, United Provinces, situated in 25 36' N and 
79 34' E., 50 miles bouth-west of Hamlrpur town Population (i 901), 



240 RATH TOWN 

11,424 The early history of the place is uncertain. It stands on 
a site which is evidently of great antiquity; but the Musalmans who 
occupied it early destroyed most of the Hindu buildings. Rath con- 
tains several mosques, temples, and tanks adorned with extensive 
ghats, the finest lake being called Sagar Tal There are ruins of two 
Musalman tombs which were built, probably about the fouiteenth 
century, from fragments of Hindu temples, and also remains of two 
forts built by Bundela chiefs late in the eighteenth century. The town 
is administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of about 
Rs. 3,000. It is the most important mart in the District, and deals 
in gram, cotton, and sugar. There are small industries in weaving, 
dyeing, and saltpetre manufacture , but trade is decreasing. The 
town contains a branch of the American Mission, a dispensary, and a 
school with 189 pupils. 

Rathedaung. Township of Akyab District, Lower Burma, lying 
between 20 15' and 21 27' N. and 92 25' and 92 52' E., with an 
area of 1,269 square miles. The population was 92,933 in 1891, and 
113,098 in 1901. It comprises the whole of the valley of the Mayu 
river, lies for the most part low, and is the most populous and growing 
township in the District. There are 545 villages ; and the head-quarteis 
are at Rathedaung (population, 1,189), on the eastern bank of the 
Mayu river. The area cultivated m 1903-4 was 237 square miles, 
paying Rs 3,67,000 land revenue The township was split up m 1906 
into Rathedaung and BUTHIDAUNG. The reduced charge has an area 
of 506 square miles and a population (1901) of 53,332 

Ratlarn State. A mediatized State m the Mahva Agency of 
Central India. The territory, which lies between 23 6' and 23 33' N 
and 74 31' and 75 17' E., is inextricably intermingled with that of 
SAIL AN A, and boundaries aie in consequence not clearly definable 
Generally speaking, the State touches the territories of Jaora and 
Partabgarh (m Rajputana) on the north } Gwalioi on the east } Dhar 
and Kushalgarh (in Rajputana) and parts of Indore on the south ; and 
Kushalgarh and Banswaia (in Rajputana) on the west. It has an area 
of 902 square miles, of which 501 ha\e been alienated m jdglrs and 
other grants, only 401 squaie miles, or 44 per cent , being khdha or 
directly held by the State. Besides this, 60 villages, with an approxi- 
mate area of 228 square miles, are held by the Rao of Kushalgarh in 
Rajputana, for which a tanka of Rs 600 is paid to the Ratlam Darbar. 

The name is popularly said to be denved from that of Ratan Singh, 
the founder. This is, however, a mistake, as Ratlam was already in 
existence before Ratan Singh obtained it, and is mentioned by Abul 
Fazl in the Ain-i-Akban as one of the mahals m the Ujjam sarkdr 
of the Malwa Subak. 

The State lies geologicall) m the Deccan trap area, and the soil 



RATLAM STATE 241 

is foimed chiefly of the constituents common to this formation, basalt 
predominating, together with the black soil which always accompanies 
it. An outcrop of Vindhyan sandstone occurs close to Ratlam town, 
and is quarried for building purposes. 

The Rajas are Rathor Rajputs of the Jodhpur house, being descended 
from Raja Udai Singh (1584-95), one of whose great-grandsons, Ratan 
Singh, founded the house of Ratlam. The date of Ratan Singh's 
birth is uncertain, but occmred about 1618. The popular tiadition 
which accounts for the rise in favour of Ratan Singh with the emperor 
Shah Jahan tells how, when armed only with a katar (dagger), he 
encountered and slew an infuriated elephant which was causing havoc 
in the streets of Delhi. This deed was witnessed by the emperor, who, 
in reward, granted Ratan Singh &jaglr worth 53 lakhs. In sober fact, 
however, this jdgir appears to have been awarded for good seivice 
against the Usbegs at Kandahar and the Persians in Khorasan in 
1651-2 Ratan Singh vas at the same time made a commander of 
3,000, and granted the usual insignia of royalty and title of Maharaja. 
About six years aftei assuming charge of ihejagir, he was called upon 
to join Raja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur, who was marching to oppose 
Aurangzeb and Muiad In the battle fought at Dharmatpur close to 
Ujjam, in 1658, Ratan Singh was killed. Dharmatpui has since been 
known as Fatehabad, and is now a junction on the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway. Ratan Singh's cenotaph stands near the village As a lesult 
of this action, the foi tunes of the family declined and they lost much 
territory. About the end of the reign of Raja Chhatarsal, one of the 
sons of Ratan Singh, the State became split up into three portions. 
Kesho Das, a nephew of Chhatarsal, obtained possession of SITAMAU, 
Chhatai sal's eldest son Kesri Singh succeeding to Ratlam, and Pratap 
Singh, a younger son of Chhatarsal, obtaining Raoti Dissensions 
arising later on, the empeior intervened and upheld the claim of Man 
Singh, Kesri Singh's son, to the State. Man Singh then conferied the 
jdgir of Raoti on his brother Jai Singh, who founded the SAILANA 
State. In the eighteenth century the country was overrun by the 
Maralhas, and Raja Padam Singh became tributary to Sindhia 
Fuithei incurious by Jaswant Rao Holkai made punctual payment 
of Smdma's tribute impossible, and Bapu Sindhia, who had been sent 
to enforce its payment, ravaged the State Raja Parvat Singh, driven 
to desperation, determined to resort to arms, and inflicted a severe 
defeat on Sindhia. Subsequent bloodshed was aveited by the inter- 
vention of Sir John Malcolm, who in 1819 mediated on behalf of the 
State, and guaranteed the payment of the tribute of Rs. 46,000 due to 
Sindhia, on which that chief agreed not to interfere in any way with 
the internal management of Ratlam. This tribute is now paid to the 
British Government under the treaty made with Sindhia in 1860. Raja 



242 RATLAM STATE 

Balwant Singh was on the gaddi during the Mutiny, when he rendered 
conspicuous services, in recognition of which his successoi received 
a khilat and the thanks of Government, The late chief, Ranjlt Singh, 
succeeded in 1864 as a minor, the State lemammg undei superinten- 
dence till 1880. By careful management the 10 lakhs of debt with 
which the State had been burdened was paid off, and 6 lakhs in 
addition was spent m improvements. In 1864 an arrangement was 
made for the cession, free of compensation, of all land required by 
railways. In 1881 all transit dues on salt weie abolished by Raja 
Ranjlt Singh, compensation to the extent of Rs. 1,000 per annum being 
allowed; and in 1885 the chief abolished all lemaming transit dues, 
except those on opium. By an arrangement made in 1887 regarding 
the collection of customs in Sailana, the Ratlam Darbar, in considera- 
tion of the payment of a fixed sum yearly, waived its right to levy the 
dues in Sailana territory. Raja Ranjlt Singh was created a K.C.I.E. 
in 1887, and died in 1893, when his son, the present chief, Raja 
Sajjan Singh, succeeded. He was educated at the Daly College at 
Indore, and in 1903 joined the Imperial Cadet Corps. The State 
remained under management till 1898. The chief has the titles of 
His Highness and Raja, and receives a salute of n guns. 

The population of the State was . (1881) 87,314, (1891) 89,160, and 
(1901) 83,773. It contains one town, RATLAM (population, 36,321), the 
capital, and 206 villages. Hindus numbei 52,288, or 62 per cent. , 
Ammists (chiefly Bolls), 14,002, or 16 per cent , Musalmans, 10,693, 
or 12 pei cent. , and Jams, 6,452. The total population has decreased 
by 6 per cent, during the last decade, while the rural population has 
decreased by 17-6 per cent, owing to the effects of famine. The 
density of population, excluding the town of Ratlam, is 54 persons pei 
square mile. The principal dialect is Malwl (or Rangrl), spoken by 
70 per cent of the population About 40 pei cent, of the total are 
supported by agriculture and 12 per cent by general labour. The 
Canadian Presbyterian Mission has a station in the capital. The 
State was attacked by plague in 1902, 1,849 deaths occurring m the 
town between November of that year and Maich, 1903. In 1904 there 
were 2,000 deaths fiom the same cause. 

The soil of the plateau portion of the State is mainly of the black 
cotton variety, and bears good crops. Of the total area, 182 square 
miles, or 20 per cent, are under cultivation, n square miles being 
irrigated ; 55 square miles, or 6 per cent., are under forest ; and 388 
square miles, or 43 per cent., cultivable but lying fallow } the remainder 
is irreclaimable waste 

Wheat occupies 54 square miles, or 24 per cent, of the total cropped 
axes. , jowdr, 46 square miles, or 21 per cent. , maize, 25 square miles, 
or ii per cent. ; gram, 23 square miles, or 10 per cent., cotton, 



RATLAM STATE 243 

23 square miles, or 10 per cent. ; poppy, n square miles, or 5 per 
cent. 

The chief trade routes are the Ratlam-Godhra branch of the Bom- 
bay, Baroda, and Central India Railway and the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway. There are about 14 miles of metalled roads in and around 
Ratlam town. The other metalled roads in the State are 25 miles of 
the Mhow-Nimach road, and 8 miles of the Namli-Sailana road. 
British post offices are maintained at Ratlam town and railway station, 
and at Namli station, and a telegraph office at Ratlam, combined with 
the post office, as well as at all railway stations. 

The State is, for administrative purposes, divided into two tahsils, 
Ratlam and Bajna, each under a tahslldar. It is administered directly 
by the chief, assisted by the dlwdn and the usual departmental officers 
The chief has full powers in all civil and general administrative matters 
In criminal cases his powers are those of a Sessions Court, subject to 
the proviso that all sentences involving death, transportation, or im- 
prisonment for life must be referred to the Agent to the Governor- 
General for confiimation. 

The normal revenue amounts to 5 lakhs, of which 2-9 lakhs is derived 
from land; Rs, 67,000 from customs, Rs. 34,300 from tribute paid by 
feudatory thdkurs , and Rs. 1,000 from compensation paid by the British 
jpkfvernment for abolition of tiansit dues on salt. The income of 
alienated lands is 4-4 lakhs The chief heads of expenditure are : 
charges m lespect of land revenue, Rs. 42,500 , chief's establishment, 
Rs. 56,000 ', general administration, Rs. 65,600 ; police, Rs. 72,400, 
tribute to British Government, Rs. 42,700, public works, Rs 20,000. 

Of the total area of the State, 456 square miles, or 51 pei cent, 
have been alienated in jdglr holdings, which comprise 124 square 
miles, or 68 per cent, of the total cultivated area, but contribute only 
Rs. 34,300 towards the revenue. The incidence of the land revenue 
demand is Rs. 4-11-3 per acre of cultivated area, and R. i on the 
total area Proprietary rights in land are not recognized. The system 
of farming villages previously in force throughout the State is now 
applied only to villages which cannot be managed directly owing to 
paucity of cultivators. An assessment by the plough (hdl) called 
hdlbandi is made in the hilly tract The revenue of khalsa lands is 
assessed according to the nature of the soil and its capability for being 
irrigated 

The first settlement for revenue purposes was made in 1867 for ten 
years, the demand being 8-2 lakhs, and each village being regularly 
surveyed In 1877 a fresh survey was made, the average rates per 
acre were Rs 28 for irrigated and Rs. 3-13 foi 'dry' land, showing 
an increase in the demand of 31 per cent A third settlement was 
started in 1895, but was never completed 



244 RATLAM STATE 

The State has never had a silver coinage of its own, and before the 
introduction of the British rupee as legal tender, in 1897, carried on 
its transactions in various local currencies, the commonest being the 
Bahm shahi rupee coined in Partabgarh (Rajputana). Copper has 
long been coined, and is still issued. 

The State army consists of a body of regular cavalry of 12 men, 
who form the chiefs personal guard, and of 100 regular infantry 
(itlangas\ who furnish guards for the palace and offices. About 100 
irregular cavalry and 115 irregular infantry act as police Theie are 
5 serviceable guns, manned by 12 gunners. The regular police force 
consists of 235 men under a superintendent for the town, and 197 con- 
stables for rural areas. The head-quarters jail is in Ratlam town, while 
a local jail is maintained at Bajna. 

The first State school for boys was opened in 1864 In 1870 a girls' 
school was started, and in 1872 the Ratlam Central College. A hospital 
is kept up in Ratlam town and a dispensary at Bajna Vaccination is 
regularly carried out. 

Ratlam Town. Capital of the State of the same name in Cential 
India, situated in 23 19' N and 75 3' E., 411 miles distant from 
Bombay The town stands at an elevation of 1,577 feet above sea- 
level, and is clean and well laid out. It contains no buildings of 
any importance, the most imposing edifice being the Raja's palace. 
A large number of Jam religious establishments (thdnaK) exist in 
the place. Population has been (1881) 31,066, (1891) 29,822, and 
(1901) 36,321. Hindus form 60 per cent of the total, Musalmans, 
29 per cent , and Jams, n per cent. Christians numbei as many as 
282, owing to the presence of the Canadian Presbyterian Mission settle- 
ment The addition of the population within railway limits increases 
the number of Christians to 429. Besides the Central College there 
are 50 other educational establishments, State and private, in the 
town, The chief public buildings are the Bntish post and telegraph 
office, a ^-bungalow, and a State guesthouse. The last building 
is situated in the centre of a public garden, where a small zoological 
collection is kept up, Ratlam is the junction for the Rajputana-Malwa 
Railway and the Ratlam-Baroda branch of the Bombay, Baioda, and 
Central India Railway. 

Ratnagiri District. A District in the Southern Division of the 
Bombay Presidency, lying between 15 44' and 18 4' N and 73 2' 
a nd 73 57' E, with an area of 3,998 square miles. It is bounded 
on the north by the State of Janjlra and Kolaba District ; on the 
east by Satara District and the State of Kolhapur, on the south 
by the State of Savantvadi and the Portuguese Possessions of Goa ; 
and on the west by the Arabian Sea. 

Ratnagiri may be described generally as rocky and rugged. Near 



RATNAGIRI DISTRICT 245 

the coast it consists of bare elevated plateaux, intersected by numerous 
creeks and navigable rivers, flowing between steep and lofty hills. 
These rivers have along their banks the chief seaports 
and almost all the fertile land of the District. Ten 
miles or so inland the country becomes more open, 
but a little farther it is occupied by spurs of the Western Ghats. This 
range itself forms the continuous eastern boundary, running parallel to 
the coast, at distances varying from 30 to 45 miles. It varies in height 
fiom 2,000 to 3,000 feet, though some of the peaks attain an altitude 
of 4,000 feet 

Both above and below the main lange the massive basaltic rocks 
that crown the Western Ghats can, with little aid from art, be turned 
into nearly impregnable fortresses with a liberal supply of the finest 
water from the springs with which the hills abound The hills are 
crossed by numerous passes, which, except the made roads, form the 
only means of communication with the Deccan. The crests of these 
passes command some of the most magnificent scenery in India The 
lower hills are for the most part bare Those deserving mention are 
beginning from the north, the hog-backed Mandangarh, a ruined fort 
m Dapoli commanding a view of Mahabaleshwar , south of this, also in 
Dapoli, Palgarh } farther south, in Khed, the three isolated hills of 
Mahlpatgarh, Sumargarh, and Rasalgarh, passing south to Lanja in 
Rajapur, Machal, a triangular hill, close to the old fort of Vishalgarh, 
ends in a broad plateau fit for a sanitarium 

The character of the streams that form the river system of Ratnagiri 
varies little They rise in the main range, or in the spurs of the 
Western Ghats, and traversing the country along narrow deep-cut 
ravines enter the Arabian Sea after winding courses of seldom more 
than 40 miles The geneial flow is from east to west, with sometimes 
a tendency to the south. The abruptness of then windings is a notable 
feature of the Ratnagiri nveis Though of comparatively small size 
and volume and ill-suited for irrigation, they are of great local value, 
being navigable for 20 miles or more and having estuaries affording 
safe anchorage for coasting craft. 

The sea-boaid, about 160 miles in length, from Bankot or Fort 
Victoria to a point 2 miles south of Redi Fort, is almost uniformly 
rocky and dangerous. It consists of a series of small bays and coves 
shut in between jutting headlands, and edged with sand of dazzling 
whiteness. At places the hills recede a little, leaving at their base 
a rich tract of rice-fields, with generally a strip of coco-nut gardens 
between them and the beach. At intervals of about 10 miles, a river 
or bay opens, sufficiently large to form a secure harbour for native 
craft ; and the promontories at the river mouths are almost invariably 
crowned with the lumb of an old fort. At Suvarndrug and Malvan 



246 RATNAGIRI DISTRICT 

rocky islands stand out from the mainland, still preserving the remains 
of strong Maratha fortifications. The larger rivers and creeks have 
deep water for 20 or 30 miles from the coast, and many of the most 
important towns are situated at their farthest navigable point, for in so 
rough a country the rivers form the best highways of trade. 

The District contains no natural lakes and but few artificial reservoirs 
of any size, the most notable being those at Dhamapur, Varad, and 
Pendur in Mai van and at Chiplun in the Chiplun tdhtka. 

Ratnagm is occupied almost entirely by the basaltic formation of the 
Deccan tiap overlaid with latente, except in the southernmost portion 
near Mai van, where a substiatum of gneiss and of Cuddapah beds 
appears from beneath the basalt and latente Teitiary beds containing 
fossil plants, the exact age of which is unknown, occur at Ratnagin. 
The remaikably rectilinear sea-coast piobably indicates a fault line of 
comparatively modern origin, and the numerous hot springs which 
occur m and along a line parallel with the coast may be connected with 
the formation of this fault. The line of springs runs half-way between 
the Western Ghats and the sea, and seems to stretch both north and 
south of the District. There are similar springs near the towns of 
RAJAPUR, Khed, and Sangameshwar, and at the villages of Arvalh and 
Tural. The water of all of them seems strongly impregnated with 
sulphur. 

The chief trees of the District are teak, am, kmjal, catechu, shlsham 
(Dalbergia Sissoo\ mana (Lager stroemta lanceolatd)^ taman (Lager- 
stroemia Flos Reginae), and bamboos Casuarma has been planted in 
the Dapoh tdluka , and plantations of this tiee would probably thrive 
on the sandhills of the sea-board. From an economic point of view, 
the coco-nut palm is the most important tree m the District. 
Brahmans and Marathas either cultivate it themselves or rent it to 
Bhandans to be tapped for fan. 

Game is scarce in Ratnagin Distuct Tigers, sdmbar deei, and 
beais are few, and have then haunts in the most inaccessible localities 
Leopards are not uncommon , wild hog are plentiful, but owing to the 
nature of the ground hunting them on horseback is impossible. Small 
deer, antelope, haies, jackals, and foxes abound Monkeys of the 
langur species are to be seen about all towns and villages The flying- 
fox (or fruit-bat) and musk-rat are common every wheie The beais aie 
the usual Indian black or sloth species , they inhabit the upper slopes 
of the Ghats, living mostly on their favourite food, the fiuit of the wild 
fig-tree. Wolves are unknown, but packs of wild dogs have been seen. 
As regards its game-birds, Ratnagin is an indiffeient sporting country , 
partndges, grouse, and bustaid are wanting, while quail are scarce. 
Duck, snipe, and plover are plentiful. Among buds of picy, the 
vulture, the falcon, the eagle, and the ospiey are found Owls are 



HISTORY 247 

common, as also swallows, kingfishers, and parakeets Snakes are 
abundant, of both venomous and harmless kinds The python is 
stated to measure 10 to 20 feet, but the species is only occasionally 
met with The rock snake, dhatnan (Ptyas mucosus\ and the brown 
tree snake are general. The cobra (Naga, tripudians) is frequently 
killed in human habitations. Owing to its nocturnal habits, it is not 
often seen by daylight. The fursa (Echis carmata\ identical with the 
kappa of Smd, is by far the most common of the venomous snakes 
found in the District, and is veiy dangerous. Ratnagin is well supplied 
with sea-fish, and in a less degree with fresh-water fish. Sharks 
are numerous, and whales are sometimes seen off the sea-board. 
Sardines swarm on the coast at certain seasons in such abundance as 
to be used for manure. 

The climate of the District, though moist and relaxing, is on the 
whole healthy. Fifteen miles from the coast extremes of cold and heat 
are experienced. Dapoh is generally considered the healthiest station 
in the District, on account of its equable temperature, excellent 
drinking-water, and the fine open plain on which it stands. The mean 
annual temperature of Ratnagin town on the sea-coast is 83 and of 
Dapoh, 57 miles from the coast, 87. At the former town the tem- 
perature falls as low as 61 in January, and reaches 93 in May From 
February to the middle of May strong gusty winds blow from the 
north-west, which then give place to the south-west monsoon. 

The rainfall is abundant and comparatively regular. The south-west 
monsoon usually breaks on the coast early in June, and the rams 
continue to the middle or end of October. The fall of ram averages 
100 inches at Ratnagin and is considerably greater inland than on the 
coast The maximum is 166 inches in the Mandangarh petka, and 
the minimum 95 inches in the Devgarh taluka. The cyclone of 1871 
swept up the coast with great violence and wrecked numerous small 
native craft and a steamer, besides causing much damage to houses. 
Another very violent storm occuried in 1879, in which 150 native 
vessels were wrecked, with a loss of over 200 lives and about 3 lakhs 
worth of cargo. 

The Chiplun and Kol caves show that between 200 B c and A.D. 50 
noithern Ratnagin had Buddhist settlements of some importance. 
The country subsequently passed under several History. 
Hindu dynasties, of whom the Chalukyas were the 
most powerful. In 1312 Ratnagin was overrun by the Muhammadans, 
who established themselves at Dabhol, but the rest of the country 
was practically unsubdued till 1470, when the Bahmam kings gained 
a complete ascendancy by the capture of Vishalgarh and Goa. About 
1500 the whole of the Konkan south of the Savitri came under Bijapur 
rule; and, later, war with the Portuguese wrought grievous loss to 



248 RATNAGTRT DISTRICT 

Dabhol and other coast towns. The decline of the Portuguese power 
was accompanied by the rise of that of the Maiathas, who under 
Sivaji established themselves in Ralnagui (1658-80), defeating the 
Bijapur armies, repelling the Mughals, and overcoming the Sidis and 
Portuguese For some years after this the Sidis held possession of 
part of the Distnct. The successes of the pirate Kfmhojl Angna led 
to his appointment as admiral of the Maratha fleet, and obtaining part 
of Ratnagiri as his principality, In 1745 Tulaji Angna, one of his 
illegitimate sons, succeeded to the lands between Bankot and Savant- 
vadi, disavowed the Peshwa's authonty, and seized and plundered all 
the ships he could master. The Biitish, in conjunction with the 
Peshwa, in 1755 destroyed the piratical forts at Suvarnclrug. The 
following year, after the destruction of the whole of Angna's fleet, 
Vijayadrug was taken. For these services Bankot with nine villages 
was ceded to the British. In 1765 Malvan and Reddi were reduced 
The former was restored to the Raja of Kolhapur, and Rcclch was 
given to the chief of Savant vadi The wais between Kolhapm and 
Savantvadi, carried on for twenty-thiee yeais with varying success, 
thiew the countiy into gieat disoidei, as each party in turn became 
supreme They finally entered into agreements with the British 
Government, and ceded Malvan and Vengurla, and arrangements were 
made for the cession of the Peshwa's dominions in Ratnagiri. But 
war breaking out in 1817, the country was occupied by a military force, 
and the forts were speedily reduced A small detachment was landed 
at Ratnagiri during the Mutiny, but no disturbance occurred Since 
the third Burmese War, king Thibaw has been detained there as 
a state prisoner. 

Ratnagiri contains many forts, some standing on islands, others on 
headlands and the banks of riveis, while inland natural positions of 
advantage have been stiengthened. The age of most of the forts is 
hard to fix Some of them, as Mandangarh, may be as old as the 
Christian era , but of this the evidence is very slight. Many aie said 
to have been built by Raja Bhoj of Panhala at the end of the twelfth 
century But most are supposed to be the work of the Bijapur kings 
in the sixteenth century, repaired and strengthened in the seven- 
teenth by Sivajl. Like those of the North Konkan, the Ratnagiri forts 
were neglected by the Peshwas. In 1818, except for the labour of 
bringing guns to bear on them, they were easily taken by the British 
Nothing was done to destroy the fortifications. But except a few, all 
are now, from weather and the growth of creepers and wall trees, more 
or less ruined. There are said to be 365 forts in the District 

Ratnagiri also contains other Hindu and Musalman remains. The 
chief are the underground temple of Chandikabai ; an old shrine of 
Sangameshwar, which is locally believed to date from Parasu Rama's 



POPULATION 



249 



time, and the mosque of Dabhol, in a style similar to that of the 
Bijapur mosques. In Kharepatan is the only Jain temple found in 
the Southern Konkan. Copperplates of the Rashtrakuta dynasty were 
found here In the temple in Sindhudrug fort near Malvan there is an 
effigy of Sivaji held in the greatest veneration Prints of SivajT's hands 
and feet which appear m the stone walls aie held in reverence and 
protected by small temples Monday is the chief day of Sivaji's 
worship, and the Kolhapur chief sends turbans and other presents. 

The Census of 1872 disclosed a total population of 1,019,136 
persons _, that of 1881, 997,090 , that of 1891, 
1,105,926; and that of 1901, 1,167,927. 

The following table shows the distribution of population according 
to the Census of 1901 



Population. 





c3 
s 


Number of 


g 


Sj 


<y Z ON ^ 















o S 


rt M c? 


fe'rf +- 


Taluka 


si 





cd 


1 


a| 


Iclii 


lug 




< 


O 


$ 


fS 


" 


& " ^ u 


^1^ 


Dapoli 


500 


2 


243 


154,628 


309 


2 


6j999 


Khed 


39 2 




I 4 6 


95>594 


244 


5 


3,262 


Chiplun 


671 


1 


208 


190,746 


284 


+ 3 


9,500 


Ratnagm . 


4*5 


I 


147 


147,182 


355 


+ 8 




Sangameshwar 


576 




190 


129,412 


225 


+ 2 


4,129 


Rajapur . 


616 


I 


181 


153,808 


250 


+ 9 


6,595 


Devgarh 


5 2J i 




119 


143.750 


274 


+ 12 


8,280 


Malvan 


238 


I 


58 


107,944 


454 


+ 17 


9.539 


Vengurla 


65 


I 


9 


44,863 


690 


+ 14 


5.879 


District total 


3,998 


7 


1,301 


1,167,927 


292 


+ 6 


61,446 



The principal towns are MALVAN, VENGURLA, RATNAGIRI (the head- 
quarters), and CHIPLUN MarathI (including the Konkani dialect) is 
spoken by 99 per cent of the population. Classified according to re- 
ligion, Hindus form 92 pei cent of the total and Musalmans 7 per cent. 

The Konkanasth or Chitpavan Brahmans (31,000) and the Karhadas 
(14,000) form the major portion of the Brahman population (68,000). 
The Chitpavans, so called from Chitapolan, the old name of Chiplun, 
are acute and intelligent, and rose to great prominence in the days of 
Maratha power, the Peshwa himself being a Chitpavan Brahman The 
Karhadas are named after KARAD in Satara District Yarns (36,000) 
are the most numerous of the trading castes } but the Bhatias, who have 
settled in the District within the last seventy years from Bombay and 
Cntch, are the most enterprising Of husbandmen, the majority are 
Marathas and Maratha Kunbis (287,000), Shindes (13,000), who are 
descendants of Brahmans and female slaves, and Gaudas (11,000), 
who seem to be a class of Marathas formerly holding the position of 
village headmen The Bhandaris or palm-tappers (86,000) are chiefly 



250 RATNAGIRI DISTRICT 

found along the coast They were formeily employed as fighting men, 
and are referred to in the early records of the British in Bombay as 
4 Bhandareens.' Of artisans, the chief are Telis or oil-pressers (20,000), 
Sutars or carpenters (18,000), Sonars or goldsmiths (16,000), and 
Kumhars or potters (13,000) Guravs, wandering musicians (19,000), 
are found throughout the District. Gauhs (15,000), aie cattle-keepers, 
and Gabits (19,000) mostly sea- fishers and sailors The other sailors 
and fishermen are either Muhammadans or Hindus of the Bhandan 
and Koll castes. They are distinguished by their independent habits 
and character, and are in better circumstances than the agricultuial 
population. Chamars (12,000) are shoemakers and saddlers. Raja- 
pur Chamars have a local reputation for their skill in making sandals. 
Mahars (90,000) are found throughout the District Of the Muham- 
madans, the most noticeable are those known in Bombay undei the 
general name of Konkani Muhammadans, whose head-quarteis aie at 
Bankot. They hold a few rich villages on the Savitrl nver, and say 
that they aie descended from Arab settlers at Dabhol, Chaul, and 
other towns in the Konkan. Some of them can give particulars of 
the immigration of their forefathers, and the features of many have 
a distinctly Arab cast 

About 76 per cent, of the population are supported by agriculture. 
The industrial classes, numbering in all 75,000, aie mainly toddy- 
drawers (4,600), weavers (6,000), and fishermen including fish-dealers 
(44,000) Under British rule, the Southern Konkan has always been 
the great recruiting ground of the Bombay Presidency. To Ratnagin's 
clever, pushing upper classes, to its frugal, teachable middle classes,, 
and to its sober, sturdy, and orderly lower classes Bombay city owes 
many of its ablest officials and lawyers, its earliest and cleverest factory 
workers, its most useful soldiers and constables, and its cheapest and 
most trusty supply of unskilled laboui In 1872 Bombay city con- 
tained 71,000 persons born in Ratnagin District, while by 1901 the 
number had increased to 145,000 About the year 1864, before 
Bombay offered so large a market for labour, numbers went from 
Ratnagin to Mauritius ; but this emigration has almost entirely ceased 

Of the 4,929 native Christians enumerated in 1901, 4,232 were 
Roman Catholics, chiefly descended from the wholesale conversions 
made during the time of Portuguese domination After the introduction 
of British rule the Scottish Missionary Society was the first to establish 
a mission, choosing Bankot as their station, to which they soon aftei 
added Harnai. In 1830 the mission head-quarters were moved to 
Poona, and in 1834 the Ratnagiri mission was abandoned. About 
twenty-five years later the American Presbyterian Board constituted 
Ratnagiri a station of the Kolhapur mission. At present Dapoli is the 
head-quarters of the Church of England Mission, established in 1878, 



AGRICULTURE 



251 



which maintains two orphanages, one for boys with 25 inmates and one 
for girls with 14, a high school with 159 pupils, and a vernacular school 
with 23 pupils. It also manages two vernaculai schools for girls with 
69 pupils The American Presbyterian Mission, with its head-quarters 
at Ratnagm, maintains five schools with 200 pupils, including one for 
girls, an orphanage containing 32 boys and 32 girls, and a home for 
destitute widows with 13 inmates It opened a branch at Vengurla 
in 1900. A considerable number of native Christians are found in 
Harnai, Malvan, Vengurla, and other coast towns. 

Fertile land is found along the banks of the rivers or salt-water 
creeks in the neighbourhood of the sea ; but the soil is generally poor, 
consisting in great measure of a stiff feirugmous clay, ^ gricu iture. 
often mixed with gravel Neither wheat nor cotton 
is grown. There are several coco-nut plantations in the District, and 
san-hemp is grown by the fishermen for net-making. The better kinds 
of rice land produce also second crops of some description of pulse or^ 
vegetable By far the greater propoition of the food-crops consist of 
inferior coarse grains, such as harik, rdgi, and van, grown on varkas 
soil in the uplands. The varkas lands may be divided into the more 
level parts, ;///, where the plough can be used , and the steeper slopes, 
d-ongri) admitting only of cultivation by manual labour. The best of 
the poorer soils bear crops for five or six successive years, and then 
require a fallow of from three to twelve years. 

The District contains 521 square miles held on the ryotwari system , 
khots, who rent villages from Government, occupy 269 squaie miles, 
while mam and jdglr lands measure 367 square miles. The chief 
statistics of cultivation in 1903-4 are shown below, in square miles . 



Tdluka 


Total area 


Cultivated 


Irrigated 


Cultivable 
waste 


Forests 1 


Dapoli . 


499 


62 


I 


26 


07 

i- Q 


Khed 


39 2 


35 




28 


7 s 


Chiplun 


671 


19 




7 


-., 


Ratnagm 


415 


68 


I 


48 


4 


Sangamebhwar 


5^9 


53 




25 


4 7 


Rajapur 


616 


57 


1 


45 


O 2 


Devgarh 


526 


41 


l 


36 




Malvan 


2"^8 


135 


8 


6^ 


I-O 


Vengurla 


65 


4 


3 


18 




Total 


3.99't 


560 


15 


298 


I 4 .8 



* The area coveied by forests is about 10 acres in the Vengurla and Devgarh 

'^Statistics are available for only 3, 108 square miles of this area The figures in the 
table are based on the latest information 

Rice, almost entirely of the < sweet land ' variety, occupies jibout 
290 square miles. It is an important crop in the southern tdlukas, 
especially in Malvan. Next in importance come ragi, kodra, and van] 

VOL. xxi. K 



2 5 2 RATNAGIRI DISTRICT 

occupying 48, 33, and 21 square miles respectively. These grains are 
eaten by the poorer classes. Of pulses, which occupy 24 square miles, 
the chief is kuhth (16 square miles), grown in the southern portion of 
the District, especially in Malvan. Oilseeds, chiefly mger-seed, occupy 
12 square miles Chillies are raised in small quantities as a 'dry- 
season ' crop. Sugar-cane is cultivated in all parts of the District, 
except Khed and Chiplun. Tag or san-hemp (3 square miles) occupies 
a considerable area, and is used chiefly for making fishing-nets, twine, 
ropes, gunny, and paper. The remaining agricultural products of the 
District are coco-nuts and areca-nuts, both of which are exported in 
considerable quantities. 

Since 1818 experiments have been undertaken with a view to intro- 
ducing the cultivation of cotton into the District, but without success. 
The only real improvement of late years has been the conversion of 
considerable areas of inferior soil into rice and garden land. Undei 
the Land Improvement and Agriculturists' Loans Acts over 1-5 lakhs 
has been advanced to cultivators since 1894-5. Of this sum, Rs, 
34,000 \\as lent in 1896-7, Rs. 25,000 in 1899-1900, and Rs. 22,000 
in 1900-1. 

The pasturage of the District being pooi and devoid of nutiimenl, 
the local breed of cattle is infenor. Sheep imported from the grazing 
grounds above the Ghats detenorate rapidly, and horses quickly lose 
condition. Goats, though of inferior breed, appear to thrive. The 
only imported breed of cows 01 buffaloes is from Jafarabad in South 
Kathiawar. Sheep are kept by butchers and goats by Brahmans for 
milk , no care is bestowed on their breeding. Donkeys are rarely 
kept by any but the \agrant tribes. 

Of the total cultivated area in 1903-4, only 15 square miles, or 
o 3 per cent , were irrigated, the areas from various sources being 
tanks i square mile, wells 7 squaie mileb, and othei sources 7 square 
miles. Of the irrigated area, nearly 5 square miles \veie under rice, 
Irrigation is chiefly from wells and watercouises, as the tidal influence 
passes so far inland as to make the rivers useless for irrigation. The 
District contains 6,501 wells and 43 tanks used for irrigation. No 
ponds or reservoirs are large enough to be used in watering fields, 
except a few in Malvan 

In the early days of British occupation, the region round Bankot 
creek was clothed with fine teakwood. Curved teak logs, known as 
' Bankot knees,' weie largely exported to Bombay ^ and from Bankot 
came most of the stout ribs and fiame\\orks of the old Indian navy. 
The Marathas had shipbuilding yards at Malvan and Vijayadrug, and 
showed a prudent regard for forest preservation. After the transfer of 
the District fiom the Peshwa m 1818, cultivation greatly increased, and 
the larger part of the District was laid bare. In 1829 the forests were 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 253 

left to the people for unrestricted use , and in consequence enormous 
quantities of timber were felled and dispatched to the Bombay market. 
The effect of this treatment has left Ratnagiri denuded of forest to 
the present day. The village groves along the coast are well supplied 
with mango, oil-nut (Calophyllnm Inophylluni), and jack-trees. Active 
measures of late years have been adopted to preserve and extend the 
forest area The District contains 19 * square miles of forest, the whole 
of which is ' reserved ' and is in charge of the Revenue department. 
The Government Reserves are in the Dapoli, Khed, Rajapur, and 
Malvan tdlukas. The receipts m 1903-4 from the sale of teak and 
firewood m Ratnagiri District were Rs. 1,000, out of a total revenue 
of Rs. 1,200. 

According to a legend, the truth of which is rendered piobable by 
the piesence of quartz, gold used to be extracted near Phonda, at the 
foot of the Western Ghats. In the south very pure specular iron is 
associated in small quantities with the quartz rock. All the latente of 
the District is charged with iron, though m proportions too small to 
make it woith smelting. Near Malvan non is found in detached 
masses on the tops of hills In former times the Malvan mines and 
those of Gothna, a village above the Ghats, weie much worked , and 
as late as 1844 the smelting of non was carried on at Masuia, Kalavali, 
Varangaon, and some other villages The other mineral products are 
talc, stone for road-metal, sand, clay, and lime. 

Agriculture is the chief industry, but in a few towns and villages 
saris and coaise woollen blankets are woven. In the town of Rajapur 
gulal (red powder) is made. In Vijayadrug, Dev- 
garh, and a few of the neighbouring villages bison 
horn is worked up into ornaments, while Ratnagiri 
town is celebrated for the inlaid furniture made at its school of industry. 
Two oil-presses, one at Chiplun and the other at Malvan, appear to 
work profitably, A few cups and bowls of soapstone are also made m 
the Malvan tdluka. At Shiroda are 27 salt-works producing about 
56,000 maunds of salt. 

In the seventeenth century the pepper and cardamom trade brought 
English traders to Rajapur, and there was also some traffic in calico, 
silk, and gram. During the disorders of Maratha rule trade declined., 
and in 1819 there was very little except imports of salt and exports of 
grain. At present gram, cotton, and sugar are brought down from 
beyond the Ghats to the sea-coast for exportation by bullock-carts, 
which usually return with a freight of coco-nuts, salt, and dried fish. 
Steamers from Bombay call regularly at the ports in the fair season, 
bringing piece-goods and stores, and taking back coco-nuts, rice, and 
areca-nuts from Vengurla and Ratnagiri. The local shipping traffic has 
1 Thib figure la taken from the Forest Administration Report for 1903-4. 

R 2 



254 RATNAGIRI DISTRICT 

suffered through the competition of steamers ; but a large trade is still 
carried on by this means with the Malabar coast, Cutch, Kathiawar, 
and Karachi. 

The Ratnagin sea-board contains thirteen ports and harbours. They 
are of two classes ; coast poits on sheltered bays and river mouths ; and 
inland ports up tidal creeks, generally at the point where navigation 
ceases. Bankot, Harnai, Devgarh, Dabhol, Sangameshwar, Ratnagin, 
Rajapur, Mai van, and Vengurla aie places of some trade and con- 
sequence; the rest are insignificant The ports are grouped for 
customs purposes into seven divisions Anjanvel, Bankot, Jaitapur, 
Malvan, Ratnagin, Shiroda, and Vengurla. The total value of the 
sea-borne trade of the ports in the District amounted m 1876 to 23 
lakhs, of which 9 lakhs represented the exports and 14 lakhs the 
impoits; and m 1903-4 to 68 lakhs exports, and 99 lakhs imports. 

In 1852 there were not even bullock-tracks from many villages to 
the nearest market towns, and the produce sent for sale was carried 
upon men's heads, Of late years many improvements have been made. 
In 1903-4 there were 479 miles of metalled roads and 790 miles of 
unmetalled roads in the District. Of these, 394 miles of metalled 
road are maintained by the Public Works department, and the 
remainder by the local authorities. Avenues of trees are planted 
along 257 miles. The main road runs north and south, passing through 
the chief inland trade centres and crossing the different rivers above 
the limit of navigation From it cait-roads lead to the four chief 
openings across the Ghats. During the fair season the District is 
served by steamers of the Bombay Steam Navigation Company, while 
in the monsoon communication is maintained via the Amba ghat and 
the Southern Mahratta Railway 

Since the beginning of British rule there has been no year of distress 
so severe and general as to amount to famine. Of only two of the 
older famines, those of 1790 and 1802-3, does an y 
information remain Both of thebe seem to have 
been felt all over the Konkan. In 1824 a very light rainfall was 
followed by a complete failure of crops m high grounds and a partial 
failure in low rice lands In 1876 an insufficient rainfall caused a 
serious loss of crops, but not actual famine. Public health was bad, 
and there was considerable distress, Rs. 77,000 being spent on relief 
works. An unusual demand for labour sprang up in and near Bombay 
city; and it was estimated that at least 150,000 (double the usual 
number) of the poorer workers moved to Bombay for part of the fair 
season, and returned with savings enough to last them till the next 
harvest. 

The District is subdivided into 9 tdlukas : VENGURLA, MALVAN, 
DEVGARH, RAJAPUR, RATNAGIRI, SANGAMESHWAR, CHIPLUN, KHED, 



ADMINISTRA TIOJV 2 5 5 

and DAPOLI. Chiplun includes the petty subdivision (petka) of 
Guhagar, and Dapoh that of Mandangarh. The Collector usually 

has three Assistants, of whom one is a member of 

,i T , /-^ i o Administration. 

the Indian Civil Service. 

The District Judge, with whom are associated two Assistant Judges, 
sits at Ratnagiri, and is assisted by ten Subordinate Judges, of whom 
two sit at Ratnagiri, two at Chiplun, and two at Rajapur. The Khed 
tahtka alone has no Subordinate Judge. Original civil suits are heard 
by the Subordinate Judges, and appellate jurisdiction is exercised by 
the District Judge and his Assistants. There are 28 officers to ad- 
minister criminal justice in the District. Crime is remarkably light; 
and such offences as occur are of a comparatively trifling nature and 
usually arise from disputes about land, which is very much subdivided 
and is eagerly sought after. 

In 1819 the South Konkan was formed into a sepaiate District, 
with Bankot as its head-quarters, which in 1822 were removed to 
Ratnagiri, as being a more central and convenient place. In 1830 
the three talukas north of Bankot were transferred to the North 
Konkan, and Ratnagiri reduced to the rank of a sub-collectorate. But 
in 1832 it was again made a District. 

The land tenures of Ratnagiri differ from those of the Presidency 
generally, in that there is a class of large landholders, called khots> 
in the position of middlemen between Government and the actual 
cultivators. The majority of the villages in the District are held on 
the khoti tenure, under which the khot makes himself responsible for 
the payment of the assessment The khot is really a limited pro- 
prietor. He has the right to hold villages on payment in instalments 
of the lump assessment fixed by Government on all the village lands, 
the villages being liable to attachment if the amount is unpaid. He 
can lease lands in which there is no right of permanent occupancy on 
his own terms, and has a right to all lands lapsing by absence or 
failure of permanent occupants. The khot's tenants pay him such 
fixed amount, either in money or kind, as they may have agreed to 
pay ; and in cases of default the khot receives assistance from Govern- 
ment in recovering such dues. Some of the khoti grants date back 
to the time of the Bijapui kings, and were made to Muhammadans, 
Marathas, and other Hindus alike. In 1829 the khots were well off, 
and many of them were men of capital, who laid out money in bring- 
ing new land under tillage. On the other hand, the tenants were 
deep in their debt, and wholly at their mercy , and the first efforts 
of Government were directed to ascertain the extent of the relative 
rights of the khots and their tenants. In 1851 it was found that the 
tenants were extremely impoverished, having no motive to improve 
their lands, and that a labour tax was exacted from them It was 



RATNAGIRI DISTRICT 



decided to make a survey, lecord the rights of occupancy tenants, and 
obtain information upon which legislation could be based. The terms 
of the settlement were embodied in the Survey Act of 1865. The 
District was settled under its provisions against the strenuous opposition 
of the khots ; and as money rates had been substituted for payments 
in kind, the change was also disliked by the people. In 1874 the 
discontent was so pronounced that a Commission was appointed to 
reinvestigate the subject and to endeavour to effect a compromise. 
A new settlement was carried out between 1877 and 1880 by personal 
inquiries before the whole of the assembled villagers. All extra cesses 
were abolished, and the relations between khot and tenant were placed 
upon a satisfactory footing The Khoti Act (Bombay) I of 1880 
legalized the settlements. Besides the khot tenures, three other special 
tenures are found in the District sheri thikans, 01 crown lands now 
leased for a term of thirty years ; katuban lands, with fixed rent not 
liable to fluctuation ; gairdasti lands, or lands formerly waste and 
unassessed but now leased until the new settlement. Considerable 
areas on the coast and along the banks of the larger creeks have been 
granted on reclamation leases The revision survey settlement has 
been introduced into five out of the nine talukas, resulting in a decrease 
of nearly one per cent in the revenue. The average rate per acre 
on 'dry ; lands is Rs. 1-3 for rabi and 3 annas for varkas, on rice land 
Rs. 3-9, and on garden land Rs. 6-5 

Collections on account of land revenue and revenue from all sources 
have been, in thousands of rupees . 





iS8o-i 


1890-1 


1900-1 


1903-4 


Land revenue 
Total revenue . 


9,73 

13,74 


9,01 
'5.89 


9'39 

I7o2 


9,11 

!7>57 



The District has four municipalities namely, VENGURLA, RAJAPUR, 
RATNAGIRI, and CHIPLUN Outside these, local affairs are managed 
by the District board and nine tahika boards. The total income of 
these boards is about ij lakhs, the chief source being the land cess. 
The expenditure includes Rs. 26,000 devoted to the construction and 
maintenance of roads and buildings. 

The District Superintendent of police is assisted by two inspectors 
There are 15 police stations, with a total of 687 police, including 
12 chief constables, 137 head constables, and 538 constables. A 
special police officer resides at Ratnagin m charge of the ex-king 
Thibaw of Burma. The District Jail at Ratnagin has accommodation 
for 228 prisoners In addition, there aie ir subsidiary jails in the 
District, with accommodation foi 156 prisoners The total number 
of prisoners in these jails in 1904 was 123, of whom 7 were females. 



RATNAGIRI TOWN 257 

Ratnagiri stands tenth among the twenty-four Districts of the 
Presidency in regard to the literacy of its population, of whom 5-2 per 
cent (109 males and 0-3 females) could read and write in 1901. 
Education has made progress of late years. In 1855-6 there were 
only 20 schools attended by 2,403 pupils. The latter number rose 
to 9^85 m 1881, and to 20,937 in 1891, but fell to 19,733 in 1901. 
In 1903-4 there were in the District 484 schools attended by 22,855 
pupils, of whom 1,536 were girls. Of 296 institutions classed as public, 

2 are high schools, 13 middle schools, 278 primary schools, and 

3 special schools, namely 2 technical schools at Dapoh and Waknavh 
and the school of industry at Ratnagiri. Of these institutions, one 
is maintained by Government, 168 are managed by District and 21 
by municipal boards. 99 are aided and 7 unaided. The total expendi- 
tuie on education in 1903-4 was 1-36 lakhs, of which Rs. 37,000 
was met by fees, and Rs 1,900 by Local funds. Of the total, 63 per 
cent, was devoted to primary schools. 

The District contains one hospital, four dispensaries, one lepei 
asylum, and five other private medical institutions, with accommodation 
for 148 in-patients. In 1904 the number of persons treated in these 
institutions was 36,500, of \\hom 483 were in-patients, and 1,104 
operations were performed. The total expenditure was Rs. 17,000, 
of which Rs 6 3 8oo was met from Local and municipal funds, The 
District has a lunatic asylum with in inmates in 1904. 

The number of persons successfully vaccinated in 1903-4 was 
27,363, representing a proportion of 23 per 1,000 of population, which 
is slightly below the average for the Presidency. 

[Sir J M. Campbell, Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency > vol. x (1880).] 

Ratnagiri Taluka. Central tdluka of Ratnagiri District, Bombay, 
lying between 15 44' and 17 17' N and 73 12' and 73 33' E, 
with an aiea of 415 square miles It contains one town, RATNAGIRI 
(population, 16,094), the District and tdluka head-quarters ; and 147 
villages. The population in 1901 was 147,182, compared with 136,840 
m 1891. The increase is normal; but the density, 355 persons per 
square mile, laigely exceeds the District aveiage. The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs 87,000, and for cesses Rs. 6,000. The 
coast-line is bold, and indented with numerous creeks. The climate 
is moist and relaxing, and the annual rainfall aveiages 96 inches. 
Alluvial deposits are found on the banks and at the estuaiies of the 
creeks. The plateaux and hills consist entirely of latente. 

Ratnagiri Town. Head-quarters of Ratnagiri District, Bombay, 
situated in 16 59' N. and 73 18' E., 136 miles south-by-east of 
Bombay city. Population (1901), 16,094. The town is open and 
faces the sea ; the fort stands on a rock between two small bays, but 
these afford neither shelter nor good anchorage, as they are completely 



258 RATNAGIRI TOWN 

exposed and have a rocky bottom. With any breeze from the west, 
a heavy surf breaks on the bar, and boats can enter only at high tide. 
The present town consists of four originally distinct villages. In 1822, 
on the transfer of the District head-quarters from Bankot to Ratnagiri, 
the villages were merged in the town. One object of interest con- 
nected with Ratnagin is the tarh 01 sardine fisheiy, which usually takes 
place in the months of January and February, when fleets of canoes 
may be seen engaged in this occupation. A single net-caster will fill 
his canoe in the course of a morning. The fishing-ground is just 
outside the breakers. The industry can be carried on only when the 
water is clear enough to admit of the fish being readily visible. The 
salt-water creek to the south of the fort is practicable only for country 
craft of under 20 tons burden. The value of the trade of the Ratna- 
giri port in 1903-4 was returned at 23! lakhs ; imports 17 lakhs, and 
exports 6| lakhs. The chief imports are salt, timber, catechu, and 
grain ; the chief exports are fuel, fish, and bamboos. 

In 1876 Ratnagiri was constituted a municipality The average 
income during the decade ending 1901 was Rs. 13,000. In 1903-4 the 
income was likewise Rs. 13,000, chiefly derived from a house tax and 
octroi. The streets and the landing-place are lighted ; and a travellers' 
bungalow is kept up by the municipality From a perennial stream 
2-| miles east of the town water has been conducted, and pipes are 
laid through all the chief quarters. Ratnagiri contains 9 schools, 
including a high school, a middle school, and a school of industry 
with a daily attendance of 209 students, which was opened in 1879, 
and is supported by the District board. The lighthouse was erected 
in 1867. The elevation of the lantern above high water is 320 feet, 
and the height of the building, from base to vane, 35 feet. It exhibits 
a single led, fixed, dioptric light, of order 6, which is visible at 15 
miles distance. Besides the chief revenue and judicial offices, the 
town contains a Subordinate Judge's court, a lunatic asylum, a civil 
hospital, and a leper asylum. 

Ratnagiri Hill. Small hill in the Jajpur subdivision of Cuttack 
District, Bengal, situated in 20 39' N. and 86 20' E., on the north 
bank of the Keluo river On the top is a modem temple of Mahakala, 
near the gate of which are fine stone images r to 3^ feet high, probably 
of Tantnc origin On the east several elaboiately carved images have 
been dug up and erected. Farther east is a colossal sculpture, con- 
sisting of a male figure sitting on a lotus, below which are three rows 
of figures Two enormous heads of Buddha, with thick lips and flat 
noses, have been dug out, and there can be little doubt that other 
images of great antiquarian interest are still lying buried Local 
tradition ascribes these monuments to Vasukalpa Kesan, the king who 
is said to have built the monuments on Naltigiri hill. 



RAVER TALUK A 259 

Rato-Dero Taluka. Talnka of Larkana District, Sind, Bombay, 
lying between 27 37' and 28 N. and 68 4' and 68 33' E., with an 
area of 325 square miles. The population in 1901 was 72,312, com- 
pared with 61,268 in 1891 The taluka contains one town, RATO- 
DERO (population, 4,281), the head-quarteis; and 80 villages. Except- 
ing Larkana, this is the most thickly populated taluka in the District, 
with a density of 222 persons per squaie mile The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to more than 2-9 lakhs. The taluka 
is irrigated by the Sukkur, Nasrat, and Ghar Canals. The staple 
crop is rice. Like other well-irrigated tdlukas^ Rato-Dero is flat and 
has few distinctive features. It contains about 104 square miles of 
'reserved' forest. 

Rato-Dero Town. Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Larkana District, Smd, Bombay, situated in 27 48' N. and 68 
20' E., 18 miles north-east by north of Larkana town. Population 
(1901), 4,281. Local trade is chiefly in grain Rato-Dero was 
formerly the encampment of a chief of the Jalbam tribe called Rato. 
The municipality, established in 1862, had an average income of Rs. 
8,878 during the decade ending 1901. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 
14,000. The town contains a dispensary, a vernacular school attended 
by 118 pupils, and an Anglo- vernacular school attended by 34 pupils. 

Rattihalli. Village in the Kod taluka of Dharwar District, Bom- 
bay, situated m 14 2$' N. and 75 31' E., about 10 miles south-east 
of Kod Population (1901), 3,328. Till 1864 Rattihalli was the 
head-quarters of the tdhtka. In 1764, in the war between Haidar All 
and the Marathas, Rattihalli was the scene of a signal rout of Haidar's 
army It contains a temple m Jakhanacharya style, built of sculptured 
slabs, with three domes supported on thirty-six pillars There are seven 
inscriptions varying in date from 1174 to 1550. There is also a ruined 
fort. The village contains two schools. 

Rauza. Taluk and village in Aurangabad District, Hyderabad 
State. See KHULDABAD. 

Raver Taluka. Tdhtka of East Khandesh District, Bombay, lying 
between 21 3' and 21 24? N and 75 46' and 76 10' E., with an area 
of 481 square miles It contains two towns, RAVER (population, 
7,870), the head- quarters, and SAVDA (8,720); and 106 villages. The 
population m 1901 was 80,368, compared with 76,281 m 1891. The 
density, 67 persons per square mile, is a little less than half the aver- 
age for the District. The demand for land revenue m 1903-4 was 
2-i lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 14,000. The soil near the hills is some- 
what light, and in other parts it is a fine rich vegetable mould of 
varying depth. The chief water-supply is the Tapti river. The climate 
is generally healthy. Raver forms an unbroken well-wooded plain lying 
below the wall of the Satpuras The annual rainfall averages 24 inches. 



260 RAVER TOWN 

Raver Town. Head-quarteis of the tdhtka of the same name in 
East Khandesh District, Bombay, situated in 21 15' N. and 76 2' E. 
Population (1901), 75870. A good road, 2 miles long and carefully 
bridged, connects the town with the north-eastern line of the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway Raver has a local reputation for its manu- 
factures of gold thread and articles of native apparel. In the main 
street, leading from the market-place to the fort, the houses are nearly 
all three-stoieyed, and have nchly caived wooden fronts. Raver was 
ceded by the Nizam to the Peshwa in 1763, and by the latter bestowed 
on Holkar's family The municipality, established in 1892, had an 
average income during the seven years ending 1901 of Rs. 1,700. In 
1903-4 the income was Rs. 3,900. The town contains three cotton- 
ginb and presses, and three boys' schools with 268 pupils 

Ravi (the Hydraotes of Arnan, the Pamshni of the Vedas, and 
the Travail of classical Sanskrit authors. The present name means 
c sun '). One of the five rivers of the Punjab from which the Province 
derives its name Rising in the Kulu subdivision of Kangra District, 
it immediately passes into the Chamba State, after which it re-enters 
British territory on the borders of Gurdaspur District, opposite Basoli 
in the Jammu district of Kashmir, forming the boundary of that State 
for 25 miles, with a general south-westerly course. It leaves the hills 
at Shahpur, but still flows between high cliffs, while on the Jammu 
side the mountains rise from its very brink At Madhopur the head- 
works of the Ban Doab Canal draw off a large portion of its waters. 
Thenceforward the banks sink in height, and the river assumes the 
usual charactei of the Punjab streams, flowing in the centre of an 
alluvial valley, with high outer banks at some distance from its present 
bed. In 1870 it carried away the Tali Sahib shrine near Dera Nanak, 
a place of great sanctity with the Sikhs, and still threatens that town 
The Ravi next passes between Sialkot and Amntsai Districts, preserving 
its general south-westeily dnection. The depth is here not more than 
a foot in March and April, swelling m June and September to 18 or 
20 feet. Entering the District of Lahore, it runs within a mile of 
Lahore city, and throws out several branches which soon, however, 
rejoin the parent stream. A railway and foot-bridge spans the river 
a few miles north of Lahore, and the grand trunk road crosses it by 
a bridge of boats After entering Montgomery District it receives its 
chief tributary, the Degh, on its noith- western bank. The Degh rises 
in Jammu and flows through Sialkot and Lahore Districts, bringing 
with it large deposits of silt and affording great facilities for irrigation 
by wells. The Ravi then passes into Multan District, where it is again 
bridged by the North-Western Railway near Sidhnai, and finally falls 
into the Chenab in 30 31' N and 71 51' E., after a total course of 
about 450 miles. 



RAWALPINDI DIVISION 261 

Throughout its course in the plains, the Ravi flows everywhere in 
a comparatively narrow valley, often only a couple of miles m width, 
with generally a veiy tortuous channel. In one part, howevei, the 
nver runs a perfectly straight course for 12 miles from Kuchhrmba to 
Sarai Sidhu m Multan District, between high wooded banks, forming 
a beautiful reach called the Sidhnai, where the SIDHNAI Canal takes 
off. Few islands are formed, but the bed shifts occasionally from 
place to place The floods of the Ravi fertilize only a fringe of one or 
two miles on either side, and it is little employed for direct irrigation, 
although it supplies water to the Ban Doab and Sidhnai Canals. 
Navigation is difficult, but grain is shipped from Lahoie in considerable 
quantities Deodar timber, floated down in lafts from the Chamba 
forests during the rams, finds its way to Lahore only m seasons of 
heavy flood. In 1397 the Ravi still flowed east and south of Multan 
and united with the Beas, as it did in the time of Chach (A. D. 800). 
The change of course northwards has been comparatively slight, and 
its date is uncertain. Even now, at times of high flood, the water finds 
its way to Multan by the old channel 

Rawain (or Ramgarh) A petty State feudatory to the Jubbal 
State, Punjab, situated m 31 f N and 77 48' E,, and comprising 
about 7 square miles of territory louncl the fort of Ramgarh, which 
crowns an isolated hill on the left bank of the Pabar river, here crossed 
by a wooden bridge Population (1901), 823 The Thakurs come 
from the same stock as the Jubbal family The State was originally 
a fief of Tehn, but the eastern portion was overrun by the Bashahns 
some time previous to the Gurkha invasion. After the Gurkha War 
the State was partitioned between the British, the Raja of Garhwal, 
and Rana Runa of Rawain. The portion retained by the British was 
in 1830 given to Keonthal, m exchange for land taken up for the 
station of Simla. A small community of Brahmans holds the surround- 
ing valley, and has charge of two temples of Tibetan architecture* 
The elevation of the fort above sea-level is 5,408 feet. The revenue is 
about Rs, 3,000, of which Rs. 1,250 is derived from the forests, which 
are leased to Government. The present Thakur, Kedar Singh, suc- 
ceeded in 1904. He has full powers, but sentences of death requite 
confirmation by the Superintendent, Hill States, Simla. 

Rawalpindi Division. North-western Division of the Punjab, 
lying between 31 35' and 34 i' N. and 70 37' and 74 29' E The 
Commissioner's head-quarters are at Rawalpindi and Murree. The 
total population of the Division increased from 2,520,508 in 1881 to 
2,750,713 m 1891, and to 2,799,360 in 1901. Its total area is 15,736 
square miles, and the density of the population is 178 persons per square 
mile, compared with 209 for the Province as a whole. In 1901 the 
Muhammadans numbered 2,428,767, or nearly 87 per cent of the total ; 



RAWALPINDI DIVISION 



while Hindus numbered 275,905, Sikhs 84,953, Jains 1,232, Parsis 66, 
and Christians 8,436. The Division contains five Districts, as shown 
below 









Land revenue 


District 


Area in square 
mile 1 ? 


Population, 
igoi. 


and cesses, 

. \ ,903-4, 
in thousands, 








of rupees 


Gujrat 


2,051 


750J548 


10,52 


Shahpur 


4,840 


524,259 


12,38 


Jhelum 


2,813 


501,424 


8,84 


Rawalpindi 


2,010 


5.^,699 


6,56 


Attock 


4,022 


464,430 


7>'7 


Total 


I5>736 


2,799>36o 


45,47 



The Districts of Rawalpindi, Attock, and Jhelum aie hilly, extending 
from the outer ranges of the Himalayas and including most of the Salt 
Range, which enters Shahpur District on the south-west. 

The principal town is RAWALPINDI (population, 87,688, with canton- 
ments) SHAHDHERI, close to the Margalla pass, has been identified 
with the ancient city of Taxila HASSAN ABDAL, and MANIKIALA, the 
site of the body-offering stupa of Buddhist legend, are within 30 miles 
of Shahdhen. ROHTAS and MALOT in Jhelum and Mong in Gujrat 
District also possess an antiquarian interest In Gujrat District are 
the battle-fields of SADULLAPUR, CHILIANWALA, and GUJRAT, while the 
famous defile of Narsmgh-Phohar in the Salt Range, with its waterfall, 
is one of the most beautiful spots in Northern India. 

Rawalpindi District. Northern District of the Rawalpindi Divi- 
sion, Punjab, lying between 33 4' and 34 i' N and 72 34' and 
73 39' E., with an area of 2,010 square miles It is bounded on the 
north by the Hazara District of the North-West Frontier Province , on 
the east by the river Jhelum, which separates it from Kashmir territory ; 
on the south by the District of Jhelum ; and on the west by that of 
Attock. The District as now constituted forms a compact square, 
with the mountain tract called the Murree Hills 

Physical jutting from its north-east corner, between Kashmir 
aspects* jo 3 

and Hazara. This range extends southward along the 

eastern border of the District, forming the Kahuta Hills, which lie in 
the tahsll of that name, as fai south as Bagham on the Jhelum river, 
and west to within a few miles of Rawalpindi cantonment, On the 
west the slope is gradual, but the eastern escarpments run sharply down 
to the deep gorges of the Jhelum, The five main spurs are known 
generally as the Murree range, that on which the sanitarium of Murree 
stands rising to 7,500 feet, Chanhan being very little lower, and Paphundi 
reaching 7,000 feet at its highest point. These hills form an offshoot 
of the Himalayan system. The valleys between them are often ex- 



RA WALPINDI DISTRICT 263 

tremely beautiful , and the higher ranges are covered with a varied 
growth, the silver fir, ilex, hill oak, blue pine, chestnut, and wild cherry 
uniting to form dense forests on the Murree and Paphundi spurs, while 
the lower hills are well wooded with olive, acacia, and bog myrtle. The 
view looking upwards from the plains is of exquisite beauty, 

South-west of the Muiree and Kahuta Hills stretches a rough high- 
lying plateau, about 1,800 feet above sea-level The northern part of 
this includes the tahsll of Rawalpindi and the Kallar circle of the 
Kahuta tahsll. It is drained by the Sohan, which flows south-west, 
passing a few miles south of Rawalpindi cantonment, below which it 
is joined by several tributaries from the hills The southern part of 
the plain, forming the Gujar Khan tahsll, is drained by the Kanshi, a 
stream which flows southward from the low hills south of Kahuta till 
near the town of Gujar Khan, and then winds eastwards to the Jhelum 
The whole of this plateau is highly cultivated, the fields being massively 
embanked to retain moistuie, while its numerous villages shelter a dense 
population. The Jhelum nver, which forms the eastern boundaiy of 
the District, flows heie between precipitous cliffs, which render it useless 
for irrigation ; and it is only navigable below Dunga Gall, a point 40 
miles east of Rawalpindi town 

The District lies entiiely on Tertiary rocks The oldest of these 
are the Murree beds, which run in a nanow band across its northern 
pait They are composed of red and put pie clays, with grey and 
purplish sandstones, and are probably of miocene age. These are 
succeeded to the south by a great spread of Lower Siwalik sandstone, 
which covers the greater pait of the District and contains a rich mam- 
malian fauna of pliocene age. It is overlain by the Upper Siwalik 
conglomerates and sandstones, which occur to the south-west of Rawal- 
pindi, and at other localities Still farther south the Lower Siwalik 
sandstone is continuous with the similar beds of the Salt Range * 

The vegetation of the higher portions of the Murree subdivision 
is that of the temperate Himalaya, with a few Kashmir and Oriental 
species intermingled. At lower levels it is similar to that of the Outer 
Himalaya, from the Indus valley to Kumaun ; but trans-Indus types, 
e.g. Delphinium, Dianthus, Scafaosa^ and Boucerosia, are frequent, and 
extend for some distance into the extra-Himalayan part of the District, 
whose flora is that of the Western Punjab, but on the whole rather 
scanty. Trees are mostly planted, and Indo-Malayan species, such 
as the mango, &c., thrive rather poorly 

Leopards are found in the Murree and Kahuta Hills, and very rarely 
the gural The District is a poor one for sport. 

The climate of Rawalpindi is considerably cooler than that of the 

] Wynne, ' Tertiary Zone and Underlying Rocks m N -W. Punjab,' Records^ 
Geological burvev of India, vol. x, pt. in 



264 RAWALPINDI DISTRICT 

Punjab plains. The hot season lasts only three months, from June 
to August ; and the nearness of the hills lowers the temperature during 
the succeeding months, even when there is no ram in the plains. The 
cold in winter is very severe, and a trying east wind prevails in January 
and February. The District on the whole is extremely healthy for 
Europeans, while the natives are robust and of fine physique. 

The rainfall in the plains is fairly copious, varying from 29 inches at 
Gujar Khan to 41 at Kahuta, in the hills the average is 53 inches. 
Heavy winter ram from January to March is characteristic of this Dis- 
trict, 8 inches or moie frequently falling in the three months 

In ancient times the whole or the greater part of the country between 
the Indus and the Jhelum seems to have belonged to a Turanian race 
called Takkas or Takshakas, who gave their name 
Ory * to the city of Takshasila, the Taxila of the Greek 
historians, the site of which has been identified with the ruins of 
Shahdhen in the north-west corner of the District. At the time of 
Alexander's invasion Taxila is described by Arrian as a flourishing city, 
the greatest indeed between the Indus and the Hydaspes ; Strabo adds 
that the neighbouring country was crowded with inhabitants and very 
fertile ; and Pliny speaks of it as a famous city situated in A. district 
called Amanda. The invasion of Demetims in 195 B.C. bi ought the 
Punjab under the Graeco-Bactnan kings. Later they were superseded 
by the Sakas, who ruled at Taxila with the title of Satrap At the time 
of Hmen Tsiang the country was a dependency of Kashmir. 

Mahmud of Ghazm passed through the District after his defeat of 
Anand Pal and capture of Ohmd. With this conqueror claim to have 
come the Gakhars, a tribe still of importance in the District. The first 
mention of them in the Muhammadan historians occurs in the memoirs 
of Babar, who gives an interesting account of the capture of their capital 
of Paralah. It was strongly situated in the hills, and was defended 
with great bravery by its chief Hati Khan, who escaped from one gate 
as the Mughal army maiched in at the other Hati Khan died by 
poison in 1525 ; and his cousin and murderer Sultan Sarang submitted 
to Babar, who conferred on him the Potwar country. Thencefoith the 
Gakhar chieftains remained firm allies of the Mughal dynasty, and were 
able to render efficient aid in its struggle with the house of Shei Shah 
Salim Shah attempted in vain to subdue their country, but in 1553 
Adam Khan, Sarang's successor, surrendered the rebel prince Kamran 
to Humayun. Adam Khan was subsequently deposed by Akbar, and 
his pnncipality made over to his nephew Kama! Khan. During the 
flourishing period of the Mughal empire, the family of Sarang retained 
its territorial possessions, its last and greatest independent chief, 
Mukarrab Khan, ruling over a kingdom which extended from the 
Chenab to the Indus. 



HISTORY 265 

In 1765, during the total paralysis of the Mughal government, Sardar 
Gujai Singh Bhangi, a powerful Sikh chieftain, marched from Lahore 
against Mukarrab Khan, whom he defeated outside the walls of Gujrat, 
Mukarrab Khan retired across the Jhelum, where he was soon treacher- 
ously murdered by his own tribesmen ; but the traitors forthwith 
quarrelled over their spoil, and fell one by one before Sardar Gujar 
Singh. The Sikhs luled Rawalpindi with their usual rapacity, exacting 
as revenue the last coin that could be \\rung from the proprietors, who 
were often glad to admit their tenants as joint-sharers, in order to lighten 
the incidence of the revenue Gujar Singh held the District through- 
out his life, and left it on his death to his son, Sahib Singh, who fell 
in 1810 before the power of the great Ranjit Singh. Another Sikh 
Sardar, Milka Singh, fixed upon Rawalpindi, then an insignificant vil- 
lage, for his head-quarters. In spite of Afghan inroads and the resis- 
tance of the Gakhars, he soon conquered on his own account a tract 
of country round Rawalpindi worth 3 lakhs a year. On his death in 
1804, his estates were con Mimed to his son, Jiwan Singh, by Ranjit 
Singh, until 1814, when, upon Jiwan Singh's death, they were annexed 
to the territory of Lahore The Muriee and other hills long retained 
theii independence under their Gakhar chieftains , but in 1830 the> 
were i educed aftei a bloody stiuggle, and handed o\cr to Gulab Singh 
of Jammu, under whose merciless rule the population was almost 
decimated, and the country reduced to a desert 

In 1849 Rawalpindi passed with the lest of the Sikh dominions 
under British rule ; and though tianquilhty was distuibed by an in- 
surrection four years later, led by a Gakhai chief with the object of 
placing a pretended son of Ranjit Singh on the throne, its administra- 
tion was generally peaceful until the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857 
The Dhunds and other tribes of the Murree Hills, incited by Hindustani 
agents, rose in insurrection, and the authoiities received information 
from a faithful native of a projected attack upon the station of Murree 
in time to concert measures for defence. The ladies, who were 
piesent in large numbers, were placed in safety , the Europeans and 
police were drawn up in a cordon round the station ; and when the 
enemy arrived expecting no resistance, they met with a hot recep- 
tion, which caused them to withdraw m disorder, and shortly after 
to disband. In 1904 the tahsils of Attock, Fatahjang, and Pmdi Gheb 
were transferred from Rawalpindi to the newly constituted Attock 
District. 

The principal remains of antiquity are described m the articles on 

MA.NIKIALA and SHAHDHLRI. The country round the latter place 

abounds in Buddhist remains, the most interesting of which is the 

Balar stupa. 

The population of the District at the last three enumerations was : 



266 



RAWALPINDI DISTRICT 



Population. 



(1881) 47i,79, (1891) 533,740, and (1901) 558,699, dwelling in two 
towns and 1,180 villages. It increased by 4-7 per cent, during the 
last decade. The District is divided into four tahsils, 
RAWALPINDI, KAHUTA, MURREE, and GUJAR KHAN, 
the head-quarters of each being at the place from which it is named. 
The towns are the municipalities of RAWALPINDI, the administrative 
head-quarters of the District, and MURREL, the summer station. 

The following table shows the chief statistics of population in 
1901 



Tahsil 


Area in square 
miles 


Number of 


| 

J3 



Population per 
square mile. 


Percentage of 
variation in 
population be- 
tween 1891 
and 190 1, 


Number of 
persons able to 
read and 
write 


1 


$ 
I* 
> 


Rawalpindi 
Mun ee 
Kahutn , 
Gujar Khan 

District total 


7 6 4 

258 

45 6 
568 


I 
I 


44 8 
120 
231 
38* 


261,101 

52,303 
94,729 
150,566 


341-7 
202 7 
207-9 
265-1 


+ 74 
+ 14.3 
+ 26 

1.2 


24,924 
1,4^3 

3 } H9 
6,5!3 


3,010 


2 


1,180 


558,699 


2780 


+ 47 


36,019 



NOTE The figures for the areas of tahsils are taken from revenue returns The 
total District area is that given in the Census Report, 

Muhammadans number 466,918, or more than 83 per cent, of the 
total,, Hindus, 57,325 , and Sikhs, 26,363. 

The most numerous tribe is that of the land-owning Rajputs, who 
number 101,000, or 18 pei cent, of the total population. Next come 
the A wans with 39,000 ; after them the Jats, Gujars, and Dhunds, with 
35,000, 26,000, and 23,000 respectively. Other important agricultural 
castes are the Sattis (17,000), Maliars (17,000), Gakhars (13,000), 
Mughals (13,000), Janjuas (8,000), and Pathans (7,000). Saiyids and 
Kureshis number 13,000 and 9,000 respectively. The Khattrls (30,000) 
and Aroras (6,000) are the only commercial castes. Brahmans number 
15,000, including 1,000 Muhials , Shaikhs, partly agriculturists and partly 
traders, 12,000. Of the artisan classes, the Julahas (weavers, 23,000), 
Tarkhans (carpenters, 17,000), Mochls (shoemakers and leather- 
workers, 13,000), Kumhars (potters, 10,000), Lohars (blacksmiths, 
8,000), and Tehs (oil-pressers, 8,000) aie the most important 3 and of 
the menials, the Chuhras and Musallis (sweepers and scavengers, 
14,000) and Nais (barbers, 7,000) Kashmiris number 18,000. Of 
the total population, 64 per cent, are dependent on agriculture. Many 
of the leading tribes, Gakhais, Janjuas, and Rajputs, enlist in the Indian 
army. Sattis, Dhanials, Brahmans, and Khattrls are also enlisted, and 
many of them have been distinguished for their courage and loyalty. 

The American United Presbyterian Mission was established at 
Rawalpindi in 1856. It has a church in the town, and maintains 



AGRICULTURE 



267 



an Arts college, a large high school with two branches, and three 
girls' schools. There aie Roman Catholic missions at Rawalpindi and 
Murree, and at Yusufpur, close to Rawalpindi cantonment. Native 
Christians numbered 511 in 1901. 

More than 98 per cent, of the cultivation depends entirely on the 
rainfall. In the hills the rain is abundant, and the cultivation, which 
is carried on in terraced fields along the hill-sides, is 
classed as secure from famine , three-quarters of the 
crops are grown in the autumn harvest. The rest of the District is an 
undulating plateau, much cut up by ravines. The soil is usually a 
light-brown fertile loam, the fields are carefully embanked, and the 
tillage is generally good. The rainfall is sufficient ; and the legularity 
and abundance of the wmtei rains protect the Distiict from a gram 
famine in the worst years, while the proximity of the hills mitigates 
a fodder famine The spring crop is the principal harvest. 

The District is chiefly held by small peasant proprietors. The 
following table shows the main statistics of cultivation in 1903-4, 
areas being in square miles 



TahslL 


Total 


Cultivated, 


Irrigated 


Cultivable 
waste. 


Forests. 


Rawalpindi 


764 


380 


7 


37 


67 


Murree . 


258 


62 


3 


16 


157 


Kahiita . 


456 


151 


i 


21 


179 


Gujar Khan . 


568 


34<5 


i 


39 


9 


Total 


2,046* 


939 


12 


H3 


4 i* 



* These figures, which do not agree with the area as shown on p 266, are taken from 
later returns 

The chief crops of the spring harvest are wheat and barley, the aieas 
under which m 1903-4 were 325 and 18 squaie miles, \vhile in the 
autumn harvest fowar, bajra, and pulses covered 33, 180, and 50 square 
miles respectively. 

The area cultivated has increased by 9 per cent, since the settlement 
of 1880-7 The people exercise considerable care m the selection of 
seed for wheat and maize. Loans from Government for sinking wells 
are rarely taken, as the country is not adapted for wells. 

The cattle are small and not good milkers, and attempts to improve 
the breed by the introduction of Hissar bulls were not successful. The 
cattle of the hills are small, but hardy. A fine breed of camels is kept , 
they are not adapted for riding, but make excellent pack animals. 
Horse-breeding is popular, and many good animals are reared ; a good 
deal of mule-breeding is also carried on. The Army Remount department 
maintains 26 horse and 91 donkey stallions, and the District board 
8 pony and 5 donkey stallions A large horse fair is held yearly at 

VOL xxi. s 



268 RAWALPINDI DISTRICT 

Rawalpindi town. Large flocks of sheep and goats of inferioi bleeds 
are kept in the Murree and Kahuta Hills. 

Theie is very little irrigation. Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 
only 12 square miles, or about i per cent., were classed as nrigated. 
Of this area, 2,946 acres were irrigated from wells and 4,870 acies from 
tanks and streams. In addition, 3,512 acres were subject to inundation 
from various streams, and the canal irrigation is entirely from private 
channels taking off from them. Only 1,103 masonry wells weie in use, 
all worked with Persian wheels by cattle, but there were over 543 
lever wells, unbncked wells, and water-lifts 

The forests are of some importance, comprising 152 square miles 
of 'reserved,' 76 of 'protected,' and 249 of 'unclassed' forests under 
the Forest department, besides 2 1 square miles of military reserve, and 
about one square mile under the Deputy-Commissioner. The most 
important are the hill forests of Murree and Kahuta The others 
are forests only in name, consisting merely of scrub or grass. In 
1904-5 the revenue from the forests undei the Forest department was 
Rs, 455 00 3 and from those under the Deputy-Commissioner Rs. 900. 

The District produces no minerals of commercial importance 
Lignite is occasionally met with in the Murree Hills, and petroleum 
is found m small quantities near Rawalpindi town Gypsum occurs 
in considerable quantities, A little gold is washed from the beds of 
various streams. 

The District possesses no important indigenous manufactures ; but 

cotton is woven everywhere, and the silk embroidered phnlkdris of 

T d Rawalpindi are of some merit. Lacquered legs for 

communications, bedsteads and oth er pieces of native furniture are 

made locally, and there is some output of saddles 

and shoes. The principal factones are the North-Western Railway 

locomotive and carriage works, where the number of employes in 1904 

was 1,455 ; an d the arsenal, which in the same year gave employment 

to 569 persons. Besides these, there are the Rawalpindi gas-works 

with 170 employes, 2 breweries with 391, a tent factory with 252, an 

iron foundry with 123, and four smaller factones with an aggregate of 

150 employes With the exception of the Murree Brewery, all of 

these are situated at Rawalpindi town, 

Trade consists chiefly m the supply of necessaries to the stations 
of Rawalpindi and Murree, and the through traffic with Kashmir. The 
District exports food-grains and oilseeds, and imports piece-goods, 
rice, hardware, tea, and salt, A good deal of timber comes from 
Kashmir. Rawalpindi town and Gujar Khan are the chief centres 
of trade, 

The District is traversed by the main line of the North-Western Rail- 
way, with a branch from Golra junction to Khushalgarh The metalled 



ADMINISTRATION 269 

roads are the grand trunk road, which luns by the side of the mam 
line of rail, and the Kashmir road and the Khushalgarh road from 
Rawalpindi town. These are maintained from Provincial funds, A 
service of tongas runs between Rawalpindi and Murree, but a railway 
connecting the two places is piojected. The unmetalled roads, which 
are all under the District board, are not fit for wheeled traffic, the place 
of which is taken by pack animals. 

Although the District has from time to time suffered from scarcity, it 
has not, at any rate since annexation, been visited by serious famine, 
and the hill tahsih may be considered as quite secure 

The District is divided into four tahsih^ RAWALPINDI, GUJAR KHAN, 
MURREE, and KAHUTA, each under a tahsildar and a naib-tahslldar. 

The Deputy-Commissioner is aided by five Assistant . , . . 

-P,..,,^ r i Administration, 

or Extra-Assistant Commissioners, one of whom is in 

charge of the District treasury. During the hot season an Assistant 
Commissioner holds charge of the Murree subdivision, which consists 
of the Muiree tahsll. 

Civil judicial work is disposed of by a District Judge subordinate 
to the Divisional Judge of the Rawalpindi civil division, one Subor- 
dinate Judge, and two Munsifs, of whom one sits at head-quarters and 
the other at Gujar Khan There are two Cantonment Magistrates 
in the Rawalpindi cantonment and several honorary magistrates in the 
District. Civil litigation presents no special features The pre- 
dominant forms of crime are burglary and theft, though murders are 
also frequent , but serious crime is rare in the hill tahsih ^ and the 
Muhammadan peasants of the Rawalpindi and Gujar Khan tahsih 
are industrious and peaceable. 

For a long period prior to 1770 the greater part of the Distiict was 
subject to the Gakhars, They realized their revenue by appraise- 
ment of the standing crop at each harvest, current prices being taken 
into account, and the demand (which was generally moderate) being 
levied in grain or cash by mutual agreement. No revenue was realized 
from the hill tracts. From 1770 to 1830 the Sikhs pursued their usual 
policy of exacting all they' could, until Ranjit Singh ordered a moderate 
assessment to be made. Ten years of good government under Bhai 
Dul Singh were followed by six of oppression 

1 After annexation the hill tracts were summarily assessed, and the 
demand of Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu (who had been revenue 
assignee under the Sikhs) was reduced by one-third. In the plains, 
however, John Nicholson imposed an enhanced demand, based on tbe 
estimates of the oppressive Sikh officials, with disastrous results. 
When the first summary settlement of the whole District was made 

1 The figures m the paragraphs on land levenue include the tahsih of Pmdi Gheb, 
Attock, and Fatahjang throughout. 

S 2 



270 



RAWALPINDI DISTRICT 



in 1851, the people weie heavily in debt and clamouring foi relief. 
Large reductions were allowed in the demand, and the assessment 
worked well until the first regular settlement was effected in 1860. 
This resulted in a fuither reduction of 5-^ per cent , and a more 
equal distribution of the demand o\ei the villages. The settlement 
proved satisfactory, and was allowed to run on for twenty years 
instead of the ten for which it had been sanctioned. A revised 
settlement, completed in 1885, was based on an alkound increase of 
50 per cent, in cultivation. The new demand was 9! lakhs, an 
increase on the regular assessment of 34 per cent , and it has been 
realized with ease. During the sixteen years ending 1901 only 8 pei 
cent, of one year's demand was remitted. In the same period cultiva- 
tion increased 8 per cent., while prices of staple crops rose 64 per 
cent. The District again came under settlement m 1902, and the 
anticipated increase in the demand is i-i lakhs, or 13 per cent The 
average assessment on c dry ' land is 10 annas (maximum R. i, 
minimum 4 annas), and on 'wet' land Rs. 3-0-1 (maximum Rs. 5, 
minimum Rs. 1-0-2) The demand on account of land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 for the District as now constituted was 6-6 lakhs. 
The average size of a proprietary holding is 9 acres 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue for the 
old District are shown in the following table, in thousands of rupees 





i 880- i 


1890-1 


IQOO-I 


IQ03-4 


Land revenue . 
Total re\enue . 


6,97 
10,28 


8,58 
12,65 


8,27 
16,76 


9,82 
20,04 



The District contains two municipalities, RAWALPINDI and MURREE. 
Outside these, local affairs are managed by the District board, whose 
income, mainly derived from a local rate, amounted in 1903-4 to 
1-2 lakhs 1 . The expenditure in the same year was i-i lakhs 1 , the 
principal item being education. 

The regular police force consists of 820 of all ranks, including 154 
cantonment and 160 municipal police, and 10 mounted constables. 
The Superintendent usually has one Assistant and 7 inspectors under 
him. The village watchmen number 664. There are 13 police 
stations, with 10 road-posts in Rawalpindi town. The District jail at 
head-quarters has accommodation for 902 prisoners 

The District stands second among the twenty-eight Districts of the 
Province in respect of the literacy of its population. In 1901 the 
proportion of literate persons was 6-9 per cent, (ir males and 
i*2 females). The number of pupils under instruction was 5,359 in 

1 These include the figures for the three fa/m/r of Attock, Fatahjang, and Pmdi 
Gheb, since transferred to Attock District 



RAWALPINDI TOWN 271 

1880-1, 7,603 in 1890-1, and 17, 957 * in 1903-4. In 1904-5 the 
number of pupils in the District as now constituted was 12,227. 
Education in Rawalpindi is making great strides. Five new high 
schools have been opened since 1881, and two Anglo-vernacular 
middle schools, besides an Arts college maintained by the American 
Mission. The great advance made in female education is largely due 
to the exertions of the late Baba Su Khem Singh Bedi, K.C.I.E., who 
opened a number of schools for girls and undertook their manage- 
ment. In 1904-5 the total expenditure on education in the Dis- 
trict as now constituted amounted to i i lakhs, of which District funds 
contributed Rs. 18,000 and municipal funds Rs. 14,000. Fees realized 
Rs. 31,000, and the Provincial Government made grants amounting to 
Rs. 18,000. 

Besides the Rawalpindi civil hospital and two city branch dis- 
pensaries, the District possesses three outlying dispensaries. At 
these institutions during 1904 a total of 120,456 outpatients and 
i ,606 m-patients were treated, and 5,405 operations were performed. 
The expenditure was Rs. 21,000, of which municipal funds provided 
Rs. 16,000. The Lady Roberts Home for invalid officers is situated 
at Murree. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 12,546, lepre- 
senting 22-4 pei 1,000 of the population The Vaccination Act is in 
force in Rawalpindi and Murree towns. 

[F. A. Robertson, District Gazetteer (1895) ; Settlement Report 
(1893) 3 and Customary Laiv of the Rawalpindi District (1887) ] 

Rawalpindi Tahsil. North-western tahsll of Rawalpindi District, 
Punjab, lying between 33 19' and 33 50' N and 72 34' and 
73 2$' E j with an area of 764 square miles. The population in 1901 
was 261,101, compared with 243,141 in 1891. The tahsll contains 
the town and cantonment of RAWALPINDI (population, 87,688), the 
head-quarters ; and 448 villages The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 2-6 lakhs. MANIKIALA and SHAHDHERI are 
places of great archaeological interest. The Sohan river, which 
crosses the tahsll from east to west, divides it into two distinct portions. 
To the north he the rich plains round Rawalpindi town, sloping up to 
the outlying spurs of the Himalayas, which form the northern boun- 
dary of the tahsll. To the south the countiy is cut up by torrent 
beds and ravines into little plateaux, which vary in soil and character, 
but resemble each othei in difficulty of access. 

Rawalpindi Town. Head-quarters of the Division, District, and 
tahsll of Rawalpindi, Punjab, situated in 33 36' N. and 73 7' E., on 
the North-Western Railway and the grand trunk road, on the north 

1 These include the figures for the three tahiils of Attock, Fatahjang, and Pmdi 
Gheh, bincc traiisfeired to Attotk District. 



2 7 2 RAWALPINDI TOWN 

bank of the Leh river, a muddy, sluggish stream, flowing between 
precipitous banks, and separating the town from the cantonment, 
distant by rail 1,443 miles from Calcutta, 1,479 fr m Bombay, and 
908 from Karachi, The population, including cantonments, at the 
last three enumerations was (1881) 52,975, (1891) 73,795, and (1901) 
87,688, including 40,807 Muhammadans, 33,227 Hindus, 6,302 Sikhs, 
6,278 Chustians, and 1,008 Jams. The present town is of quite 
modern origin; but Sir Alexander Cunningham identified certain ruins 
on the site of the cantonment with the ancient city of Gajipur or 
Gajnipur, the capital of the Bhatti tribe in the ages preceding the 
Christian era Graeco-Bactrian coins, together with ancient bricks, 
occur over an area of 2 squaie miles, Known within historical times 
as Fatehpur Baon, Rawalpindi fell into decay during one of the 
Mongol invasions in the fourteenth century Jhanda Khan, a Gakhar 
chief, restored the town 'and gave it its present name. Sardar Milka 
Singh, a Sikh adventurer, occupied it in 1765, and invited traders from 
the neighbouring commercial centres of Jhelum and Shahpur to settle 
in his territory Early in the nineteenth century Rawalpindi became 
for a time the refuge of Shah Shuja, the exiled king of Kabul, and of 
his brother Shah Zaman. The present native infantry lines mark the 
site of a battle fought by the Gakhars undei their famous chief Sultan 
Mukarrab Khan in the middle of the eighteenth century. It was at 
Rawalpindi that, on Maich 14, 1849, the Sikh army undei Chattar 
Singh and Sher Singh finally laid down their arms after the battle of 
Gujrat. On the introduction of British rule, Rawalpindi became the 
site of a cantonment, and shortly afterwards the head-quarters of 
a Division , while its connexion with the mam railway system by the 
extension of the North- Western Railway to Peshawar immensely de- 
veloped both its size and commercial importance. The municipality 
was created in 1867 The income and expenditure during the ten 
years ending 1902-3 averaged 2-1 lakhs In 1903-4 the income and 
expenditure were 1-8 lakhs and 2-1 lakhs lespectively. The chief item 
of income was octroi (1-6 lakhs) ; and the expenditure included 
administration (Rs. 35,000), conservancy (Rs 27,000), hospitals and 
dispensaries (Rs. 25,000), public works (Rs 9,000), and public safety 
(Rs. 17,000). The cantonment, with a population in 1901 of 40,611, 
is the most important in India. It contains one battery of horse and 
one of field artillery, one mountain battery, one company of garrison 
artillery, and one ammunition column of field artillery , one regiment 
of British and one of Native cavalry , two of British and two of Native 
infantry f and t\\o companies of sappers and miners, with a balloon 
section. It is the winter head quarters of the Northern Command, 
and of the Rawalpindi military division An arsenal was established 
here in 1883. The income and expenditure from cantonment funds 



RAYACHOTI TALUK 273 

during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs 96,000 and Rs. 93,000 
respectively The chief educational institutions are the Government 
normal school, the Gordon Arts college maintained by the American 
United Presbyterian Mission, and five aided Anglo-vernacular high 
schools. The cantonment also contains an English and several Anglo- 
vernacular middle schools, and an English convent school for girls 
The town has a civil hospital, with two branch dispensaries. Rawal- 
pindi has a large carrying trade with Kashmir The principal factories 
are the North- Western Railway locomotive and carnage works, where 
the number of employes in 1904 was 1,455 > an d the arsenal, which in 
the same yeai gave employment to 569 persons. Besides these, the 
Rawalpindi gas-works had 170 employes , a branch of the Murree 
Brewery, 200, a tent factory, 252,, an iron foundry, 123^ and four 
smaller factories an aggregate of 150 employes. The horse fair held by 
the District board in April is one of the largest in the Punjab. There 
are branches of the Alliance Bank of Simla and of the Commercial 
Bank of India in the cantonment. 

Raya. South-eastern tahsil of Sialkot District, Punjab, lying on 
the north bank of the Ravi between 31 43' and 32 13' N, and 74 22' 
and 75 i' E, with an area of 485 square miles. The Degh in its 
course through the western poition of the tahsil deposits a fertile silt. 
In the north-east also the land is rich. In the south the soil is saline, 
but abundant crops of rice are grown in good years. The population 
in 1901 was 192,440, compared with 214,671 in 1891. It contains the 
town of NAROWAL (population, 4,422) and 456 villages, including 
Raya, the head-quarters. The land revenue and cesses m 1903-4 
amounted to Rs. 3,77,000. 

Rayachoti Taluk. Central taluk of Cuddapah District, Madras, 
lying between 13 50' and 14 20' N. and 78 25' and 79 10' E., with 
an area of 998 square miles. It is flanked on the east by the Palkonda 
Hills, which separate this tract from the lower country. The popula- 
tion in 1901 was 113,912, compared with 113,236 in 1891; and the 
density was 114 persons per square mile, compared with the District 
aveiage of 148. It contains one town, RAYACHOTI (population, 7,123), 
the head-quarters ; and 89 villages. The demand for land revenue and 
cesses in 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,63,000 Like the other upland 
taluks, Rayachoti contains a large number of tanks, but few are of any 
size. In the floods of November, 1903, over one hundred of them 
were breached. The principal products are rice and cambu^ the latter 
being the staple food-grain. The soils vary considerably, but the red 
varieties predominate. There is no black cotton soil. The most fertile 
portion is to the south-east in the neighbourhood of Tsundupalle, 
where there are a large number of tanks and some channels from the 
Punchu and Bahuda rivers. There are four rivers m the taluk 



274 RAYACHOTI TALUK 

the Papaghni, which flows through a small part of the western portion, 
the Manda\i, the Bahuda, and the Chitleru All of them are affluents 
of the Cheyyeru, and none is perennial or of any size. The Papaghni 
runs in a rocky channel with a very lapid stream . The Mandavi, on 
the banks of which the town of Rayachoti is situated, usually consists 
of a nanow stieam of watei tackling thiough a wide sandy bed. 

Rayachoti Town (Rajd-vidu, ' the abode of the Raja ') Head- 
quarteis of the taluk of the same name in Cuddapah District, Madras, 
situated in 14 4' N. and 78 46' E. Population (1901), 7,123. It 
stands on the banks of the Mandavi ii\ei, and seven loads con- 
verge on it. It has some trade and a weekly market. An old temple 
here is dedicated to Virabhadraswami, and a large number of people 
(about 6,000) attend the annual car-festival Two odd superstitions 
are connected with the feasts at this shrine Eaily in the morning of 
the day of the car-pi ocession a big luby of the size of a nutmeg is 
placed between the two eyebrows of the god to represent the third eye 
of Siva Opposite to the idol a large heap of boiled rice is placed so 
as to catch the first glance of the luby eye. Till this is done, the 
doors are shut, and the people aie prevented from going in front of 
the idol, lest they should be instantly killed by the ra}s fiom the thud 
eye. The person who conducts the ceiemony stands behind the idol, 
out of the range of the eye, and stops there till the nte is over. At 
another time of the } ear the god is taken out hunting He is carried 
to a small open building supported by stone pillars half a mile outside 
the town, and there placed on the ground. Beneath the flooring of 
this building are a large number of scorpions. While the god is taking 
his rest therein, the attendants, it is said, can catch these scorpions 
and hold them m their hands without being stung, but directly he leaves 
it the creatures resume their old propensities 

Rayadrug Taluk. South-eastern taluk of Bellary District, Madras, 
lying between 14 28' and 15 4' N. and 76 47' and 77 21' E., with 
an area of 628 square miles The population m 1901 was 82,789, 
compared with 78,625 in 1891 The demand for land revenue and 
cesses m 1903-4 amounted to Rs. 1,86,000. It contains only one 
town, RAYADRUG (population, 10,488), the head-quarters, and 71 
villages. The tahtk contains a far smaller propoition of black cotton 
soil than the other three eastern taluks of Adoni, Altir, and Bellaiy. 
Twenty-seven per cent,, mainly consisting of land in the basin of the 
Hagari, is cotton soil 3 while about a fifth is red land, and more than 
one-half is covered with the light mixed soils. The Hagan and its 
tributary the Chmna Hagari dram practically the whole area. Raya- 
drug has the smallest population of any taluk in the District, and its 
people are the worst educated. More than half of them speak Telugu, 
and two-fifths Kanarese It contains a large numbei of wells, and 



RAYADRUG TOWN 275 

the spring channels which are annually dug from the Hagan are only 
second in importance to those from the Tungabhadra They are 
cleared every year by the joint labour of the villagers who profit by 
them, and the provisions of section 6 of Act I of 1858, under which 
any person neglecting or refusing to contribute his share of the 
customary labour is liable to pay twice the value of that labour, are 
rigorously enforced. Most of the land supplied by these channels is 
cultivated with rice, and the area under this crop is far higher than 
that in any other taluk. But much of the land is very infertile, the 
area under horse-gram (the characteristic crop of poor soils) is high, 
and one-fifth of the cultivable area is waste Korra is the staple food- 
crop, and not cholam as elsewhere in the District. A considerable 
quantity of cambu is also raised 

Rayadrug Town. Head-quaiters of the taluk of the same name 
in Bellary Distnct, Madras, situated in 14 42' N and 76 51' E 
Population (1901), 10,488 Rayadrug means 'king's hill-fortress,' and 
the place is so named fiom the stronghold on the rocky hill at the foot 
of which it is built The hill consists of two parts, one considerably 
highei than the other, connected by a low saddle. The citadel is on 
the higher peak, 2,727 feet above the sea; but the enclosing walls of 
the fortress surround both the heights and the saddle between them, 
and run, it is said, for a distance of 5 miles round the bill. Though 
the gates are in ruins, the lines of walls which remain show what 
a formidable stronghold it must have been in days gone by On the 
saddle, and even higher up the rock, are a number of houses which are 
still occupied, and the cultivation of vegetables from the water m the 
many tanks on the hill is a thriving industry. 

The place is said to have been originally a stronghold of some 
Bedars, whose disoiderly conduct compelled the Vijayanagai kings to 
send an officer, named Bhupati Raya, to i educe them to submission. 
He turned them out of the place and ruled it himself, and the hill \\as 
called after him Bhupali-Rayamkonda, or more shoitly Rayadiug 
Later it fell into the hands of the chief of Kmidurpi Drug in Anantapur 
District , and his family built the greater part of the fortifications on the 
hill, and raised the place to the important position it held in the petty 
wars of the Deccan. The height of its power was reached in the 
middle of the eighteenth century. Haidar All was friendly to the chief, 
but his son and successor Tipu treacherously seized the place and 
confined its owner at Senngapatam When Tipu was killed in 1799 
a member of the chief's family took possession of the fort, but he 
attempted to excite disturbances and was almost immediately deported 
to Hyderabad by the Nizam's officers. When Bellary District was 
ceded to the Company in 1800, he was transferred to Gooty, where he 
resided on a maintenance allowance as a quasi-state prisonei till his 



276 RAY AD RUG TOWN 

death. Pensions were granted to the members of his family, which 
several of their descendants continue to draw. 

On the hill on which the fort stands aie several temples, some rums 
of the former chiefs' residences, a Jam temple, and some curious Jam 
figures carved upon the face of the rocks in a place known as Rasa 
Siddha's hermitage. Rasa Siddha, says local tradition, was a sage who 
lived in the days when a king named Rajarajendra ruled over Raya- 
drug This king had two wives. The elder of these bore a son, who 
was named Sarangadhara and grew into a very beautiful youth. The 
younger wife fell in love with him. He i ejected her advances, and she 
took the time-honoured revenge of telling her husband that he had 
attempted her virtue. The king ordeied that his son should be taken 
to the rock called Sabbal Banda, two miles north of Rayadrug, and 
there have his hands and feet cut off. The order was obeyed. That 
night Rasa Siddha found the pnnce lying there and, knowing by his 
powers of second sight that he was innocent, applied magic herbs 
which made his hands and feet to glow again. The prince piesented 
himself to his father, who saw from the portent that he must be inno- 
cent and punished the wicked wife. The hermitage is now occupied 
by an ascetic from Northern India, and on Sundays Hindus of all 
classes, and even Musalmans, go up the hill to break coco-nuts there. 
It consists of three cells with cut-stone doorways built among a pile of 
enormous boulders, picturesquely situated among fine trees. On four 
of the boulders are carved the Jain figures referred to. 

Rayadrug town contains two or three broad and regular streets, and 
many narrow and irregular lanes. Its industries include a tannery, the 
weaving of silk fabrics, and the manufacture of borugulu^ or rice soaked 
in salt water and then fried on sand until it swells. Trade is conducted 
largely with Bellary, but also with Kalyandrug and with the neighbour- 
ing villages in Mysore. Now that the railway to Bellary has been 
completed, that town's share of the commerce will doubtless increase 
rapidly. 

Rayagada. Tahsll in the Agency tiacts of Vizagapatam, Madras, 
lying in the north-east of the Distnct. It is very hilly, but the hills 
have for the most part been denuded of their forests. The Nagavah 
or Langulya river travel ses the whole length of it, and most of the 
cultivation (chiefly rice) is in this valley. The area is 710 square miles > 
and the population in 1901 was 86,610 persons, chiefly Khonds and 
other hill tribes, living in 758 villages. The head-quarters are at 
Rayagada. 

Rayakottai ('king's fort'). Village in the Krishnagin taluk of 
Salem District, Madras, situated in 12 31' N. and 78 2' E. Popula- 
tion (1901), 1,497. To the north stands the hill with its ruined fort 
which gives the place itb name This commands one of the most 



RECHNA DOAB 277 

important parses between the Mysore table-land and the Baramahal, 
and was of great strategical importance in the Mysore Wars of the 
eighteenth century. Its capture by Major Govvdie was the fiist exploit 
m Lord Cornwallis's march It was ceded to the British by the treaty 
of 1792, and under its walls the army of General Harris encamped in 
1799 before entering Mysore territory on its way to Seringapatam. The 
place was at one time a favourite residence of military pensioners. 

Rayan. Estate and chief town thereof in Jodhpur State, Rajput- 
ana. Set RJAN. 

Raybag. Head-quarters of the petty division of the same name in 
Kolhapur State, Bombay, situated in 16 30' N. and 74 52' E,, on the 
Southern Mahratta Railway, 24 miles south-east of Shirol. Population 
( 1 9 OI )j 3*804. In the eleventh century it is said to have been the chief 
town of a Jain chiefship. According to a local story, the town was 
formerly so wealthy that on one market day the maid of a rich merchant 
bid Rs 5,000 for a gourd. By this offer she outbid the servant of 
Randullah Khan, the local Bijapui governor The servant in anger 
told her master that all the best things in the market went to the 
merchants. The governor, thinking that the town had grown over- 
wealthy, ordered it to be plundered, a misfortune from which it has 
never recovered. Most of the inhabitants are Jams and Marathas, and 
the town is surrounded by a mud wall. On every Monday a market 
is held, where grain and coarse cloth are offered for sale Raybag con- 
tains three temples, a mosque, and the domed tomb of Randullah Khan, 
which has recently been repaired. The Someshwar temple is old, and 
built of huge well-sculptured blocks of stone The Sidheshwar temple, 
which is built of black stone, was repaired in 1875 by the indviddrs or 
piopnetors of the Raybag petty division The Narsmgha temple is an 
underground structure of black stone The image of Narsmgha is richly 
caived, and is said to have been brought from the Kistna near Jalalpur. 

Razam. Town in the Palkonda taluk of Vizagapatam District, 
Madras, situated in 18 27' N and 83 41' E., about 14 miles from 
Palkonda, in the middle of an open plain covered with scrub jungle. 
Population (1901), 5,096. 

Razampeta. Head-quarters of the Pullampet taluk of Cuddapah 
Distiict, Madras, situated in 14 12' N. and 79 10' E Population 
(1901), 15,287. It is a station on the Madras Railway, but otherwise 
it is of little interest. 

Rechna Doab. A doab or ' tract between two rivers ' (the Ravi and 
Chenab) m the Punjab, lying between 30 35' and 32 50' N. and 
71 50' and 75 3' E, comprising Sialkot, Gujranwala, and Lyallpur 
Districts, and parts of Gurdaspur, Lahore, Montgomery, Jhang, and 
Multan. The name was formed by the Mughal emperor Akbar, by 
combining the first syllables of the names of the two rivers 



278 REGAN 

Regan. Petty State in REWA KANTHA, Bombay 

Rehli. Southern taksil of Saugor District, Central Provinces, lying 
between 23 9' and 23 54' N. and 78 $6' and 79 22' E., with an area 
of 1,299 square miles in 1901. The population decreased from 171,090 
m 1891 to 138,030 in 1901 In 1902, ii villages and 30 square miles 
of Government forest were transfened to Narsmghpur District, and the 
icvised totals of area and population are 1,254 square miles and 136,463 
persons The density is 109 persons per squaie mile, or below the 
District average. The tahsil contains two towns, GARHAKOTA (popula- 
tion, 8,508) and DEORI (4,980) ; and 660 inhabited villages. The 
head-quarters of the tahsil are at Rehll, a village of 3,665 inhabitants, 
situated at the junction of the Sonar and Dehar rivers, 26 miles from 
Saugor by road, Excluding 327 square miles of Government forest, 
69 per cent, of the available area is occupied for cultivation The 
cultivated area in 1903-4 was 443 square miles. The demand for land 
revenue m the same year was Rs. 1,71,000, and for cesses Rs 18,000. 
The tahsil contains some fertile plain country lound Garhakota and 
Deorl, with stretches of poor hilly land on the western and southern 
borders 

Rehrakhol. Native State in Bengal See RAIRAKHOL. 

Remnna. Village in the head-quarters subdivision of Balasore Dis- 
trict, Bengal, situated in 21 33' N. and 86 53' E., about 5 miles west 
of Balasore town. Population (1901), 1,430 It is celebrated for the 
temple of the god Kshlrchora Gopinath, a form of Krishna, m honour 
of whom a religious fair is held annually in February. The fair lasts 
for thirteen days and is attended by a very large number of pilgrims. 
Toys, sweetmeats, fruits, vegetables, country cloth, and other articles are 
bold. The temple of the god is an unsightly stone edifice, disfigured 
by indecent sculptures. 

Reni. Head-quartet s of the nizaniat and tahsil of the same name 
in the State of Blkaner, Rajputana, situated in 28 41' N. and 75 3' E., 
about 120 miles north-east of Blkaner city, Population (1901), 5,745 
The town is walled, and possesses a handsome Jain temple built m 
942 so solidly that the masonry is almost as strong now as when new, 
a fort constructed m the time of Maharaja Surat Singh (1788-1828), a 
post office, a vernacular school attended by 72 boys, a jail with accom- 
modation for 86 prisoners, and a hospital with beds for 7 in-patients 
Raw hides and chhagah (leathern water-bags), manufactured at Reni, 
are exported in great numbers. The nizdmat consists of the five 
eastern tahslls of Bhadra, Churu, Nohar, Rajgarh, and Reni , and the 
total population in 1901 was 175,113, nearly 90 per cent, being Hindus. 

Reotl. Town in the Bansdlh tahsil of Ballia District, United Pro- 
vinces, situated in 25 51' N. and 84 24' E., on the Bengal and North- 
Western Railway. Population (1901), 8,631. Reoti is the head-quarters 



REWAH STATE 279 

of the Nikumbh Rajputs, but these have lost most of their pioperty, 
and the town presents a dirty and overcrowded appearance, It is 
administered under Act XX of 1856, with an income of Rs 1,000. 
Coarse cotton cloth, shoes, and palanquins are manufactured, but there 
is little trade besides. The school has 50 pupils. 

Repalle. Former name of a taluk in Guntur District, Madras, 
which is now called TENALI 

Revadanda. Port in the Alibag tahtka of Kolaba District, Bom- 
bay, situated 6 miles south-by-east of Alibag town, m 18 33' N. and 
72 57' E, See CHAUL. 

Revelganj (01 Godna). Town in the head-quaiters subdivision of 
Saran Distuct, Bengal, situated in 25 47' N. and 84 39' E., on the 
left bank of the Gogra river. Population (1901), 9,765. The town is 
named after Mr Revell, who was Collector of Government Customs 
in 1788. It was formerly a very important trade centre, but the railway 
has robbed it of much of itb business. Revelganj was constituted 
a municipality in 1876 The income and expenditure during the 
decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs 9,000 each In 1903-4 the in- 
come was Rs. 11,000, derived mainly from tolls and a tax on houses 
and lands ; and the expendituie was Rs. 8,000. 

Rewah State (Rlu>a).K tieaty State in the Baghelkhand 
Agency, Cential India, lying between 22 38' and 25 12' N. and 
80 32' and 82 51' E. 5 with an area of about 13,000 square miles. It 
is bounded on the north by the Banda, Allahabad, and Mirzapur 
Districts of the United Provinces ; on the east by Mirzapur Distiict 
and the Tributary States of Chota Nagpur ; on the south by the 
Central Provinces ; and on the west by the States of Maihar, Nagod, 
Sohawal, and Kothl, in Baghelkhand The State falls into two 
natural divisions, which are separated by the scarp of 
the Kaimui range North of the range, surrounding g ^ts 

the chief town, lies a wide elevated alluvial plain, 
with an area of 3,778 square miles, to the south the country is 
traversed by a succession of parallel ridges enclosing deep valleys, the 
whole being covered with dense forest. The plateau ends on both the 
north and south in an abrupt scarp, and the scenery near the hilly tract 
is very fine. Over the northern scarp the Tons falls in a series of 
magnificent cascades. Near Govindgarh on the southern boundary 
a similar effect on a smaller scale is produced by streams which pre- 
cipitate themselves into the valley of the Son river. 

The KAIMURS and theii eastern spur, known locally as the Khainjua, 
the arm of the Panna range (see VINDHYA) called locally the Bmjh 
Pahar, which curves eastwards from Bundelkhand and forms the 
northern boundary of the State, and the MAIKALA HILLS on which the 
sacred AMARKANTAK stands in the south-east, constitute the hill system 



280 RE WATT STATE 

of this region. The watershed is formed by the Kaimurs, fiom which 
all streams flow respectively north or south to join the TONS and SON, 
these two great rivers with their tributaries constituting the drainage 
of the State. 

The geology of Rewah is unusually interesting The type areas of 
several important series he within its limits, the Rewahs, Kaimurs, 
Bandairs (Bhanders), and Sirbu shales deriving their designations 
from local names The elevated plain on which the chief town stands 
consists of rocks of the lower Bandair series overlaid with alluvium, 
while on some of the highest hill-tops a covering of latente still 
appears, showing that the great Deccan trap flow once extended as far 
east as this region. The jungle-covered tract lying south of the Kaimut 
range consists of hills of Vindhyan sandstone superimposed on gneiss 
The Bijawars here exhibit a varied series of slates, sandstones, iron 
ores, and basic lavas, and in the south abut on the Gondwana rocks, 
well-known for their coal-bearing property, while at the very southern 
limit of the State the cretaceous Lam etas and trap appear, the latter 
reaching as far as Amarkantak. 

Almost every formation met with in the State yields products of 
value. The gneiss contains corundum, while mica and galena also 
occur in this formation. The Bijawars contain rich iion ores, valuable 
limestones, some of which would make highly ornamental marbles, and 
bright-red banded jaspers similar to those which are found near 
Gwalior and employed by the stone-workeis of Agra. The Lam etas 
contain ceramic clays of excellent quality The UMARIA coal-mines in 
the Gondwanas are a source of considerable income to the State, while 
the Vindhyan sandstones yield building materials of unsurpassed 
excellence. 

The prevalent tiee in the Rewah forests is the sdl(Shorea robusta?), 
others being the saj (Termmalia tomentosa), tendu (Diospyros tomen- 
tosa\ and khair (Acacia Catechu}. The brushwood consists mainly 
of the species Grewia, Zizyphus, Casearia^ Antidesma, Woodfordia^ 
Fhteggea,) Phyllanthus^ Boswelha^ and Buchanama^ with occasional 
trees of makud (Bassia latifoha), 

The Rewah jungles are well-known for their tigers, while leopards, 
bears, sambar (Cervis umcolor\ antelope, and chlnkara (Gazella be?i- 
netti\ and other species common to Peninsular India abound. All 
the ordinary wild fowl are met with, 

The climate is generally healthy, but subject to extremes of heat and 
cold. The annual rainfall averages 41 inches Great vaiiations are, 
however, apparent in different parts of the State, the Raghurajnagar 
tahsil having an average of 45 inches, while in the Sohagpur tahsU it 
rises to 52. 

The chiefs of Rewah are Baghel Rajputs descended from the Solanki 



HISTORY 281 

clan which mled over Gujarat from the tenth to the thirteenth century 
Vyaghra Deo, brother of the ruler of Gujarat, is said to have made 
his way into Northern India about the middle of the 
thirteenth century and obtained the fort of Marpha, * y ' 

1 8 miles north-east of Kalmjar. His son, Karan Deo, married a Kala- 
chun (Haihaya) princess of Mandla and received in dowry the fort of 
Bandhogarh, which until its destruction by Akbar m 1597 was the capital 
of the Baghel possessions. The Rewah family, however, have singularly 
few historical records , and such histories as have been lately composed 
confuse persons and dates m a way that makes them absolutely 
unreliable, so that were it not for the detailed lecords of the Muham- 
madan historians it would be difficult to give any connected account 

In 1298 Karan Deo, the last Baghel i tiler of Gujarat, was driven 
from his country by Ulugh Khan, acting under the orders of the 
empeior Ala-ud-din This disaster seems to have caused a considerable 
migration of Baghels to Bandhogarh Until the fifteenth century the 
Baghels were engaged in extending their possessions, and were not of 
sufficient political importance to attract the attention of the Delhi 
kings. In 1488 the Baghel Raja of Panna 1 assisted Husain Shah of 
Jaunpur when pursued by Bahlol Lodl. In 1494 Sikandar LodI 
advanced against Raja Bhaira or Bhira of Panna, who had captured 
Mubarak Khan, governor of Jaunpur. The Raja was defeated and 
died during his retreat, while Sikandar proceeded as far as Paphund, 
20 miles north of the capital town of Bandhogarh, In 1498-9 Sikan- 
dar attacked Bhlra's son and successor, Salivahan, for refusing to grant 
him a daughter in marriage. An attempt to take the fort of Bandho- 
garh failed, and Sikandar was obliged to content himself with laying 
waste the country up to Banda. Salivahan was succeeded by Blr Singh 
Deo, the founder of Blrsmghpur, now in Panna State, and was followed 
by his son Birbhan, who had lived for some time at Sikandar's court. 
The next chief was Ram Chandra (1555-92), the contemporary of 
Akbar, who is constantly mentioned by Muhammadan historians 
Hearing of the extraordinary skill of Ram Chandra's musician, Tan 
Sen, Akbar summoned him to Delhi, Tan Sen's songs are still sung, 
and his name is revered throughout India as that of a singer who has 
never been equalled. Ram Chandra persistently refused to attend the 
Delhi court, till at length in 1584, at the suggestion of his own son 
Birbhadra, then at Delhi, Raja Birbal and a noble, Zain Khan Koka, 
fetched the old chief, who was received with all honour by Akbar. 
Ram Chandra died in 1592 and was succeeded by Birbhadra, who, 
however, fell from his palanquin while travelling to Bandhogarh and 
died in the following year, Blrbhadra's sudden death and the acces- 
sion of a minor named Vikramaditya gave rise to disturbances in 
1 { Panna ' is here probably a copyist's mistake for ' Bhatti.' 



282 RE WAN STATE 

Bandhogarh. Akbar intervened and captured and dismantled the fort 
in 1597, after a siege of eight months and a few days. Anup Singh 
(1640-60) was driven from Rewah by Pahar Singh Bundela of Orchha. 
In 1658, however, he went to Delhi and made his submission; and 
the fort of Bandhu and its dependent territory were restored to him. 
Aniiudh Singh (1690-1700) was killed by the Sengar Thakurs of 
Mauganj, leaving an infant son Avdhut Singh (1700-55) The State 
at this time was invaded by Hirde Sah of Panna, who occupied 
Rewah, the chief being forced to fly to Partabgarh in Oudh. 

In 1803, after the Treaty of Bassem, overtures for an alliance were 
made to the Rewah chief, who, however, rejected them. In 1812, 
during the time of Raja Jai Singh (1809-35), a body of Pindans raided 
Mirzapur from Rewah territory. The chief was believed to have either 
abetted 01 at least countenanced the laid, and was accordingly called 
upon to accede to a treaty, in which he acknowledged the protection of 
the British Government, and agreed to refer all disputes with neigh- 
bouring chiefs to their arbitration, and to allow British troops to march 
through or be cantoned in his territories. The last condition was not, 
however, fulfilled, and a fresh treaty was entered into in 1813. Jai 
Singh was a scholar, and the author of several works, as well as a great 
patron of literary men. In 1854 Maharaja Raghuraj Singh succeeded 
to the gaddL On the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857, he offered 
troops for the assistance of the British Government, and 2,000 men 
were sent to keep peace in the neighbouring tracts. Kimwar Singh, 
leader of the rebels from Dinapur, attempted to march through the 
country ; but Lieutenant Osborne, the Political Agent, supported by 
the country people, beat them off, and also repulsed an attack by the 
mutineers from Nagod and Jubbulpore, after which Colonel Hinde, 
commanding the Rewah Contingent, took the offensive and cleared the 
Deccan road of rebels For his good services, the Sohagpur and 
Amarkantak parganas, which had been seized by the Marathas in 
the beginning of the centuiy, were restored to Raghuraj Singh. He 
died in 1880, and was succeeded by the present chief, Maharaja 
Venkat Raman Singh, born in 1876. He was cieated a G.C S I. in 
1897, in recognition of his successful conduct of famine relief opera- 
tions. The ruler of the State bears the titles of His Highness and 
Maharaja, and receives a salute of 1 7 guns. 

The country possessed by the Rewah chief is coveied with old re- 
mams, almost every village having in it or near it some signs of former 
habitation \ but these have not yet been fully examined Madho- 
garh, Rampur, Kundalpur, Amarpatan, Majholi, and Kakonsiha may 
be especially noted. At Kevati Kund the Mahanadi river drops down 
a sheer fall of 331 feet, forming a deep pool which is held to be very 
sacred ; near it is an inscription in characters of about 200 B.C. Gurgi 



POPULATION 



283 



Masaun, 1 2 miles east of Rewah town, is strewn with remains showing 
that it was formerly a place of great importance, and it has been 
suggested as the site of the ancient city of Kausambhi. A fine fort 
here, called Rehuta, which is attributed to Kama Deo Chedi (1040-70), 
has a circuit of 2-| miles, with walls n feet thick and originally 20 feet 
high, surrounded by a moat 50 feet broad and 5 feet deep. The 
temples are mostly Brahmamcal, though some Digambaia Jam figures 
are lying near. At Baijnath are the remains of five or six temples. One 
of them is dedicated to Siva as Vaidyanath, and the sanctuary door of 
this is magnificently carved. Chandrehi, a mile east from the bank 
of the Son, was once a very large place and contains a fine temple and 
an old monastery. The temple is peculiar in being constructed on 
a cucular plan, and is assigned to the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 
The monastery also belongs to about the same penod, and is mteiest- 
ing as an example of domestic aichitecture. It is built in the form of 
a square, with a pillared courtyaid inside and chambers round it The 
ceilings of the rooms are elegantly ornamented. At Mara, the Muri of 
the maps, are three groups of caves called the Buradan, Chhewar, and 
Ravan. They date from the fourth to the ninth century, and some of 
them are ornamented with rough sculptures 

The population at the last three enumerations was * (1881) 1,305,124, 
(1891) 1,508,943, and (1901) 1,327,385. The decrease of 14 per cent, 
duimg the last decade is chiefly due to the famines 
of 1897 and 1899. The density of population is 102 
persons per squaie mile, but the two natural divisions show a 
marked variation, the density in the northern section rising to 176 per 
square mile, while in the hilly tract it is only 72, 

The State contains four towns, REWAH (population, 24,608), SATNA 
(7,471), UMARIA (5,381), and GOVINDGARH (5,022) , and 5,565 villages, 

The following table gives the chief statistics of population and 
land revenue . 



Population. 





u 


Number of 




u, 


^ 





"3^ 




re! 














Ta/isll 


3 


1 


! 


|s 


fi 


filft 


Ills" 


H^-||" 




< 


H 


> 




o w 


^>l" rt 


*r 


j| s 


Teonthai 


816 




55 


105,154 


I2C) 


-41 


1,641 


3,29 


Huzur 


1,201 


2 


975 


316,139 


263 


II 


10,447 


2,86 


Mauganj . 
Bard! 


784 
2,912 




609 
848 


99,534 
198,921 


127 

68 


I?6 


1,831 
6,969 


2,12 
1,63 


Ramnagnr 


2,775 




949 


221,980 


80 


i- 7 


1,910 


86 


Sohagpur . 


3,535 


I 


1,192 


24^345 


68 


_ 20 


9,109 


27 


Raghnrajnagar . 


977 


I 


487 


144,312 


148 


IO 


4:039 


2,51 


State total 


13,000 


4 


5.5 6 5 


1,327,385 


102 


- T2 


35,946 


13,54 



VOL. XXI, 



284 RE IF AH STATE 

Hindus number 1,013,350, or 76 per cent, of the total , Ammists, 
280,502, or 21 per cent. ; and Musalmans, 32,918, 01 2 per cent. The 
Animists are proportionately most numerous m the hilly tract, though 
the Gonds ordinarily return themselves as Hindus. The question of 
female infanticide was raised in Rewah. in 1893, when a great de- 
ficiency of girls was found to exist among the Karchuli (Kalachun), 
Parihar, and Somvansi Rajputs. Measures weie introduced for the 
surveillance of certain villages, but the census returns of 1901 gave no 
indication of any prevalence of the practice. 

The chief Hindu castes are Biahmans (228,000, or 17 per cent), 
Kunbis (79,000), Chamars (78,000), and Tehs (36,000) The Telis weie 
in early days the holders of much of the country, Teh chiefs ruling 
in Noithern Baghelkhand up to the fifteenth century. Of the jungle 
tribes, the most important are the Kols (136,500) and Gonds (127,300) 
Brahmans and Rajputs or Thakurs are the principal landholders, 
Ahirs and Kunbis being the chief cultivators The prevailing language 
is Baghelkhandi, spoken by 94 per cent, of the population About 
64 per cent, of the inhabitants are supported by agriculture, and 
8 per cent, by general labour. 

There are no Christian missions in Rewah, and in 1901 only 61 
Christians were recorded in the State, of whom 21 were on the staff 
of the colliery at Umana. 

The soil falls into two natural divisions, agreeing with the lie of the 

country. On the section north of the Kaimurs, with its deep alluvial 

. covering, the soil is fertile and bears excellent crops, 

while in the hilly tract cultivation is productive only 

in the valleys, where detritus has collected. Land is classified locally 

by crop-bearing qualities, natural formation, and proximity to villages. 

The best class is called mar, a form of black soil, especially adapted 

to wheat and other spring crops, sigon is a lighter yellow-coloured 

soil, growing rice especially; dumat is a mixtuie of the two former, 

and bhatta is a stony soil of low productive power. 

The principal crops are rice, sdmdn, maize, kdkun, bajra, and kodon 
in the autumn , and \vheat, gram, and barley m the spring, with sub- 
sidiary crops of til and linseed. In the low-level tract of the Teonthar 
tahsil poppy is cultivated to some extent 

The main agiicultural statistics for 1902-3 are given in the table 
on the next page, in square miles. 

The area is thus distributed : cultivated, 2,803 square miles, or 
22 per cent. ; uncultivated but cultivable, 1,290 squaie miles, or 
10 per cent.; forest, 4,632 square miles, or 35 per cent The rest 
is uncultivable waste Of the cropped area, lice occupies 600 square 
miles, or 21 per cent, and wheat 290 square miles, or 10 per cent 
The staple food-grains eaten by the poorei classes are kodon and wmdn 



FORESTS 



285 



in the lains, and jowar and gram at othei times The rich eat nee 
and wheat. A new class of wheat has lately been introduced, known 
as muda or safed (' white ') wheat, but it is considered of inferior quality 
to the ordinary or kathia, wheat. Advances of gram and cash are not 
made in ordinary years, but are freely given in times of scarcity. 



TahsH 


Total 

area 


Culti\ated 


Irrigated 
(acres) 


Cultivable 
waste 


Forests 


Teonthar 


816 


308 


236 


183 


2OO 


Huzur . 


1,201 


703 


1,040 


I6 7 


127 


Mauganj 


7S4 


256 


6 7 


198 


183 


Bardi . 


2,912 


487 


73 


189 


1,296 


Rainnagar 


2,775 


367 


155 


73 


1,191 


Sohagpur 


3,535 


273 


183 


302 


r >474 


Raghurajnagar 


977 


409 


208 


178 


161 


Total 


13,000 


2,803 


1,967 


1,290 


4,632 



Water is plentiful and the country is full of laige tanks and reservoirs, 
but these are not as a rule used for irrigation purposes, the only 
system of ' wet ' cultivation is from small embankments of earth raised 
at the lower end of sloping fields, so as to retain water for some time 
after the monsoon has ceased. In land thus moistened seed is sown 
in October, producing a yield three or four times as great as that 
obtained from the same area of equally good ' dry ' soil. The method 
is simple and well suited to the needs of local agriculture. Ordinary 
well-irrigation is little practised, being confined to the cultivation of 
pan, poppy, sugar-cane, and garden produce. Pastuiage is ample, but 
no special breeds of cattle are raised. 

Formerly the revenue was paid in kind called bhdg ('share'). This 
system has been entirely replaced by cash payments in lands directly 
under the State, but the holders of alienated land, which comprises 
about 72 pei cent, of the total area, still adhere to the old practice, 
Wages are paid in kind for agricultural operations, but in cash for 
other work. Blacksmiths, carpenters, and masons get 4 to 8 annas 
a day. The staple food-giams, rice, wheat, jowar, and kodon, sold in 
1904 at ii, 13, 17, and 14 seers per rupee respectively. 

The forests are very extensive and of considerable commercial value. 
They cover an area of 4,632 square miles, the most important lying 
south of the Kaimur range. The greater part of the forest consists 
of sal (Shorea robust a), tendu (Diospyros tomenfosa), 
dhawa (Anogeissus latifohd], and species of Termi- 
nalia, with much bamboo. In the upland area stunted teak, babul 
(Acacia arabicd)^ and khair {Acacia Catechu} prevail. Dahya (shifting) 
cultivation was formerly very common, and is still to some extent 
practised by jungle tribes. Trees are felled and burnt, and the seed 
sown in the ashes This practice is highly destructive to foiests, and 

r 2 



Forests. 



2 86 REWAH STATE 

is discouraged in consequence. Till 1875 no proper supervision was 
exercised over the forests, but between that date and 1902 systematic 
management has been introduced and some areas are now regularly 
1 reserved J and protected. The cutting of certain trees is prohibited ; 
of these the principal are the mahua (Bassia latifolia\ achdr (Buchan- 
ania latifoha], kusam (Schleichera trijuga\harra (Termtnalia Chebula), 
khair (Acacia Catechu\ chhiula (Bassia butyracea), sag or teak (Tectona 
grandis], and shisham (Dalbergia Stssoo). Grazing is allowed only 
within village limits. Lac, rdl (resin of Shorea robusta], and other 
jungle products are leased out to conti actors yearly, the first being 
an important commercial item. Forest work is done by Gonds, Kols, 
and other jungle tribes. The forest income amounts to 4-1 lakhs 
a year, and the expenditure to a lakh. 

Rewah is rich in mineral products The most paying is coal from 
UMARIA, of which 193,277 tons, worth 7-5 lakhs, were extracted in 

1903. Limestone is quarried by a European firm 
Minerals. o . - i.r t,-r^-u 

near Satna, a royalty of 4 annas per cubic foot being 

paid, which in 1903 yielded Rs. 1,640. A little corundum is also 
extracted. 

In respect of arts and manufactures Rewah is very backward. 

Agnculture affords a ready and easy means of livelihood, while the 

fact that the greater part of the State is covered 

mm a icSions w ^ J un ^ e ^ as a ^ wa Y s made communication for 
' trade purposes difficult. There aie no arts or 
industries of any importance. 

Grain and wood are the chief exports, large numbers of railway 
sleepers being exported from the stations between Umaria and Pendra 
Road. 

The chief means of communication are the Jubbulpore extension 
of the East Indian Railway and the Katnl-Bilaspur section of the 
Bengal-Nagpur Railway. The Jubbulpore-Mirzapur, or great Deccan 
road, from which an unmetalled branch goes to Allahabad, and the 
Nowgong-Chhatarpur-Panna-Satna road are the chief highways \ but 
since the opening of railways the former has been little used 

In 1864 the State introduced a post carried by runners. In 1884 
an arrangement was made with the British Post Office department to 
open offices in the State There are now twenty-one British post 
offices, and three telegraph offices, at Rewah, Satna, and Umaria, 
besides those at railway stations 

Since the beginning of the nineteenth century the State has suffered 
from three famines. The first was m 1831, when no proper system 

F m'ne f ielief " Was mstltute ^ anc * the people suffered so 

severely that on the fall of any kind of calamity it is 

jio w usual to recall it. In 1868 occurred another famine, which is still 



ADMINISTRA TION 2 8 7 

recollected, The next came in 1897, when for the first time systematic 
relief was afforded to the people, 18 lakhs being spent. In 1899 the 
southern districts were again attacked by famine, though not severely. 

Up to the nineteenth century the administration of the State, 
though it lay nominally with the chief, was almost entirely in the 
hands of the Kayasth community, then practically ... 
the only educated persons connected with the ministration. 
government. A dlivdn or minister had nominal superior control, but 
all reports, accounts, and administrative work passed through the 
hands of the Kayasth khdskalams or writers. The districts were in 
charge of kanndas (managers), who, however, were again dependent 
on their district khaskalam for all information. The district khaskalam 
prepared abstracts of the reports he received from the village officials, 
which were again abstracted by the chief khaskalam at head-quarters 
and submitted to the diwdn. The system naturally gave immense 
opening for peculation to the permanent Kayasth staff. 

For administrative purposes the State is now divided into seven 
tahslls, four lying north of the Kaimur range the Huzur, Raghuraj- 
nagar (Satna), Teonthar, and Mauganj ; and three south Bardi, 
Ramnagar, and Sohagpur. Each tahstl is in charge of a tahsllddr^ 
who is the revenue collector and magistrate of his charge, and is 
assisted by a staff consisting of a thdnaddr (police inspector), a forest 
officer, a hospital assistant, and a district schoolmaster. Villages are 
as a rule let to farmers who are responsible for the revenue, receiving 
a commission of 5 to 10 per cent, on the gross rental. 

The chief of Rewah has first-class powers, including that of life and 
death over his subjects, and is the final authority of appeal in all 
matters. He is assisted by two commissioners, one for revenue 
matters and one for judicial. The departments of administration are 
the revenue and general executive, judicial, customs and excise, police, 
public works, medical (which is supervised by the Agency Surgeon at 
Satna), education, and forests. The courts of the State are modelled 
on those in British India, the British codes being followed in the 
cuminal and civil courts with necessary adaptations to suit local 
usage. 

Land falls into two classes : kothdr^ or land directly owned by the 
State ; and pawaiya^ or land alienated mjdgtrs and other grants. The 
lattei class comprises 72 per cent, of the total area. The principal 
forms of grant are muamla^ a maintenance grant made to membeis 
of the chiefs family and sarddrs, under which the land is not trans- 
ferable, but full revenue rights lie with the holdei ; paipakhar (' washing 
of feet'), a form of religious grant made to Brahmans, in which a 
certain percentage of the revenue is at times taken from the holders ; 
s, or service grants, under which the holder maintains a certain 



288 



REWAH STATE 



quota of men and horses , and vritya, rent or tribute-free grant A 
revenue survey was made in 1879. 

The land revenue and total revenue of the State for a series of years 
are shown below, in thousands of rupees : 





Average 


Average 




1QQ2 2 




1880-90 


1890-1900 


1900 i 




Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


6,70 
11,46 


7,87 
I4ii3 


9i3 

22,73 


13,54 
29,08 



Of the total levenue in 1902-3, the Umana Colliery contributed 
7 lakhs, forests 4-1 lakhs, customs 2-5 lakhs, and excise Rs. 78,000 , 
while Rs, 82,000 was paid by holders of alienated land, whose aggre- 
gate normal income from land levenue and other sources amounted to 
20 lakhs. The chief heads of expenditure were . chief's establishment, 
3-7 lakhs ; army, 4-3 lakhs ; public works, 3 lakhs , collection of land 
revenue, i 4 lakhs ; forests, i lakh , and colliery, 3-7 lakhs. 

Silver has never been coined 3 but early m the nineteenth century 
a copper coin known as the Bagga shahi was struck in Rewah, of 
which 56 went to one British rupee. 

The State forces consist of 1,140 infantry and 574 cavalry, with 
13 guns A regular police force of 622 men is maintained, village 
watch and ward being performed by men of the Kotwar caste, who 
receive a small land giant and gram dues at each harvest. The 
Central jail is at Rewah, and the manufacture of cotton cloth and ice 
has been started in it. 

The Rewah chiefs have long been noted as scholars and supporters 
of Hindi and Sanskrit learning. In 1869 Sir Dmkar Rao, the famous 
minister of Gwalior, who for a short time assisted in the admmistiation 
of the State, attempted, but without success, to start an English- 
teaching school. During the minority of the piesent chief many 
schools were opened Of the total population, 2-7 pei cent (4-6 
males and 0-8 females) could read and write in 1901. The State 
now contains two high schools, affiliated to the Allahabad University, 
and 51 village schools, as well as two girls' schools, with a total of 
2,740 pupils. The expenditure on education is Rs. 27,000 a year. 

There are 17 hospitals, costing Rs. 49,000 a year In 1903-4 the 
number of persons successfully vaccinated was 33,580, representing 
25 per 1,000 of the population. 

Rewah Town. Capital of the State of the same name in Central 
India, and head-quarters of the Huzur tahsll^ situated in 24 32' N. 
and 81 18' E., 31 miles by metalled road from Satna on the East 
Indian Railway; 1,045 ^ eet above the sea. Population (1901), 24,608, 
of whom 19,274, or 78 per cent., were Hindus, and 5,097 Musalmans, 



REWA KANTHA 289 

Rewah was already a place of importance in 1554, when it was held 
by Jalal Khan, son of the emperoi Sher Shah, It became the chief 
town after the capture of Bandhogarh, the old capital, by Akbar in 
1597 ; and Raja Vikramaditya, who, according to some accounts, 
founded the place in 1618, probably added palaces and othei buildings 
About 1731 Rewah was sacked by Hirde Sah of Panna, Raja Avdhut 
Singh flying to Partabgarh in Oudh, 

The old city is still enclosed by a wall 20 feet high, On the east 
side it is entered through the Jhula Darwaza ('swing gate'), a finely 
carved gateway taken from the old town of Gurgi Masaun, of which 
the remains lie 12 miles east of the capital. In 1882 a large part 
of the modern town was destroyed by a flood. Between the old walled 
town and the modern extension lies a deep ravine, crossed by a cause- 
way at a point known as the Bundela Gate, from a gate that formerly 
stood there, erected by the Bundelas after their capture of the city. 
The chief buildings are the palace of Vishvanath Singh, the KothI 
or new palace erected in 1883, and the State offices. The town also 
contains a school with a boarding-house attached, a State printing 
press, a jail, a combined post and telegiaph office, and a small dak- 
bungalow 

A garden known as the Lakshman Bagh contains several modern 
Vaishnavite temples erected by the chiefs, which are supervised by 
the Swami or high priest of the State, the spiritual director of the 
Rewah chief. Three generations back the chief of Rewah became an 
ardent supporter of Vaishnavism An income of Rs. 40,000 a year 
is attached to the post, and the Swami has great influence in temporal 
as well as spiritual matters. 

Rewa Kantha ('the banks of the Rewca or Narbada'). A Political 
Agency subordinate to the Government of Bombay, established in 
1821-6, having under its control 61 separate States, lying between 
21 23' and 23 33' N. and 73 3' and 74 20' E , with a total area 
of 4,972 square miles. Besides lands stretching about 50 miles along 
the south bank of the Narbada, Rewa Kantha includes an irregular 
band of territory from 10 to 50 miles broad, passing north of the 
Narbada to about 12 miles beyond the Main, and an isolated strip on 
the west lying chiefly along the left bank of the Mahi. It is bounded 
on the north by the Rajputana States of Dungarpur and Banswara ; 
on the east by the tdhtka of Dohad m the Panch Mahals District, All 
Raj pur, and other petty States of the Bhopawai Agency, and part of 
Khandesh District; on the south by Baroda territory and Surat 
District; and on the west by Broach District, Baroda State, the Panch 
Mahals, Kaira, and Ahmadabad Districts. Extreme length from north 
to south about 140 miles, breadth from east to west varying from 
EO to 50 miles. 



290 RE1VA KANTHA 

GENERAL STATISTICS OF EACH STATE IN THE REWA KANTHA AGENCY 







c- 


o 


a 


Revenue (1903-4) 


Tubute. 




Caste, tribe, 


'rt ^ 


J So 


J8 g, 






State. 


or race of the 


g % 


=: 


3 ? 












luhng chief 




I s 


fi" 


From 
land. 


Total 


Amount 


To whom 
payable 


First-clots 6 tali. 










Rs 


Rs 


Rb 




RajpTpla 


Rajput 


i,5i7j 


927 


"7.^75 


5,37)485 


8,76,014 


50,001 


Gaikwar. 


&econd-clcti,s States 


















Chota Udaipur . 
Banya 

Lunavada . . . 


Rajput 


S 73 
8i3 
388 


546 
495 

348 


64,6^1 
63,967 


1,00,678 
67,833 
1,11,932 


2,15,391 
1,78,701 


7,806 
f 5,* 


Gaikwar. 

1 Gaikwar 
J & British 


Balasmor 


Musalman 


189 


102 


32,618 


64,447 


99>543 


f 3,078 
( 9,766 


} 


Sunth . , . 


Rajput . . 


394 


2 9 I 


39,956 


62,725 


1,09,207 


5,384 


British 


Petty StaUs 


















Kadana .. 


Rajput 


I 3 


106 


9,55 


13,430 


18,683 








Bhadarva . . , 




27 


15 


8,782 


23,329 


35,856 


14,674 


Gaikwai 


Umeta ... 







14 


3,834 


28,572 


36,132 


1 3,846 
1 2,402 


1 Gaikwar 
J & British 


Sanjeh . , 

Narukot , 


Rajput 
Banya . 


34 
143 


52 
53 


2,743 


6,772 
5,682 


15,049 


32 


Gaikwar. 


Total States 


4,545 


2,949 


430,428 


10,22,885 


18,11,277 


1,11,221 




Sankheda Mehivas 
















i Mandwa 


Rajput 


16] 


8 


4,987 


22,223 


32,533 


1,704 


Gaikwar 


2 Vajiria 


Musalman 


21 


21 


3,9 2 9 


25,387 


29,962 






3 Gad Bonad . , 


Rajput 


128 


128 


3,018 


4,890 


9,377 


] 365 


Chota 


















Udaipur. 


4 Shanor 


3 


II? 


7 


1,219 


8,861 


11,819 


1,214 


Gaikwar 


5 Naswadi .... 


J5 


I9i 


27 


2,482 


7,332 


8,865 







6 Palasni . . 


j; 


12 


13 


855 


3,637 


4,303 


1,639 





7 Bhilodia - 


















Mottsinghji 




4i 


3 


732 


5)45 Z 


8,866 


933 


j; 


ChhatarsmghjT 






5 


789 


4,942 


5,699 


933 





SUchad . . 


Muialnun . 


8] 


13 


1,482 


9,319 


10,214 


679 





9 Neingam 


n 


3" 


4 


367 


i, 600 


1,834 


995 





10 Vdban Vupui . , 


i; 


12 ', 


22 


2,185 


i5,9 3 


18,798 


332 





11 Agar . . 


)} 


17" 


28 


J ,399 


9,911 


10,746 







12 Vora . . 


)s 


3? 


2 


i, 060 


5,757 


6,632 


655 





13 Aiwa . . 


} 


5 


8 


805 


4,756 


5,577 


5 2 





14 Vasan Sewada 


n 




6 


765 


3,86o 


4,710 


885 





15 Chorangla 


Rajput . , 


16 


16 


1,404 


3,801 


5,029 


73 


,j 


16 Vanmala . . . 


Musalman . 


10^ 


10 


743 


3,513 


3,952 


102 


J} 


17 Sindiapura 


j( 


4 


6 


483 


2,570 


2866 


44 


u 


1 3 Bihora 


" 




2 




1,605 


1,643 


39 





19 Vadia Virampui , 




i 


I 


H 


890 


890 


79 


J5 


">o Dudhpur 








108 


667 


670 


27 




21 Rjimpura . 


Rajput 


4^ 


4 


i,457 


2,3 1 5 


u/y 

3,556 


1,094 


J3 


^2 Jnal Kamsoli 


Musalman . 


5^ 


TO 


672 


4,54! 


4,852 


256 


jj 


23 Chudesar . . 


3) 




4 


359 


2,951 


2,965 


239 


tj 


24 Regan 


5J 


4 


2 


262 


877 


976 


355 


H 


25 Nalia . , , . 


M 


i 


J 


56 


164 




28 




26 Pantlavdi 


















AkbarKhan , . 


,j 


2] 


3 


I7 8 


2,212 


2 ,544 


127 


Rojpipla 


Kesar Khan . 





4 


3 


221 


1,750 


2,213 


43 





lotal bankheda Meh\vah 


335i 


353 


32,272 


x,6,,68 5 


2,02,370 


18,188 





Of the 6 1 States, 6 are laige and 55 are small. Of the large States, 
Rajpipla in the south is of the first class ; and five -Chota Udaipur 
and Bariya in the centre, and Sunth, Lunavada, and Balasmoi in the 
north and north-westare second-class States. The 55 small States 
include Kadana and Sanjeli in the north, Bhadarva and Umeta in the 



PHYSICAL ASPECTS 291 

GENERAL STATISTICS OF E-VCH STATE IN THE REWA KANTHA AGENCY (cont] 



State 


Caste, tribe, 
or race of the 
luhng chief 


H 6 


Number of 
villages 


u 


Revenue (1903-4) 


Tribute 


From 
land 


Total 


Amount, 


To whom 
payable 


Pandu JA'/iU'Ci 










Rs 


Rs 


Rs 




i Pandu . . 
2 Sihoia . 
3 Chhaliar 
4 Nara ... 


Musalman 
Bauya 
Rajput 
Bartya . . 


9 
3 


23 
i 


1,149 

^,640 

1,983 
263 


4>5 02 
12,039 
6,146 
74 


5,798 
16,719 
7,562 
96 


3=462 

2, ! 6i6 
19 


Gaikwar. 


5 Vainol Mai 


,, 


3l 


2 


426 


I 000 


1,094 


65 





6TumUia. . 


J9 


i 




J 45 


222 


335 


39 


n 


7 Itwad 


Rajput . , 


6 


I 


S43 


893 




462 


j; 


8 Vakhtapur . . 


fi 


i 1 , 




244 


606 


: '8i6 


116 


}> 


9 Mevah 
10 Kabla Pagina Muvada 


Pagi . 


5" 

i 




goo 
4 1 


IjIOO 

55 


1,603 
159 


So 





ii Kanoia . . , 


Banya 


3* 




884 


f 

1,116 




1,232 





12 Poidia . . . 
13 Gotaidi 
T4 Mokha Pagina Muvada 


Rajput . . 
Pagi 


3 

i 




736 

J28 

96 


1,764 

385 
"5 


^163 

478 
445 


M55 
327 
96 


" 


16 Vai noli Nam 


Rajput 


i 




313 

74 


392 
228 


III 


116 


;; 


17 Dhan . 




3* 




821 


1,567 


2,121 


731 




18 Varnoli Moti . 




2 




168 


317 


409 


78 


}> 


19 Raj par 
20 Litter Gothda 


Koll 


'4 




80 
4:6 


583 


487 
654 


39 

155 


' 


21 Amraput . . . 
22 Dorka . . 


Banya . 
Patidat 


2 

3 




251 
911 


249 

4,395 


434 


850 





23 \nshad 


Koll . 


43 




2,269 


2 >735 


5,181 







24 Raika . . 


Rajput 


3 




474 


3=337 


3,609 


443 


" 


Total Pandu Mehwas 


9^4 


105 


i6,355 


44,138 


58,379 


18,417 




GKAND TOIAL . . 


"4,97ii 


t3)4 12 


479.055 


12,28,708 


20,72,026 


1,47,826 





* According to the latest information ( This figure is based on the latest mfoimation Unpopulated 

\illages wcie not enumerated at the Census of igor 

west, Narukot in the south-east, and three groups of Mehwas or 
turbulent villages. The 26 Sankheda Mehwas petty estates he on the 
right bank of the Naibada, while the 24 Pandu Mehwas petty estates, 
including Dorka, Anghad, and Raika, which together form the Dorka 
Mehwas, are situated on the border of the Mahi. 

In the outlying villages to the west along the Mahi, and in the north 
and south where Rewa Kantha stretches into the plains of Gujarat, the 
country is open and flat , but generally the Agency 
is hilly. Its two principal ranges are in the south, asects 
the Rajplpla hills, the westernmost spuis of the Sat- 
puras, forming the water-paitmg between the Narbada and Tapti valleys, 
and acioss the centre of the Agency, the spurs of the Vmdhya range 
running west from the sandstone-crowned table-land of Ratanmal, and 
forming the water-parting between the Narbada and the Mahi. In the 
120 miles of the course of the Mahi through Rewa Kantha, the country 
changes from wild forest-clad hills in the east to a flat bare plain in the 
west. Its deep banks make this river of little use for inigation. Its 
stream is too shallow and its bed too rocky to allow of navigation. 
The Narbada enters the Agency through a country of hill and forest 



2 9 2 REWA KANTHA 

with wooded or steep craggy banks. For the last 40 miles of its course, 
the country grows uch and open, the banks lower, the bed widens, and 
the stream is deep and slow enough for water-carriage For 8 miles 
it is tidal 

Gneiss and Deccan trap are the predominant rock formations m 
Rewa Kantha, the former in the northern part of the Agency, the latter 
in the southern. There are also some outcrops of Cretaceous rocks 
underlying the Deccan trap and of Tertiary rocks overlying it, The 
Cretaceous and Tertiary beds, including the Deccan trap, dip in various 
directions at low but distinct angles and are frequently faulty. The 
gneiss is mostly a coarse-grained granitoid rock, associated sometimes 
with crystalline schists At the north-western extremity of the gneiss 
area are some ancient strata classified under the name of Champaner 
beds. The Cietaceous rocks belong to the Lam eta group 3 also called 
Bagh or infra-trappean, which is of cenomaman age. Some outcrops 
fringe the northern limit of the Deccan trap area, along the valleys of 
the Asvan and Men rivers ; and there are also some mhers in the midst 
of the basaltic outcrop, principally near Kawant and in the Devi valley, 
respectively north and south of the Narbada. The Deccan trap con- 
tains the usual basaltic flows, with occasional intercalations of fossih- 
ferous fresh-water mter-trappean beds. Ash-beds and agglomerates are 
frequent, and dikes are very abundant, especially in the Rajplpla hills, 
which occupy the site of an ancient focus of volcanic activity. Intrusive 
sills, some of them trachytic instead of basaltic, also penetrate the 
underlying Lameta. The surface of the Deccan trap was greatly denuded 
and extensively transformed into ferruginous latente during the Teitiary 
period. The lowest Tertiary beds at the western extremity of the Raj- 
plpla hills rest upon a thick mass of this ferruginous lock, and through- 
out the entire senes a great many ferruginous beds recur at vanous 
horizons ; the Tertiary beds consist largely of the accumulated products 
of disintegration from the adjoining volcanic area Two groups have 
been distinguished in the Tertiaiy a lower gioup with Nummuhtes, 
identical with the upper pait of the Kirthar in Sind, or the Splntangi 
in Baluchistan, whose age is middle eocene ; and an upper gioup with- 
out Nummulites, containing numerous bands of conglomerate. Marine 
and terrestrial fossils, the latter including fragments of fossil wood, 
occur in this upper subdivision, which answers to the Gaj group and 
Si wall ks. The celebrated agate-mines of Ratanmal in the Rajplpla 
State are situated m a conglomerate belonging to this group. The 
agates in their original form consist of geodes contained in the Deccan 
trap basalt which, having been set free by the disintegration of the 
enclosing rock, have been shaped into wateiworn pebbles accumulated 
into conglomeratic layers. The exceptional value of the Ratanmal 
agates is due to the lateritic ferruginous matrix in which they are 



HISTOR Y 293 

imbedded they have been impregnated with ferruginous products 
giving them a much appi eclated colour, which is further enhanced 
by artificial tieatment. 

A great part of Rewa Kantha is forest. The commonest tree is 
the mafatd, found in gieat numbers in the States of Chota Udaipur 
and Bariya. Teak is abundant, but, except in sacred village groves, is 
stunted The other most abundant trees are black-wood, tamarind, 
mango, ray an t sadado (Terminal la Arjuna)^ beheda^ timburrun^ bill 
(Aegle Marmelos\ khair, &c. Many shrubs and medicinal plants are 
also found in the forests. Among grasses the most important are viran 
or khas-khas and elephant-grass, the stems of which are used to make 
native pens. 

Tigers aie very rare ; but leopards, though yearly becoming fewer, 
are still found in considerable number. Bears and wild hog are com- 
mon. Sambar^ spotted deer, and nilgai aie found throughout the greater 
part of the Agency , bison in the extreme south-east. The painted 
and common sand-grouse, red spur-fowl, the peafowl, the painted and 
grey partridge, and quail are common. Common jack and painted 
snipe, black goose, cotton, whistling, common, and blue-winged teal, 
aie some of the principal water-fowl. 

In the forest-covered tracts of eastern Rewa Kantha, with large areas 
of land rich in springs, the cold in January is very severe, ice forming 
on pools and the crops suffering at times from frost The heat is at 
times intense, the thermometer m the shade in Lunavada and Bariya 
using to 108 and 110. In 1903 the minimum ranged from 54 m 
January to 80 in May, and the maximum from 85 in January to 112 
in May. In 1873 the heat was so great that several persons died, and 
bats and monkeys are said to have fallen dead from the trees. Healthy 
in the open parts, the climate of the eastern hill and forest tracts, espe- 
cially in Baiiya and Rajpipla, is very sickly. The chief diseases are 
malarial fever, eye and skin complaints, diarrhoea, and dysenteiy 

The annual rainfall in the Agency varies from 38 to 48 inches At 
Lunavada, Rajpipla, and Balasinor it averages 38 inches, and at Bariya 
and Chota Udaipur 48 inches. 

Under the first Anhilvada dynasty (746-961), almost all the Rewa 
Kantha lands except Champaner were under the government of the 
Banyas, that is, Kolt and Bhll chiefs. In the eleventh, H i sto ry. 
twelfth, and thirteenth centuries chiefs of Rajput or 
part Rajput blood, driven south and east by the pressure of Muhamma- 
dan invasion, took the place of the Koli and Bhll leaders The first 
of the present States to be established was the house of the Raja of 
Rajpipla. Kadana is said to have been established as a separate power 
about the thirteenth century by Limdevji, younger brother of Jhalam 
Singh, a descendant of Jhalam Singh, the founder of the town of Jhalod 



2 9 4 REWA KANTHA 

in the Panch Mahals, About the same date Jhalam Singh's son settled 
at the Bhil village of Brahmapuri, changing its name to Sunth. In the 
sixteenth century the Ahmadabad Sultans brought under submission 
almost the whole of Rewa Kantha In the seventeenth century, although 
a member of the Babi family founded the State of Balasmor, the power 
of the Gujarat viceroys began to decline. The Marathas soon spread 
their authoiity over the plains, and collected tribute with the help of 
military force. 

The younger branches of the chiefs' families had from time to time 
been forced to leave their homes and win for themselves new States ; 
and these, with the descendants of a few of the original chiefs, form the 
present landholders of the small estates of the Agency. Under the 
Marathas, they plundeied the country ; and as the Gaikwar failed to 
keep order, the British had to undertake the task In 1822 an agree- 
ment was concluded with the Gaikwar, under which the contiol of all 
the Baroda tributaries was vested in the Bombay Government. In this 
year Mr. Willoughby was appointed to settle the affairs of the territory. 
In 1823 the position and tribute of the chiefs of the Sankheda Mehwas 
weie settled by him. In 1825 the chiefs of the Pandu Mehwas came 
under British control. At the same time the political control of the 
Panch Mahals was made over by Smdhia to the Government, and Banya 
State was transferred from the Bhopawar Agency, Central India. The 
Political Agency of Rewa Kantha was established in 1826 to take 
charge of Rewa Kantha, including Rajpipla, Sindhia's Panch Mahals, 
the Mehwas States on the Mahl and Narbada, Banya, Chota Udaipur, 
and Narukot of the Naikdas. The States of Lunavada and Sunth, 
which had been under British control since 1819, were afterwards trans- 
ferred from the Mahl Kantha Agency. In 1829 the appointment of 
Political Agent was abolished, and the chiefs were left very much to 
themselves foi a few years. In 1842 the Political Agency at Rewa 
Kantha was re-established, and the powers of the chiefs in "criminal 
cases were defined In 1853 the State of Balasinor was transfened 
from the Kaira Collectorate , and Smdhia handed over for a period 
of ten yeais the administration of the Panch Mahals. In 1861 the 
Panch Mahals were exchanged by Sindhia for land neai Gwalior, and 
became British teiritory. Two years later the Panch Mahals were 
removed from the control of the Agent and formed into a separate 
charge. In 1876 the Panch Mahals were raised to the rank of a Dis- 
trict, the officer in charge of it having control of the Rewa Kantha 
States. The estate of Narukot is managed by the British Government, 
which takes half the total revenue, the lemaming half going to the 
chief, under the agreement of 1839. Since 1825 the peace of Rewa 
Kantha has thrice been broken: m 1838 by a Naikda (Bariya, Chota 
Udaipur, and Narukot) rising ; in 1857 by the presence of a rebel force 



AGRICULTURE 295 

fiom Northern India; and in 1868 by anothei Naikda (Narukot) 
disturbance. 

The population at the last four enumerations was: (1872) 512,569, 
(1881) 549,892, (1891) 733,506, and (1901) 479> 6 5 Tne great decrease 
during the last decade is due to severe famine. 
The average density is 96 persons per square mile. pu a lon ' 
The Agency contains 6 towns and 2,817 villages. The chief towns are 
NANDOD, LUNAVADA, and BALASINOR. Hindus number 435,023, or 
90 per cent of the total, Muhammadans, 23,712, or 5 per cent., 
aboriginal tribes, 18,148 , Jams, 1,400 ; and Christians, 267, The Brah- 
man caste (20,000) is largely represented by the Audich (7,000) and 
Mewada Brahmans (5,000). There are 17,000 Rajputs, and among 
cultivating castes Kunbis (34,000) are important , but the States of the 
Agency are mainly populated by aboriginal tribes of Bhil and KolT 
origin Though these tubes suffered severely in the famine of 1899- 
1902, the last Census disclosed 91,000 Bhils, 150,000 Kolis, 32,000 
Dhodias, 27,000 Naikdas, and 18,000 Dhankas. Disinclined to regular 
cultivation, these tribes lead a wandering life, subsisting veiy largely 
on forest produce They are thriftless and fond of liquor, and when 
intoxicated will tire themselves out in wild dancing. Crime, however, 
is less frequent among them than formerly Among Hindu low castes, 
Mahars number 14,000. 

Rewa Kantha includes great varieties of soil In the north near the 
Mahi, and in the south near the Narbada., are rich tracts of alluvial 
land. In Lunavada and Balasmor in the north, light . 

brown goradu, not so rich as that of Central Gujarat, 
is the prevailing soil. There are also a few tracts of grey besar land, 
generally growing rice Near the Shedhi river are some patches of 
land called bhejvali, very damp, and yielding a cold-season crop of 
wheat and pulse, but not well suited for cotton. In Sunth the black 
01 kali soil holds moisture well, and without watering yields two crops 
a year. The Banya lands light brown goradu^ deep black kali, and 
sandy retal are capable of yielding any crop except tobacco The 
black loam of the Sankheda and Pandu Mehwas is nearly as rich as 
the cotton lands of Amod and Jambusar m Broach. Rajpipla, espe- 
cially its Narbada districts, is exceedingly fertile Except a few tracts 
of rocky and inferior black soil, Rewa Kantha is on the whole fertile. 
In the open country, in the hands of Kunbi and other high-class 
husbandmen, the tillage is the same as in Central Gujaiat, In the hilly 
and wooded tiacts inhabited by Bhils, Kolis, and other unsettled tribes, 
cultivation is of the rudest kind. 

Of the total area, about 1,719 squaie miles are cultivable, of which 
1,030 square miles were actually under cultivation in 1903-4. The 
principal crops are cereals (maize, rice, jowdr : bajra, and kodrd) 



296 RE IV A KANTHA 

pulses (fur i math, and giam) , oilseeds (castor, gingelly, and til) , and 
fibres (cotton and jaw-hemp). The wheat grown in the Agency is of 
two kinds, vajia and kdtha. The rice is of a coarbe description known 
as vari. Of kodra a local variety (mtnia kodra) has a narcotic 
property, which is to a certain extent neutralized by washing and dry- 
ing two or three times before grinding. Turmeric, chillies, cumin, 
melons, guavas, custaid-apples, and plantains are commonly grown. 

The domestic animals are buffaloes, cattle, horses, sheep, and goats. 
In Balasinor, Lunavada, Sunth, and Banya goats are carefully bred, 
and yield fairly close and fine wool. Horse-breeding is carried on 
in Sunth. 

Only 4,637 acres were irrigated in 1903-4, distributed as follows 
Rajpipla (127), Lunavada (2,856), Balasinor (1,438), Sunth (216). 
Wells are the only sources of irrigation. 

The greater part of Rewa Kantha is covered with forests, of which 
the most valuable are in Banya State. The chief trees have already 
been described under Botany, The forest Reserves are of two kinds : 
State Reserves, or tracts in the large forests where the Darbar only can 
cut , and sacred village groves, where the finest timber is found. Most 
of the villages have two kinds of groves one never cut except on 
emergencies, and the other less sacred and felled at intervals of thirty 
years. Except for the wants of the State, or when the villagers are 
forced to make good losses caused by some general fire 01 flood, the 
fear of the guardian spirit keeps the people from destroying their 
village groves. The forests were once famous for their large stoie 
of high-class timber, Strict conservancy in the neighbouring Panch 
Mahals District led to much reckless felling in the Agency, but greater 
care of their forests is now taken by the chiefs. 

Manganese ore and mica deposits are found in Chota Udaipur and 
Jambughoda, and a prospecting licence for manganese in the latter 
place has been issued. A prospecting and exploring licence will 
shortly be issued for Chota Udaipui Akik (agate 01 carneban) is 
worked in Rajpipla. 

The Rewa Kantha manufactures are of little importance. The chief 
industries are the making of catechu from the bark of the khair, 
country soap, coarse cotton cloth, and tape for cots. 

. The Bhils make good bambo baskets and matting. 

" Since the iron furnaces ceased work, the swords for 
which Nandod was once famous are no longer made There are three 
cotton -ginning factories worked by steam, and eight distilleries, 

The trade resembles in many respects that of the Panch Mahals. 
Both have a through traffic between Gujarat and Central India, and 
a local trade west with Gujarat and east with Rajputana, Central India, 
and Khandesh. While the opening of the railways described in the 



ADMINISTRA TION 2 9 7 

following paragiaphs has increased the local trade westwards, the 
through trade has dwindled, the old direct routes with their rough 
roads and heavy dues failing to compete with the easy railway journey 
by these lines. The principal exports are timber, firewood, mahua, 
and other forest produce , and the imports are piece-goods, salt, sugar, 
and metals. 

No State of the Agency possessed railway communications until 
1890. The extension of the Anand-Godhra branch of the Bombay, 
Baroda, and Central India Railway to Ratlam since 1893 nas con ~ 
nected the Bariya State with the mam line. Similarly, the construction 
of the Dabhoi and Baroda-Godhra lines has facilitated the trade of the 
Chota Udaipur, Rajpipla, and Bariya States with the neighbouring 
Baroda territory, and the Rajpipla State Railway in 1899 has connected 
the State with Broach District as well as with the chief towns on the 
main line of the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway. Many 
roads were newly constructed or repaired with the advantage of cheap 
labour during the famine of 1899-1902. The total length of roads 
is about 450 miles. There are 27 post offices in the Agency main- 
tained by the British Government. 

The first famine of which memory remains was in 1746-7. The 
next severe famines were m 1790-1 and 1812-3, while 1802 and 1825 
were years of scarcity. In 1883-4 the rainfall was 
scanty, and the small harvest was destroyed by 
swarms of locusts. After a period of fifteen years the Agency again 
suffered from severe famine in 1899-1902. Relief measures were 
commenced in November, 1899, and were brought to a close in 
October, 1902. The highest daily average number on relief was 
40,000 in April, 1900, which decreased to 311 in October, 1901, and 
again rose to 12,000 in May, 1902. More than TO lakhs was spent on 
relief. The famine loans contracted by the Darbars from Government 
amounted to 4 lakhs, of which Rs. 2,25,000 was borrowed by Rajpipla 
and the rest by the other States in the Agency. 

Civil courts have only lately been introduced into Rewa Kantha. 
Disputes were formerly settled by arbitration, and money-lenders were 

allowed to recover their outstanding debts as they 4J . . A .. 
. ., . i Administration. 

best could. At present there are 32 civil courts 

in the Agency, of which 17 are under the supervision of the British 
Government, and 15 in the States. For the purpose of administering 
criminal justice, the Rewa Kantha authorities belong to five classes : 
thanadars with second and third-class magisterial powers in the estates 
of the petty Mehwas chiefs , the petty chiefs of Kadana, Sanjeli, 
Bhadarwa, and Umeta, who have the powers of second-class magis- 
trates; the second-class chiefs of Bariya, Balasinor, Rajpipla, Luna- 
vada, Sunth, and Chota Udaipur, with full jurisdiction over their own 



298 REWA KANTHA 

subjects , the chief of Rajpipla exercising poweis of life and death 
with jurisdiction over British subjects, except in the case of capital 
offences by the latter, for the trial of which the Political Agent's sanc- 
tion is required } and the Agency courts of the Assistant Political Agent 
and the Political Agent of the five second-class States. Theft, hurt, 
mischief, and offences against excise and forest laws are the commonest 
forms of crime. Balasmor is at present under British management 
owing to the minority of the chief; and of the five minor estates' 
Sanjeli, Urn eta, and Narukot are similarly administered. 

Except such portions as they have alienated, the Rewa Kantha lands 
belong to the chiefs. The heads of the larger estates take no share in 
the actual work of cultivation ; some small chieftains, whose income is 
barely enough to meet their wants, have a home faim tilled by their 
servants; and proprietors (tdlukdars) whose estates are too small to 
lease have no resource but to till their own land. Save that they have 
to pay no part of their produce to superior holders, men of this class 
do not differ from ordinary cultivators. 

To collect the land levenue, the large States are distributed into 
talukas, each under a commandant (thanadar\ who, besides police and 
magisterial duties 1 , has, as collector of the revenue, to keep the 
accounts of his charge, and, except where middle-men are employed, 
to collect rents from the villagers. Under the fhdnaddrs one or more 
accountants (taldtis) are generally engaged In the petty Mehwas 
estates the proprietors themselves perform the duties of both thdnaddr 
and talati. In the small estates under direct British management the 
revenue is collected by officers known as attachers or ^aptidars. Rewa 
Kantha villages belong to two main classes : State villages held and 
managed by the chiefs, and private villages alienated or granted under 
some special arrangement. Private villages are of six varieties : 
granted (mam\ held under an agreement (patai)at\ given as a sub- 
sistence (jzvarakh), temple (devasthan\ charitable (dharmada), and 
held at a fixed rent (udhad). In State lands the form of assessment 
vanes from the roughest billhook or plough cess to the elaborate 
system in force in British territory. The former ranges from 4 annas 
to Rs. 20, and the latter from annas 4^ to Rs. 25 per acre. The crop- 
share system prevails in parts of Balasmor, Sunth, and the petty estate 
of Chudesar, and in the alluvial lands of Mandwa in the Sankheda 
Mehwas The form of assessment levied from the rudest and most 
thriftless Bhils and KolTs, who till no land, consists of cesses known as 
datardi) pam^ kodali, &c. From those a degree better off, who are 
able to keep bullocks, a plough tax is levied. Among some of the 
more settled and intelligent communities a rough form of the separate 

1 In the States mentioned as being nndei the direct management of the British 
Government, thanadars have no police and magisterial powers. 



REWARI TAHSIL 299 

holding (kkatdbandi) system has been introduced, and from others cash 
acre-rates (bighott) levied In such cases the holdings are roughly 
measured. Survey settlements are being gradually made throughout 
the Agency. Except in the surveyed States, where fixed rates are 
being introduced, the rates levied under hoes, or ploughs, or on the 
crop-share system, are supplemented by cesses of different kinds 

In former times the scattered nature of the villages and the isolated 
position of the country, the rivalry among the chiefs to secure settlers, 
and the lavish grants of lands to Brahmans, &c., prevented the land 
from yielding any large amount of revenue. Between 1863 and 1865 
the rise in the price of field produce fostered the spread of tillage and 
increased the rental of rich lands Since then, owing to the opening of 
railways and the construction of roads, the cultivated area has continued 
to increase and the land revenue has steadily risen Of the total 
revenue of 21 lakhs raised in 1903-4, 14 lakhs was derived from land> 
including forest revenue, customs yielded nearly one lakh, and excise 
nearly 2% lakhs. Rajpipla has a net income of about Rs. 1 1,000 from 
the railway constructed by the State, at a cost of 13 lakhs, in 1899. 
The total expenditure amounted to 22 lakhs, and was chiefly devoted 
to Darbar charges (5^ lakhs), tribute (i-| lakhs), administration (ij 
lakhs), public works (i-| lakhs), police (ij lakhs), military (Rs. 75,000), 
education (Rs. 67,000), and forests (Rs. 34,000) 

There are four municipalities NANDOD, RAMPUR, LXTNAVADA, 
and BALASINOR with an aggregate income of one lakh m 1903-4. 

Rajpipla maintains a military force, which in 1905 consisted of 
75 infantry and 36 cavalry, and the State owns 6 guns, of which 4 are 
unserviceable. The total military force in the Agency consists of 
214 cavalry, 75 infantry, and 55 guns, of which 31 are unserviceable. 

Regular police is now provided by Government for the Mehwas 
States, in place of the Gaikwar's Contingent, which was disbanded 
in 1885. The large States maintain a police force of their own. At 
a time when several of the States were under management during the 
minority of their chiefs, a system of joint police was established ; but 
this had to be given up as each chief succeeded to his inheritance. In 
1903-4 the strength of the police was 1,402, of whom 162 were 
mounted In the 29 jails and lock-ups, 1,099 prisoners were confined 
in 1903-4. 

The number of boys' schools in 1903-4 was 160, with 6,487 pupils, 
and of girls' schools 10, with 937 pupils. There are 6 libraries in the 
Agency, and a printing press at Nandod for State work. The average 
daily attendance at the 18 dispensaries maintained was 221 in i93-4, 
the total number of patients treated being 80,722. Nearly 15,000 
persons were vaccinated in the same year. 

Rewari Tahsil (Rwdri).Tahsil of Gurgaon District, Punjab, 

VOL. xxi. u 



300 REWARI TAHSIL 

lying between 28 5' and 28 26' N, and 76 18' and 76 52' E , with 
an area of 426 square miles. It is almost entirely detached from the 
rest of the District, and is bounded on three sides by Native States. 
The isolated pargana of Shahjahanpur, situated to the south in Alvvar 
territory, is also included in this tahsll. The population in 1901 was 
169,673, compared with 161,332 m 1891. It contains the town of 
RKWARI (population, 27,295), the head-quarters 3 and 290 villages, The 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 3-2 lakhb. Rewari 
formed during the eighteenth century a semi-independent principality 
under a family of Ahir chiefs, On the cession of the country to the 
British, the revenue was first farmed by the Raja of Bharatpur and then 
by the Ahir chief of the day. It was taken over by the Government 
in 1808. Shahjahanpur belonged t<*> the Chauhan Rajputs until the 
Haldias, dependents of Jaipur, wrested it from them in the eighteenth 
century. It lapsed to the Government in 1824. The tahsll consists 
of a sandy plain, the monotony of which is varied towards the west by 
irregular rocky hills of low elevation. The Kasauti on the extreme west 
and the Sahibi on the east are two torrents which contribute largely 
to the fertility of the land along their banks In other parts there 
is copious well-irrigation. 

Rewari Town (Rtwdn ). Head-quarters of the tahsll of the same 
name in Gurgaon District, Punjab, situated in 28 12' N and 76 38' E., 
on the Delhi and Jaipur road, 32 miles south-west of Gurgaon, and the 
junction of the Rewan-Bhatmda branch with the main line of the 
Rajpu tana-Mai wa Railway , distant by rail from Calcutta 1,008 miles, 
from Bombay 838, and from Karachi 904 Population (1901), 27,295, 
including 14,702 Hindus and 11,673 Muhammadans. Rewari was 
foimerly a halting -place on the trade road from Delhi to Rajpu tana, 
celebrated for the manufacture of brass and pewter. These manufac- 
tures are still carried on , but since the opening of the railway the chief 
importance of the town lies in ith trade in gram and sugar, sent west- 
ward, while salt and iron from Alwar are forwarded to the United 
Provinces. 

The ruins of Old Rewari, which local tradition connects with a 
nephew of Pnthwl Raj, he some distance to the east of the present town 
and are said to have been built about 1000 by Raja Reo 01 Rawat, who 
called it after his daughter Rewati. Under the Mughals, Rewari was 
the head-quarters of a sarkdr^ but its Raja seems to have been almost 
independent. In the reign of Aurangzeb the town and territory of 
Rewari were obtained by a family of Ahirs, who held them until 
annexation by the British. Rewari was brought directly under British 
administration in 1808-9, and tn e village of Bharawas in its vicinity was 
until 1816 the head-quarters of the District. The municipality was 
created in 1867, The income during the ten yeais ending 1902-3 



RITPUR 30* 

averaged Rs. 56,300, and the expenditure Rs, 58,100, In 1903-4 the 
income amounted to Rs. 48,800, chiefly derived from octroi, and the 
expenditure to Rs. 56,400. Rewan contains the only high school in 
the District, managed by the Educational department. The town has 
a Government dispensary, and another belonging to the S. P. G. Mission 
in charge of a lady doctor. 

Rian. Head-quarters of a jdglr estate of the same name in the 
Merta district of the State of Jodhpur, Rajputana, situated in 26 
32' N. and 74 14' E,, about 68 miles north-east of Jodhpur city and 
24 miles south-east of Merta Road station on the Jodhpur-Bikaner 
Railway, Population (1901), 4,574. The town is walled, and on^a 
rocky hill immediately to the east and about 200 feet above the plain 
stands a stone fort The estate consists of eight villages yielding 
a revenue of about Rs. 36,000, and is held by a Thakur who is the 
head of the Mertia sept of the Rathor Rajputs. The present Thakur, 
Bijai Singh, is a member of the State Council. 
Rintimbur. Fort in Jaipur State, Rajputana. See RANTHAMBHOR. 
Ritpur (or Ridhpur). Village in the Morsi taluk of Amraoti Dis- 
trict, Berar, situated in 21 14' N. and 77 51' E. Population (1901), 
2,412. The village is mentioned m the Ain-i-Akbarl as the head- 
quarters of a fargana. It was a place of importance as the lankhwah 
jdglr of Salabat Khan, governor of Ellichpur, at the end of the 
eighteenth century. At that time it was enclosed by a stone wall, which 
has almost entiiely disappeared, and is said to have contained 12,000 
inhabitants, many of whom fled owing to the oppression of Bisan 
Chand, talukddr in the time of Namdar Khan. The principal build- 
ings of interest are Ram Chandra's temple, the Mahanubhava temple 
called Raj Math, and a mosque which has been the subject of much 
dispute. 

Ritpur is the chief seat and place of pilgrimage of the sect vulgarly 
known as Manbhau, more correctly Mahanubhava. Its founder was 
Kishan Bhat, the spiritual adviser of a Raja who ruled at Paithan about 
the middle of the fourteenth century. His followers believe him to have 
been the derm-god Krishna, returned to earth. His doctrines repu- 
diated a multiplicity of gods , and the hatred and contempt which he 
endured arose partly from his insistence on the monotheistic principle, 
but chiefly from his repudiation of the caste system. He inculcated the 
exclusive worship of Krishna as the only incarnation of the Supreme 
Being and taught his disciples to eat with none but the initiated, and 
to break off all former ties of caste and religion. The scriptures of the 
sect are comprised in the Bhagavad Gita, which all are encouraged to 
read The head of the sect is a mahant, with whom are associated a 
number of priests. The sect is divided into two classes, celibates and 
*harbarts or seculars. Celibacy is regarded as the perfect life, but 



U 2 



302 RITPUR 

matrimony is pei nutted to the weaker brethren. The celibates, both 
men and women, shave all hair from the head and wear clothes dyed 
with lampblack. The lower garment is a waistcloth forming a sort of 
skirt, and is intended to typify devotion to the religious life and conse- 
quent indifference to distinctions of sex. The dead are buried in salt, 
in a sitting posture. Kishan Bhat is said to have obtained a magic cap, 
by wearing which he was enabled to assume the likeness of Krishna, 
but the cap was taken from him and burnt. This is probably a Brah- 
manical invention, like the story of Kishan Bhat's amour with a Mang 
woman, which was possibly composed to lend colour to the absurd 
Brahmanical derivation of Manbhau^ the vulgar corruption of the name 
of the sect (Mang + bhau ' Mang-brother '). The name Maha- 
nubhava is borne by the sect with pride, and appears to be derived 
from mahd ( l great ') and anubhava (' intelligence '). It is written Maha- 
nubhava in all their documents. The Mahanubhavas appear to be a 
declining sect They numbered 4,111 in Berar in 1881, but m 1901 
there were only 2,566. 

- [In former editions of the Gazetteer^ the erroneous connexion of the 
Manbhau sect with the Mang caste was unfortunately accepted as true 
In consequence of some legal proceedings which incidentally arose from 
this misstatement, the mahants of the sect put themselves into com- 
munication with Prof. R. G. Bhandarkar of Poona, and also placed at 
his disposal their sacred books, which, as attested by colophons, go 
back to the thirteenth century. Prof. Bhandarkar has satisfied himself 
of the genuineness of these books, which are written in an archaic form 
of Marathi. They piove that the Manbhau sect (or Mahanubhava, 
as it is there called) was founded by one Chakradhara, a Karhada 
Brahman, who was contemporary with the Yadava Krishna Raja 
(A D 1247-60), and is regarded as an incarnation of Dattatreya. It is 
interesting to find that two of the present mahants of the Manbhau sect 
are natives of the Punjab, and that they have a math at Kabul As 
explaining the introduction of the name of Kishan Bhat, mentioned 
above, Prof. Bhandarkar has fuither discovered in the Manbhav books 
an account of various religious sects formerly flourishing in Maharashtra. 
Among them is one called Matangapatta, confined to Mahars and 
Mangs, which is said to have been founded by one Krishnabhatta, 
about whom is told the legend of an amour with a Mang woman. 
This sect is still represented in Ahmadnagar District] 

Riwa, State and town in Central India. See REWAH. 

Riwari. TfcAtf/and town in Gurgaon District, Punjab See REWARI. 

Robertsganj. Southern tahsil of Mirzapur District, United Pro- 
vinces, comprising the farganas of Barhar, Bijaigarh, Agorl, and 
Smgraull (including Dudhl), and lying between 23 52' and 24 54' N. 
and 82 32' and 83 33' E., with an area of 2,621 square miles. 



ROHA TOWN 303 

Population fell from 241,779 m 1891 to 221,717 m igor. There are 
1,222 villages and two towns, neither of which has a population of 
5,000. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was Rs, 64,000, and 
for cesses Rs. 24,000. This tahsil is situated entirely in the hilly 
country, and supports only 85 persons per square mile. About one- 
third of it lies on the Vmdhyan plateau, which is drained to the west by 
the Belan, and is bounded on the south by the great rampart of the 
Kaimurs looking down on the valley of the Son. A fertile strip of 
moist land crosses the plateau between the Belan and the Kaimuis, 
and produces a great variety of crops. South of the Son lies a tangled 
mass of hills, covered with low scrub jungle, and inteispersed by more 
fertile valleys and basins, in which cultivation is possible. Pargana 
Dudhi is managed as a Government estate, and proprietary rights exist 
in only one tappa. The whole tract south of the Son is non-regulation/ 
and is administered under special rules suitable to the primitive 
character of its inhabitants. Agricultural statistics are maintained only 
for an area of 654 square miles, of which 255 were under cultivation in 
1903-4, and 27 were irrigated. Dams and embankments are the chief 
means of irrigation. 

Robertsonpet. Town recently founded in Kolar District, Mysore. 
See KOLAR GOLD FIELDS. 

Roha Taluka. Central taluka of Kolaba District, Bombay, lying 
between r8 if and 18 32' N and 72 57' and 73 20' E., with an 
area of 203 square miles, It contains one town, ROHA (population, 
6,252), the head-quarters; and 133 villages. The population in 1901 
was 47,780, compared with 46,064 m 1891, The density, 235 persons 
per square mile, is much below the District average The demand for 
land revenue in 1903-4 was 1-22 lakhs, and for cesses Rs. 8,000. 
Roha is for the most part hilly, and contains the rich valley of the 
Kundalika river. The rice lands are well watered during the rainy 
season, but in the cold and hot months the supply of drinking water 
is defective. On the hill slopes and uplands the soil is 1 a mixture of 
earth and broken trap. In the level parts the soil varies from reddish 
to yellow or black. During the ten years ending 1903 the rainfall 
averaged 127 inches. . The eastern parts of Roha are much cut off 
from the sea-breeze, and therefore oppressive in the hot season, but 
parts of the west and south-west are more open. 

Roha Town (known as Roha Ashtami) Head-quarters of the 
taluka of the same name in Kolaba District, Bombay, situated in 18 
26' N. and 73 f E , on the left bank of the Kundalika river, 18 miles 
from its mouth. Population (1901), 6,252. Roha is a great rice 
market for supplying Bombay city. The village of Ashtami, on the 
opposite bank of the river, is included within the municipal limits of 
Roha. Oxenden (1673) called it Esthemy. The municipality, estab- 



3 o 4 ROHA TOWN 

lished in 1866, had an average revenue during the decade ending 1901 
of Rs. 6,200. In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 6,500. Feiry steameis 
run from Roha to Revadanda or Lower Chaul twice a day. The town 
contains a dispensary and seven schools. 

Rohankhed. Village in the Malkapur taluk of Buldana District, 
Berar, situated in 20 37' N. and 76 n' E., immediately below the 
Balaghat plateau Population (1901), 2,130 The village has been 
the scene of two battles. In 1437 Naslr Khan, Sultan of Khandesh, 
invaded Berar to avenge the ill-treatment of his daughter by Ala-ud-din 
Bahmani, to whom she had been married. Khalaf Hasan Basn, 
governor of Daulatabad, who had been sent against the invader, fell 
upon Naslr Khan at Rohankhed, routed him, and pursued him to his 
capital, Burhanpur, which he sacked. In 1590 Burhan, a prince of the 
Ahmadnagar dynasty, who had taken refuge in the Mughal empire, 
invaded Berar in company with Raja All Khan, vassal ruler of Khan- 
desh, to establish his claim to the kingdom of Ahmadnagar against his 
son Ismail, who had been elevated to the throne by a faction headed 
by Jamal Khan The invaders met the forces of Jamal Khan at 
Rohankhed and utterly defeated them, Jamal Khan being slain and 
the young Ismail captured. At Rohankhed there is a small but hand- 
some mosque, built in 1582 by Khudawand Khan the MahdavT, 
a follower of Jamal Khan This Khudawand Khan is not to be con- 
fused with Khudawand Khan the Habshi, who was governor of Mahur 
a century earlier. 

Rohanpur. Village in Malda District, Bengal, situated in 24 
49' N. and 88 20' E., on the Purnabhaba, a short distance above its 
junction with the Mahananda. Population (1901), 1,112. The village 
is a considerable depot for the grain passing between Dinajpur and 
the western parts of Bihar. 

Rohilkhand. The name is often applied to the present BAREILLY 
DIVISION of the United Provinces , but it also denotes a definite 
historical tract nearly corresponding with that Division phis the RAM- 
PUR STATE and the Tvx&\ parganas of Nairn Tal District. It is derived 
from a Pashtu adjective rohelah or rohelai, formed from rohu ( c moun- 
tain'). Rohilkhand as thus defined contains an area of 12,800 square 
miles, forming a large triangle bounded on the north by the Himalayas, 
on the south-west by the Ganges, and on the east by the Province of 
Oudh. In the north lies a strip of the Tarai below the hills, with large 
stretches of forest land, the haunt of tigers and wild elephants, and 
only small patches of cultivation belonging to the Tharus and Boksas, 
jungle tribes, apparently of Mongolian origin, who seem fever-proof. 
Passing south the land becomes drier, and the moisture drains into the 
numerous small streams rising in the Tarai and joining the Ramganga 
or the Ganges, which ultimately receive most of the drainage In the 



ROHILKHAND 305 

northern portions of Bijnor and Bareilly Districts, canals drato&from 
the Tarai streams inigate a small area. The climate is healthy/Kfifgf^ 
near the Tarai, and has a smaller range of temperature than the tract 
south of the Ganges. The rainfall is heavy near the hills, but gradually 
decreases southwards. The usual crops of the plains are grown 
throughout the tract, but sugar-cane and rice are of special importance. 
Wheat, gram, cotton, and the two millets (jowar and bajrd) are also 
largely produced. 

In early times pait of the tract was included in Northern PANCHALA. 
During the Muhammadan period the eastern half was long known 
as Katehr. The origin and meaning of this term is disputed. It is 
certainly connected with the name of the Katehriya Rajputs, who were 
the predominant clan in it ; but their name is sometimes said to be 
derived from that of the tract, which is identified with the name of 
a kind of soil called kather or katehr, while traditions in Budaun 
District derive it from Kathiawar, which is said to be the original home 
of the clan Elsewhere the tribal traditions point to the coming of the 
Katehnyas into this tract, from Benares or Tirhut, in the twelfth and 
fourteenth centuries. The portion they first occupied seems to have 
been the country between the Ramganga and the Ganges, but they 
afterwards spread east of the former river, When the power of Islam 
was extending westwards, Rathor princes ruled at Budaun , but the 
town was taken by Kutb-ud-din Aibak in 1196, and afterwards held 
continuously by the Muhammadans. The province was, however, 
always turbulent, and two risings are described in the middle of the 
thirteenth century In 1379 or 1380 Khargu, a Hindu chief of Katehr, 
murdered Saiyid Muhammad, the governor, at a feast ; and Firoz III 
Tughlak, foiled in his attempt to seize Khargu, who fled to Kumaun, 
appointed an Afghan governoi at Sambhal with orders 'to invade the 
country of Katehr every year, to commit eveiy kind of ravage and 
devastation, and not to allow it to be inhabited until the murderer was 
given up. 7 Thirty-five years later, when the Saiyid dynasty was being 
founded, another Hindu, Har Singh Deo, rebelled, and though several 
times defeated gave trouble for two or three years. Mahabat Khan, 
the governor, successfully revolted in 1419 or 1420 from the rule of 
Delhi ; and the king, Khizr Khan, failed to take Budaun, which 
remained independent for four years, till after the accession of 
Mubarak Shah, who showed greater force and received Mahabat 
Khan's submission. In 1448 Alam Shah Saiyid left Delhi and made 
Budaun his capital, careless of the fact that he was thus losing the 
throne of Delhi, which was seized by Bahlol Lodl. Until his death 
thirty years later, Alam Shah remained at Budaun, content with this 
small province. During the long struggle between the Jaunpur and 
the Delhi kings, the former held parts of Katehr for a time In the 



306 ROHILKHAND 

fiist half of the sixteenth century few events in this tract have been 
recorded; but the last revolt of the Katehnyas is said to have taken 
place in 1555-6. In the reign of Akbar the sarkdr of Budaun formed 
part of the Subah of Delhi. The importance of Budaun decreased, 
and Bareilly became the capital undei Shah Jahan, while Aurangzeb 
included the district of Sambhal (Western Rohilkhand) in the territory 
ruled over by the governor of Katehr. At this time Afghans had been 
making many settlements in Northern India , but they were generally 
soldiers of fortune, rather than politicians or men of influence. Under 
Shah Jahan they were discouraged ; but they were found useful in the 
Deccan campaigns of Aurangzeb, and early m the eighteenth century 
the Bangash Pathan, Muhammad Khan, obtained grants in FARRUKH- 
ABAD, while All Muhammad Khan, whose origin is obscure, began to 
seize land north of the Ganges. The former held the southern part 
of the present Districts of Budaun and Shahjahanpur ; but the princi- 
pality he carved out for himself lay chiefly south of the Ganges. All 
Muhammad gave valuable help to the governors of Moradabad and 
Bareilly against the Raja of Kumaun, and also assisted the emperor in 
his intrigues against the Saiyids of Barha, for which he was rewarded 
with the title of Nawab When Nadir Shah invaded India, All 
Muhammad gamed many recruits among the refugees from Delhi, and 
took advantage of the weakness of the central government to annex all 
the territory he could seize. The governors of Moradabad and Bareilly 
were sent against him, but both were slam, and in 1740 he was 
recognized as governor of Rohilkhand. His next exploits were against 
Kumaun , but by this time Safdar Jang, Nawab of Oudh, had begun 
to look on him as a dangerous rival, and persuaded the emperor that 
the Rohiilas should be driven out. In 1745 All Muhammad was 
defeated and imprisoned at Delhi, but afterwards he was appointed to 
a command in the Punjab. On the invasion by Ahmad Shah Durrani 
in 1748, he was able to return to Rohilkhand, and by judiciously sup- 
porting the claims of Safdar Jang to be recognized as Wazir, obtained 
a fresh grant of the province On the death of All Muhammad, 
Rahmat Khan, who had been one of his principal lieutenants, was 
appointed regent for his sons. Safdar Jang renewed his attempts to 
take Rohilkhand, and persuaded Kaim Khan, son of Muhammad 
Khan Bangash, of Farrukhabad, to invade it. The attack was un- 
successful, and Kami Khan lost his life Safdar Jang at once annexed 
the Farrukhabad territories. But Kaim Khan's brother, Ahmad Khan, 
regained them, and attempted to win the active sympathy of the 
Rohiilas, which was at first refused and then given too late ; for Safdar 
Jang called in the Marathas, with whose help he defeated the Rohilla 
and Bangash forces, and Rahmat Khan was driven to the foot of the 
Himalayas. In 1752 he yielded and gave bonds for 50 lakhs, which 



ROHILKHAND 307 

weie made over to the Marathas in payment of their services. When 
Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India a second time, he brought back 
All Muhammad's sons, Abdullah and Faiz-ullah, who had been in 
Kandahar since the previous invasion; but Rahmat Khan skilfully 
arranged a partition of Rohilkhand, so that the brothers fought among 
themselves, and eventually Rahmat Khan and his friends became 
masteib of most of the province. About this time (1754) another 
Pathan, named Najib Khan, was rising in power. At first he acquired 
territory in the Doab, but in 1755 he founded Najlbabad in Bijnoi, 
and thus held the northern part of Rohilkhand independently of the 
other Rohillas. After the third Durrani invasion in 1757, he became 
BakhshI or paymaster of the royal troops, and the following year an 
attempt was made, through the jealousy of other nobles, to crush him 
by calling in the Marathas. Rahmat Khan and Shuja-ud-daula, the 
new Nawab of Oudh, were alarmed for their own safety, and hastened 
to help him, and the Marathas were driven out of Rohilkhand. When 
Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India a fourth time, the Rohillas joined 
him and took part in the battle of Pampat (1761), and Rahmat Khan 
was rewarded by a grant of Etawah, which had, however, to be con- 
quered from the Marathas. In 1764 and again in 1765 the Rohillas 
gave some assistance to Shuja-ud-daula in his vam contests with the 
English at Patna and at Jajmau; but they did not suffer for this at 
first. In fact the next five years were prosperous, and Rahmat Khan 
was able to undeitake one of the most necessary reforms of a ruler in 
this part of India the abolition of internal duties on merchandise. 
In 1770 the end began. Etawah and the other territory m the Central 
Doab were annexed by the Marathas. Najib Khan and Dunde Khan, 
who had been Rahmat Khan's right hand, both died. In 1771 the 
Marathas attacked Zabita Khan, son of Najib Khan, and drove him 
from his fort at Shukartar on the Ganges, and the next year harried 
Rohilkhand. In June, 1772, a treaty was arranged between the 
Rohillas and Shuja-ud-daula, in which the latter promised help against 
the Marathas, while the former undertook to pay 40 lakhs of rupees for 
this assistance. The treaty was signed in the presence of a British 
general The danger to Oudh, and also to the British, from the 
Marathas was now clear. Zabita Khan openly joined them in July, 
1772, and at the end of the year they extorted a grant of the provinces 
of Kora and Allahabad from Shah Alam. In 1773 the y demanded 
from Rahmat Khan the payment of the 50 lakhs promised twenty years 
befofe, and again entered Rohilkhand British tioops were now sent 
up, as it had become known that Rahmat Khan was intriguing with 
the Marathas, who openly aimed at Oudh. These intrigues continued 
even when the allied British and Oudh troops had arrived in Rohil- 
khand, and the Nawab of Oudh then made overtures for Biitish help 



3 o8 ROHILKHAND 

in adding the province to his teriitones Finally, Rahmat Khan 
agreed to carry out the treaty obligations which he had formerly con- 
tracted with Oudh, and the Marathas were driven across the Ganges 
at Ramghat This danger being removed, Rahmat Khan failed to pay 
the subsidy due fiom him to the Nawab of Oudh. Latei in the same 
year, Warren Hastings came to Benares to discuss affairs with the 
Nawab, who strongly pressed for British help to ciush the Rohillas. 
While the Council at Calcutta hesitated, the Nawab made secret 
alliances with Zabita Khan and Muzaffar Jang of Farrukhabad, and 
persuaded the emperor to approve by promising to share any territory 
annexed. He then cleared the Marathas out of the Doab, and in 17 74 
obtained British troops to assist him against the Rohillas. The latter 
were met between Miranpur Katra in Shahjahanpur and Fatehganj 
East (in Bareilly District) in April, 1774, and were defeated after 
a gallant resistance, Rahmat Khan being among the slain. This 
expedition formed the subject of one of the chaiges against Warren 
Hastings, which was directed to show that his object was merely to 
obtain money from the Nawab Wazlr in return foi help m acquiring 
new territory. Contemporary documents prove clearly the necessity 
for improving the western boundary of Oudh as a defence against the 
Marathas, and the danger arising from this countiy being held by men 
whose treachery had been manifested again and again. Faiz-ullah 
Khan, the last remaining chief of the Rohillas, received what now 
forms the RAMPUR STATE, and Zabita Khan lost his possessions east 
of the Ganges. In 1794 an insurrection broke out at Rampur, after 
the death of Faiz-ullah Khan. British troops were sent to quell it, and 
gained a victory at Fatehganj West Seven years later, in 1801, Rohil- 
khand formed part of the Ceded Provinces made over to the British 
by the Nawab of Oudh. 

The total population of Rohilkhand is nearly 6-2 millions. The 
density approaches 500 persons per square mile, and in Bareilly Dis- 
trict exceeds 600. More than i| millions are Muhammadans, forming 
28 per cent, of the total a proportion double that found in the 
Provinces as a whole. Among Hindu castes may be mentioned the 
Jats, who are not found east of Rohilkhand in considerable numbers ; 
the Ahars, who are akin to the Ahlrs of other parts ; and the Khagis 
and Kisans, excellent cultivators resembling the Lodhas of the Doab. 
The Bishnol sect has a larger number of adherents than elsewhere. 

[Elliot, History of India, passim , Strachey, Hastings and the Rohilla 
War (1892) ] 

Rohisala. Petty State in KATHIAWAR, Bombay. 

Rohri Subdivision. Subdivision of Sukkur District, Smd, Bom- 
bay, composed of the ROHRI and GHOTKI talukas. 

Rohri Taluka. Tahika of Sukkur District, Sind, Bombay, lying 



ROHRl TOWN 309 

between 27 4' and 27 50' N. and 68 35' and 69 48' E., with an 
area of 1,497 square miles. The population rose from 81,041 in 1891 
to 85,089 in iQor. The tahtka contains one town, ROHRI (population, 
9,537), its head-quarters ; and 69 villages. The density, 58 persons per 
square mile, us much below the Distnct average, The land revenue 
and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 1-7 lakhs. The Eastern Nara 
Canal runs south thiou<;h the high-lying land, which has to be 
irrigated by lifts. Fail rice, jowar, and, near the Indus, wheat crops 
are grown. In the south, uanges of sandhills lelieve the monotony of 
the country , but there the soil is barren and fit only for grazing. 

Rohri Town. Head-quarters of the taluka of the same name 
in Sukkin District, Sind, Bombay, situated in 27 41' N. and 68 
56' E., upon the left or eastern bank of the Indus, on a rocky 
eminence of limestone interspersed with flints. Population (1901), 
9,537. The Hindus, who are mostly of the Baniya caste, are engaged 
in trade, banking, and money-lending, while the Muhammadans are 
chiefly of the Bhuta, Kori, Patoli, Muhano, Khati, Memon, and 
Shikari tribes, or describe themselves as Shaikh and Saiyid. 

Rohri is said to have been founded by Saiyid Rukn-ud-dm Shah in 
1297. The rocky site terminates abruptly on the west in a precipice 
40 feet high, rising from the bank of the river, which, during the 
inundation season, attains a height of about 16 feet above its lowest 
level. On the noithern side is the mouth of the supply channel for the 
EASTERN NARA CANAL, 156 feet wide, which is provided with powerful 
sluice gates to regulate the supply of water as required. When seen 
from a little distance, Rohri has a pleasing appearance, the houses being 
lofty, frequently four and five storeys high, with flat roofs surrounded 
by balustrades ; some are of burnt brick, erected many years ago by 
wealthy merchants belonging to the place. But the streets are in 
several parts very narrow, and the air is close and unwholesome. It has 
road communication with Mlrpur, Kandahar, and Sangrar, and the 
main trunk road from Hyderabad to Multan also passes through it. 
The town has derived a new importance as the station wheie the 
North-Western State Railway crosses the Indus, and as the junction 
of the Kotri-Rohri lines It contains a Subordinate Judge's court, 
a dispensary, and four schools, of which three for boys have 754 pupils 
and one for girls has 80 pupils. 

Rohri has a large number of Muhammadan places of worship. One, 
known as the Jama Masjid, was built in 1564 by Fateh Khan, lieu- 
tenant of the emperor Akbar ; it is a massive but gloomy pile of red 
brick covered with three domes, and coated with glazed porcelain 
tiles/ The other, the Idgah Masjid, was erected in 1593 by Mir Musan 
Shah The War Mubarak, a building about 25 feet square, situated 
to the north of the town, was erected about 1745 by Nur Muhammad, 



3 io ROHRI TOWN 

the reigning Kalhora prince, for the reception of a hair from the beard 
of Muhammad. This hair, to which miraculous properties are ascribed 
by the faithful, is set in amber, which again is enclosed in a gold case 
studded with rubies and emeralds, the gift of Mir All Murad of 
Khairpur. The relic is exposed to view every March, when the hair 
is believed by the devotees to rise and fall, and also to change colour. 

Rohn has been administered as a municipality since 1855, and 
the town has, in consequence, greatly improved as regards both 
health and appearance. The municipal income during the decade 
ending 1901 averaged Rs. 21,600 In 1903-4 it was Rs. 27,000. The 
trade is principally in grain, oil, gfa, salt, fuller's-earth, lime, and fruits. 
Tasar silk is manufactured. Opposite to Rohri on the Indus is the 
small island of Khwaja Khizr, containing the shrine of a saint who is 
revered alike by Muhammadans and Hindus. 

Rohtak District.- District in the Delhi Division of the Punjab, 
lying between 28 21' and 29 if N. and 76 13' and 76 58' E., on 
the borders of Rajputana, in the high level plain that separates the 
waters of the Jumna and Sutlej, with an area of 1,797 square miles. 
The eastern part falls within the borders of the tract formerly known 
as Hariana. In its midst lies part of the small State of Dujana. It 
is bounded on the north by the Jind nizamat of Jind State, and 
by Karnal District; on the east by Delhi, and on the south-east by 
Gurgaon ; on the south by Pataudi State and the Rewari tahsll of 
Gurgaon } on the south-west by territory belonging to the Nawab of 
Dujana ; and on the west by the Dadn ntzdmat of Jind and by Hissar 
District. Although there is no grand sceneiy in Rohtak, the canals 
with their belts of trees, the lines of sandhills, and in the south 
the torrents, the depressions which are flooded after 
asects neav Y ram j an d a ^ ew small rocky hills give the Dis- 
trict more diversified features than are generally met 
with in the plains of the Punjab. The eastern border lies low on the 
level of the Jumna Canal and the Najafgarh swamp. A few miles west 
the surface rises gradually to a level plateau, which, speaking roughly, 
stretches as far as the town of Rohtak, and is enclosed by parallel rows 
of sandhills running north and south. Beyond the western line of 
sandhills the surface rises again till it ends on the Hissai border in 
a third high ridge. The eastern line runs, with here and there an 
interval, down the east side of the District, and rises to some height in 
the Jhajjar tahsll. South-west of this ridge the country becomes more 
undulating, and the soil lighter. The south-eastern corner of the 
District is crossed by two small streams or torrents, the Sahibi and 
Indon ; these flow circuitously, throwing oft a network of branches 
and collecting here and there after heavy rain v&jhih of considerable 
size, and finally fall into the Najafgaih swamp 



ROHTAK DISTRICT 3 1 1 

With the exception of a few small outliers of Alwar quartzite be- 
longing to the Delhi system, there is nothing of geological interest in 
the District, which is almost entirely of alluvial formation. 

The District forms an arm from the Upper Gangetic plain between 
the Cential Punjab and the desert Trees, except where naturalized or 
planted, are rare, but the nimbar (Acacia kucophloea) is a conspicuous 
exception. Mango groves are frequent in the north-east ; and along 
canals and roadsides other sub-tropical species have been planted 
successfully. The ber (Zhyphus Jujubd) is common, and is often 
planted. 

Game, including wild hog, antelope, ' ravine deer ' (Indian gazelle), 
nilgai, and hare, is plentiful. Peafowl, partridge, and quail are to be 
met with throughout the year , and during the cold season sand-grouse, 
wild geese, bustards, and flamingoes. Wolves are still common, and 
a stray leopard is occasionally killed. The villages by the canal are 
overrun by monkeys. 

The climate is not inaptly described in the Memoirs of George 
Thomas as ' in general salubrious, though when the sandy and desert 
country lying to the westward becomes heated, it is inimical to 
a European constitution.' In April, May, and June the hot winds 
blow steadily all day from the west, bringing up constant sandstorms 
fiom the Rajputana deseit , at the close of the year frosts are common, 
and strong gales prevail in Februaiy and March. 

The average rainfall varies from 19 inches at Jhajjar to 21 at Rohtak 
Of the rainfall at the latter place, 18 inches fall in the summer months 
and 3 m the winter The greatest fall recorded during the years 
1885-1902 was 41 inches at Jhajjar in 1885-6, and the least 8 inches 
at Rohtak in 1901-2. 

The District belongs for the most part to the tract of HARIANA, and 
its early history will be found in the articles on that region and on the 
towns of ROHTAK, MAHAM, and JHAJJAR. It appears Histor 
to have come at an early date under the control of 
the Delhi kings, and in 1355 Fnoz Shah dug a canal from the Sutlej 
as far as Jhajjar. Under Akbar the present District lay within the 
Siibah of Delhi and the sarkars of Delhi and Hissar-Firoza. In 1643 
the Rohtak canal is said to have been begun by Nawab All Khan, who 
attempted to divert water from the old canal of Firoz Shah. On the 
decay of the Delhi empire the District with the rest of Hariana was 
granted to the minister Rukn-ud-dm in 171?, and was in 1732 trans- 
ferred by him to the Nawabs of Farrukhnagar in GURGAON Faujdar 
Khan, Nawab of Farrukhnagar, who seems to have succeeded to the 
territories of Hissar on the death of Shahdad Khan in 1738, handed 
down to his son, Nawab Kamgar Khan, a dominion which embraced 
the present Districts of Hissar and Rohtak, besides part of Guigaon 



312 ROHTAK DISTRICT 

and a considerable tract subsequently annexed by the chiefs of Jind 
and Patiala. Hissar and the north were during this time perpetually 
overrun by the Sikhs, in spite of the combined efforts of the Bhattis 
and the imperial forces, but Rohtak and Gurgaon appear to have 
remained with Kamgar Khan till his death in 1760. His son, Musa 
Khan, was expelled from Farrukhnagar by Suraj Mal 3 the Jat ruler of 
Bharatpur , and the Jats held Jhajjar, Badh, and Farrukhnagar till 
1771. In that year Musa Khan recovered Farrukhnagar, but he never 
regained a footing in Rohtak District. In 1772 Najaf Khan came 
into power at Delhi, and till his death in 1782 some order was main- 
tained. Bahadurgarh, granted in 1754 to Bahadur Khan, Baloch, 
was held by his son and grandson ; Jhajjar was in the hands of 
Walter Reinhardt, the husband of Begam Sumru of Sardhana ; and 
Gohana, Maham, Rohtak, and Kharkhauda were also held by nominees 
of Najaf Khan. The Marathas returned m 1785, but could do little 
to repel the Sikh invasion, and from 1785 to 1803 the north of the 
District was occupied by the Raja of Jind, while the south and west 
were precariously held by the Marathas, who were defied by the strong 
Jat villages and constantly attacked by the Sikhs. Meanwhile the 
military adventurer George Thomas had carved out a principality in 
Hariana, which included Maham, Ben, and Jhajjar in the present 
District., his head-quarters were at Hansi in the District of Hissar, 
and at Georgegarh near Jhajjar he had built a small outlying fort. In 
r So i, however, the Marathab made common cause with the Sikhs 
and Rajputs against him, and under the French commander, Louis 
Bourqum, defeated him at Georgegarh, and succeeded in ousting 
him from his dominions. In 1803, by the conquests of Lord Lake, 
the whole country up to the Sutlej and the Siwahks passed to the 
British Government. 

Under Lord Lake's arrangements, the northern parganas of Rohtak 
were held by the Sikh chiefs of Jind and Kaithal, while the south 
was granted to the Nawab of Jhajjar, the west to his brother, the 
Nawab of Dadrl and Bahadurgarh, and the central tract to the 
Nawab of Dujana The latter, however, was unable to maintain 
order in his portion of the territories thus assigned, and the frequent 
incursions of Sikh and Bhatti marauders compelled the dispatch of 
a British officer in 1810 to bring the region into better organization. 
The few parganas thus subjected to British rule formed the nucleus 
of the present District. Other fringes of territory escheated on the 
deaths of the Kaithal Raja in 1818 and the chief of Jind in 1820. 
In the last-named year, Hissar and Sirsa weie separated from Rohtak ; 
and in 1824 the District was brought into nearly its present shape 
by the District of Panipat (now Karnal) being made a separate 
charge. 



POPULATION 313 

Up to 1832 Rohtak was administered by a Political Agent under 
the Resident at Delhi , but it was then brought under the Regulations, 
and included in the North-Western Provinces. On the outbreak of 
the Mutiny in 1857, Rohtak was for a time completely lost to the 
Bntish Government. The Muhammadan tribes, uniting with their 
brethren in Gurgaon and Hissai, began a general predatory movement 
under the Nawabs of Farrukhnagar, Jhajjar, and Bahadurgarh, and the 
Bhatti chieftains of Sirsa and Hissar. They attacked and plundered 
the civil station at Rohtak, destroying every record of administration 
But before the fall of Delhi, a force of Punjab levies was brought across 
the Sutlej, and order was restored with little difficulty. The rebel 
Nawabs of Jhajjar and Bahadurgarh were captured and tried. The 
former was executed at Delhi, while his neighbour and relative escaped 
with a sentence of exile to Lahore Their estates were confiscated, 
part of them being temporarily included in a new District of Jhajjar, 
while other portions were assigned to the Rajas of Jind, Patiala, and 
Nabha as rewards for their services during the Mutiny. Rohtak Dis- 
trict was transferred to the Punjab Government , and in 1860 Jhajjar 
was broken up, part of it being added to the territory of the loyal 
Raj as, and the remainder united with Rohtak. 

There are no antiquities of any note, and the history of the old sites 
is unknown Excavations at the Rohtak Khokra Kot would seem to 
show that three cities have been successively destroyed there 3 the well- 
known coins of Raja Samanta Deva, who is supposed to have reigned 
over Kabul and the Punjab about A. D. 920, are found at Mohan Ban. 
Jhajjar, Maham, and Gohana possess some old tombs, but none is of 
any special architectmal merit ; the finest are at the first place. There 
is an old baoh 01 stepped well at Rohtak and another at Maham : the 
latter has been described by the author of Pen and Pencil Sketches, and 
must have been in much better repair m 1828 than it is now. The 
Gaokaran tank at Rohtak and the Buawala tank at Jhajjar are fine 
works, while the masonry tank built by the last Nawab of Jhajjar at 
Chuchakwas is exceedingly handsome. The asthal or Jog monastery at 
Bohar is the only group of buildings of any architectural pretensions 
in the District the Jhajjar palaces are merely large houses on the old 
Indian plan. 

Rohtak contains n towns and 491 villages. Its population at each 
of the last four enumerations was: (1868) 531,118, (1881) 553,609, 
(1891) 590,475, and (1901) 630,672. It increased Population> 
by nearly 7 per cent, during the last decade, the 
increase being greatest in the Sampla tahsll, and least in Jhajjar It 
is divided into four tahslls ROHTAK, JHAJJAR, SAMPLA, and GOHANA 
the head-quarters of each being at the place from which it is named. 
The chief towns are the municipalities of ROHTAK, the administrative 



3'4 



ROHTAK DISTRICT 



head-quarters of the District, JHAJJAR, BERI, BAHADURGARH, and 
GOHANA. 

The following table shows the distribution of population in 1901 





CD 


Number of 


c 
o 


^ 


^ *" C o 


o 




U* in 


i 




ge 




fc-SSfi 


Tahs-il 


^ 


tn 

c 


& 




|e 


li^s^ 






s 


g 


^3 


Q- 


s a 


u c3 o,^ rt 


? w SJ 




< 


H 


> 


p- 


f2^ 


jfi^g," 


Cu 


Rohtak 


59 2 


5 


102 


197,727 


334-0 


+ 8-2 


7,648 


Sampla . 
Jhajjar 


409 
466 


2 

I 


122 
I8 9 


162,423 

123,227 


3971 
2644 


+ 84 

+ 3-2 


3,8io 

3,598 


Gohana . 


336 


3 


78 




438-4 


-f 6.3 


2,011 


District total 


1,797 


it 


49 * 


630,672 


350'9 


+ 68 


17,067 



NOTE The figures for the areas of tahslls are taken from revenue returns The 
total area is that given in the Census Report 

Hindus number 533,723, or 85 per cent of the total, and Muham- 
madans 91,687, About 85 per cent, of the population live in villages, 
and the average population in each village is 1,096, the largest for 
any District in the Punjab. The language ordinarily spoken is Western 
Hindi, 

The Jats (217,000) comprise one-third of the population and own 
seven-tenths of the villages in the District. The great majority are 
Hindus, and the few Muhammadan Jats are of a distinctly inferior 
type. The Hindu Rajputs (7,000) are a well-disposed, peaceful folk, 
much resembling the Jats m their ways; the Ranghars or Muham- 
madan Rajputs (27,000), on the other hand, have been aptly described 
as good soldiers and indifferent cultivators, whose real forte lies in 
cattle-lifting, Many now enlist in Skinner's Horse and other cavalry 
regiments. The Ahirs (17,000) are all Hindus and excellent culti- 
vators. There are 9,000 Malls and 3,000 Gujars The Brahmans 
(66,000) were originally settled by the Jats when they founded their 
villages, and now they are generally found on Jat estates. They are 
an inoffensive class, venerated but not respected Of the commercial 
castes the Banias (45,000) are the most important , and of the menials 
the Chamars (leather- workers, 55,000), Chuhras (scavengers, 23,000), 
Dhanaks (scavengers, 21,000), Jhmwars (water-carriers, 12,000), Kum- 
hars (potters, 13,000), Lohars (blacksmiths, 9,000), Nais (barbers, 
13,000), Tarkhans (carpenters, 13,000), and Telis (oil-workers, 7,000). 
There are 17,000 Fakirs. About 60 per cent, of the population are 
agriculturists, and 21 per cent industrial. 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has a branch at 
Rohtak town, and in 1901 the District contained 41 native Christians. 

The general conditions with regard to agriculture in different parts 



AGRICULTURE 



depend rathei on irrigation than on differences of soil. Throughout 
the District the soil consists as a rule of a good light-coloured alluvial 
loam, while a lightei and sandier soil is found on , . j, 
elevations and clay soils in depressions of the land 
All soils alike give excellent returns with sufficient rainfall, but, unless 
irrigated, fail entirely in times of drought, though the sandy soil can 
do with less rain than the clay or loam. The large unirngated tiacts 
are absolutely dependent on the autumn harvest and the monsoon 
rains. Roughly speaking, the part north of the railway may be classed 
as secure, that to the south as insecure, from famine. The whole of 
the soil contains salts, and saline efflorescence is not uncommon where 
the drainage lines have been obstructed 

The District is held almost entirely on the pattldan and lhaiydchdra 
tenures, zamindari lands covering only about 8,000 acres, and lands 
leased from Government about 5,500 acres The following table 
shows the mam agncultuial statistics in 1903-4, areas being m 
square miles : 



Tahsif 


Total 


Cultivated 


Irrigated 


Cultivable 
waste 


Rohtak 
Sam pi a 
Jhajjar 
Gohana . 

Total 


592 

4 S 
460 

336 


511 
34<5 
382 
281 


186 

122 

59 
J S9 


47 
58 
59 
33 


1,803 


1,520 


526 


177 



Wheat is the chief crop of the spring harvest, occupying 103 square 
miles in 1903-4 , gram occupied 141 and barley 47 square miles. In 
the autumn harvest the spiked and great millets (bdjra 23\&jowdr) are 
the principal staples, occupying 338 and 335 square miles respec- 
tively; cotton occupied 65 square miles, sugar-cane 31, and pulses 138, 
Indigo is grown to a small extent, but only for seed. 

The cultivated area increased from 1,406 square miles m 1879 to 
1,520 square miles in 1903-4, in which year it amounted to 84 per 
cent, of the total area The increase of cultivation during the twenty 
years ending 1901 is chiefly due to canal extensions, and it is doubtful 
whether further extension is possible. Fallows proper are not practised; 
the pressure of population and the division of property are perhaps too 
great to allow them. For rains cultivation the agriculturist generally 
sets aside over two-thirds of his lands in the autumn and rather less 
than one-third in the spiing, and the land gets rest till the season for 
which it is kept comes round again , if there is heavy ram in the hot 
season, the whole area may be put under the autumn crop, and in that 
case no spring crop is taken at all These arrangements are due to 
the nature of the seasons, rather than to any care for the soil. On 

VOL. xxi. x 



3i6 ROHTAK DISTRICT 

lands irrigated by wells and canals a crop is taken every harvest, as fai 
as possible , the floods of the natural streams usually prevent any 
autumn crop, except sugar-cane, being grown on the lands affected by 
them. Rotation of crops is followed, but in a very imperfect way, and 
for the sake of the crop rather than the soil, Nothing worth mention 
appears to have been done in the way of improving the quality of the 
crops grown. 

Except in the Jhajjar tahsll^ where there is a good deal of well- 
irrigation, advances under the Land Improvement Loans Act were not 
popular till recent years nor are advances under the Agriculturists' 
Loans Act common, save in times of scarcity, as the people prefer to 
resort to the Banias. During the five years ending September, 1904, 
a total of 5-3 lakhs was advanced, including 4-9 lakhs under the 
Agriculturists' Loans Act. Of this sum, 3 lakhs was lent in the famine 
year 1899-1900. 

The bullocks and cows are 01 a very good breed, and particulaily 
fine in size and shape. A touch of the Hansi strain probably pei- 
vades them throughout. The bullocks of the villages round Beri and 
Georgegarh have a special reputation, which is said to be due to the 
fact that the Nawab of Jhajjar kept some bulls of the Nagaur breed at 
Chuchakwas. This breed is small, hardy, active, and hard-working, but 
is said to have fallen off since the confiscation of the Jhajjar State. 
The zammddrs make a practice of selling their bullocks after one ciop 
has come up, and buying fresh ones for the next sowings, thereby 
avoiding the expense of their keep for four or five months. The 
extensive breakmg-up of land which has taken place since 1840 has 
greatly restricted the grazing grounds of the villages , the present 
fodder-supply grown in the fields leaves but a small margin to provide 
against seasons of drought, and in many canal estates difficulty is 
already being experienced on this score. Few large stretches of village 
jungle are now to be found, and the policy of giving proprietary giants 
has reduced by more than half the area of the Jhajjar and Bahadur- 
garh reserves. A large cattle fair is held at Georgegarh. The horses 
of the District are of the ordinary mediocre type. Goats and sheep 
are owned as a rule by village menials. The District board maintains 
three horse and three donkey stallions. 

Of the total area cultivated in 1903-4, 526 square miles, or neaily 
36 per cent , were classed as irrigated. Of this area, 453 square miles 
were irrigated from canals and 72 from wells. The District had 2,903 
masonry wells in use, all worked by bullocks on the rope-and-bucket 
system, besides 864 unbricked wells, water-lifts, and lever wells. Canal- 
irrigation more than trebled and well-irrigation more than doubled 
during the twenty years ending 1901. The former is derived entirely 
from the WESTERN JUMNA. CANAL, the Biitana branch of which (with 



TRADE AND COMMUNICATIONS 317 

its chief distributary, the Bhiwani branch) iirigates the Gohana and 
Rohtak tahsik) while various distributanes from the new Delhi branch 
supply Rohtak and Sampla. The area estimated as annually irrigable 
from the Western Jumna Canal is 278 square miles There used to 
be a certain amount of irrigation from the Sahibi and Indori streams, 
but this has been largely obstructed by dams erected in the territory of 
the Alwar State, Wells are chiefly found in the south of Jhajjar and 
in the flood-affected tracts of Sampla 

The District contains no forests, except 8 square miles of Govern- 
ment waste under the control of the Deputy-Commissioner , and, save 
along canals and watercourses and immediately round the villages, 
trees aie painfully wanting. Reserved village jungles are, however, a 
featuie of the District and aie found in nearly every village. 

The Sultanpur salt sources are situated m five villages in Guigaon 
and in one in this District in the Jhajjai tahsll. A large amount of 
kankar is found, some of which is particulaily pure and adapted for 
the preparation of lime. The low hills in the south yield a limestone 
suitable foi building purposes. 

The chief manufactures are the pottery of Jhajjar , the saddlery and 
leather-work of Kalanaur ; muslin turbans, interwoven with gold and 
silver thread, and a muslin known as tanzeb^ produced 
at Rohtak; and the woollen blankets woven in all 
parts. Dyeing is a speciality of Jhajjar. The bullock- 
carts of the District are well and strongly made. Four cotton-ginnmg 
factories and one combined ginning and pressing factory have recently 
been opened at Rohtak town, which absorb a good deal of the raw 
cotton of the District. In 1904 they employed 279 hands. In other 
industries the native methods of production are adhered to; and, 
though in the towns foreign sugar and cloth are making way, native 
products hold their own in the villages. Owing to the opening of the 
factories and the Rohtak gram market, the demand for labour has 
considerably increased and wages have risen. 

In ordinary seasons the District exports gram, the annual export 
of cereals being estimated by the Famine Commission of 1896-7 at 
89,000 tons. The construction of the Southern Punjab Railway has 
greatly facilitated exports at all times, and imports in time of scarcity, 
the monthly average imported by this line during the famine year 1899 
being no less than 3,400 tons. Commerce is also much helped by the 
Rohtak grain market, owing to its favourable position, its exemption 
from octroi, and the facilities given for gram storage. 

The District is traversed by the Southern Punjab Railway ; the 
Rewari-Bhatinda branch of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway crosses the 
west side of the Jhajjar tahsll , and the terminus of the branch from 
Garhi Harsaru to Farrukhnagar is about a mile from the border. The 

x 2 



3 i8 ROHTAK DISTRICT 

Distiict is also well piovided with loads, the most important being 
the Delhi-Hissar, Rohtak-Bhiwani, and Rohtak-Jhajjai loads, all of 
which are metalled. The total length of metalled roads is 79 miles, 
and of unmetalled roads 605 miles Of these, 20 miles of metalled 
and 41 miles of unmetalled roads are under the Public Works depart- 
ment, and the rest under the District board 

The first famine of which there is any tiustworthy record was that of 
1782-3, the terrible chahsa. From this famine a very large number 
of villages in the District date their refoundation, in 
whole or in part. Droughts followed in 1802, 1812, 
1817, 1833, and 1837. The famine of 1860-1 was the first in which 
relief was regularly organized by Government Nearly 500,000 daily 
units were relieved by distribution of food and in othei ways; about 
400,000 were employed on relief works; Rs. 34,378 was spent on 
these objects, and Rs, 2,50,000 of land revenue was ultimately remitted. 
In 1868-9, 719,000 daily units received relief, 125,000 were employed 
at various times on relief works, nearly Rs. 1,35,000 was spent in 
alleviating the calamity, and more than Rs, 2,00,000 of revenue in all 
was remitted. The special feature of the relief in tbis famine was the 
amount raised in voluntary subscriptions by the people themselves, 
which was nearly Rs. 45)- There is said to have been great loss of 
life, and nearly 90,000 head of cattle died. The next famine occurred 
m 1877-8. Highway robberies grew common, grain carts were plun- 
dered, and in the village of Badli a grain riot took place. No relief 
was, however, considered necessary, nor was the revenue demand sus- 
pended, 176,000 bead of cattle disappeared, and it took the District 
many years to recover. Both harvests of 1895-6 were a failure, and 
in 1896-7 there was literally no crop in the rains-land villages. Relief 
operations commenced in November, 1896, and continued till the 
middle of July, 1897, at which time a daily average of 11,000 persons 
were on the relief works. Altogether, Rs. 96,300 was spent m allevi- 
ating distress, and suspensions of revenue amounted to 3-4 lakhs. The 
famine was, however, by no means severe, more than three-fourths of 
the people on relief works were menials, and large stores of fodder and 
gram remained m most of the villages. The famine of 1899-1900 was 
only surpassed m severity by the chalisa famine above mentioned. The 
spread of irrigation had, however, largely increased the area protected 
from drought, and, while in 1896-7 the affected area was 1,467 square 
miles, in 1899-1900 this had shrunk to 1,234, m spite of the greater 
seventy of the drought. The greatest daily average -of persons relieved 
was in the week ending March 10, 1900, when 33,632, or 9 per cent. 
of the population affected, were in receipt of relief. The total cost of 
the famine was 7-5 lakhs. The total deaths from December, 1899, to 
October, 1900, were 25,006, giving a death-rate of 69 as compared with 



ADMINISTRA TION 3*9 

the aveiage rate of 37 per 1,000. Fever was lesponsible for 18,279 
and cholera foi 1,935 deaths. The losses of cattle amounted to 
182,000. 

The District is in charge of a Deputy-Commissioner, assisted by three 
Assistant or Extra-Assistant Commissioners, of whom frustration 
one is in charge of the District treasury. Each of the 
four tahslh is under a tahsl!dar> assisted by a naib-iahslldar. 

The Deputy-Commissioner, as District Magistrate, is responsible for 
cnmmal justice. Civil judicial work is under a District Judge \ and 
both officers are supervised by the Divisional Judge of Delhi, who is 
also Sessions Judge. The District Judge has two Munsifs under him, 
one at head-quarters, the other at Jhajjar There are also six honorary 
magistrates. The predominant form of crime is burglary. 

The villages are of unusual size, averaging over 1,000 persons. They 
afford an excellent example of the bhaiyachara, village of Northern 
India, a community of clansmen linked together, sometimes by descent 
from a common ancestor, sometimes by marriage ties, sometimes by a 
joint foundation of the village , with no community of property, but com- 
bining to manage the affairs of the village by means of a council of 
elders ; holding the waste and grazing grounds, as a rule, in common ; 
and maintaining, by a cess distributed on individuals, a common fund 
to which public receipts are brought and expenditure charged. 

The early revenue history under British lule naturally divides itself 
into two parts that of the older tiacts which form most of the area 
included in the three northern tahslh, and that of the confiscated 
estates which belonged befoie the Mutiny to the Nawabs of Jhajjar 
and Bahadurgarh. Thus the regular settlements made in 1838-40 
included only half the present Distiict. The earlier settlements made 
in the older part followed Regulation IX of 1805, and were for short 
terms, In Rohtak little heed was paid to the Regulation, which laid 
down that a moderate assessment was conducive equally to the true 
interests of Government and to the well-being of its subjects. The 
revenue in 1822 was already so heavy as to be nearly intolerable, while 
the unequal distribution of the demand was even worse than its bur- 
den. Nevertheless an increase of Rs. 2,000 was levied in 1825 and 
Rs. 4,000 shortly after. The last summary settlement made in 1835 
enhanced the demand by Rs. 20,000. The regular settlement made 
between 1838 and 1840 increased the assessment by Rs, 14,000. This 
was never paid, and the revision, which was immediately ordered, re- 
duced it by ij lakhs, or 16 per cent. The progress of the District since 
this concession was made has been a continuing proof of its wisdom. 

Bahadurgarh and Jhajjar were resumed after the Mutiny. The 
various summary settlements woiked well on the whole, and a regular 
bettlement was made between 1860 and 1863, 



320 ROHTAK DISTRICT 

The settlement of the whole District was revised between 1873 and 
1879. Rates on irrigated land varied from Rs, 2 to Rs. 2-12, and on 
unirngated land from 5 annas to Rs. 1-9. Canal-irrigated land was, as 
usual, assessed at a 'dry' rate, plus owners' and occupiers' lates. The 
result of the new assessment was an increase of 9^ per cent, over the 
previous demand. The demand for 1903-4, including cesses, amounted 
to nearly 1 1 lakhs. The average size of a proprietary holding is 5 acres 

The collections of land revenue alone and of total revenue are shown 
below, in thousands of rupees 





1880-1 


i8go-i 


1900-1 


1903-4 


Land revenue . 
Total revenue . 


9,69 

11,09 


9>5 
11,38 


7>43 
i>37 


8,15 

JI :34 



The District contains five municipalities, ROHTAK, BERI, JHAJJAR, 
BAHADURGARH, and GOHANA ; and ten ' notified areas,' of which the 
most important are MAHAM, KALANAUR, MUNDLANA, and BUTANA. 
Outside these, local affairs are managed by a District board, whose 
income amounted in 1903-4 to Rs, 1,24,000 The expenditure in the 
same year was Rs. 1,22,000, the principal item being public works. 

The regular police force consists of 433 of all ranks, including 63 
municipal police, under a Superintendent, who is usually assisted by 
2 inspectors. The village watchmen number 702. The District has 
10 police stations, 4 outposts, and 17 road-posts Three trackers and 
three camel sowars now form part of the oidmary force. The District 
jail at head-quarters has accommodation for 230 prisoners. 

The standard of education is below the average, though some pro- 
giess has been made, Rohtak stands twenty-sixth among the twenty- 
eight Districts of the Punjab in respect of the literacy of its population 
In 1901 only 2-7 per cent, of the population (5 males and o-i females) 
could read and write. The number of pupils under instruction was 
2,396m 1880-1, 3, 380 in 1890-1, 5,097 in 1900-1, and 5,824 in 1903-4. 
In the last year the District possessed 9 secondary and 65 primary 
(public) schools and 2 advanced and 42 elementary (private) schools, 
with 211 girls in the public and 8 in the private schools. The Anglo- 
vernacular school at Rohtak town with 262 pupils is the only high 
school, The other principal schools are two Anglo-vernacular middle 
schools supported by the municipalities of Jhajjar and Gohana, and 
6 vernacular middle schools. The total expenditure on education in 
1903-4 was Rs. 44,000, chiefly derived from District funds; fees 
provided nearly a third, and municipal funds and Provincial grants 
between them a fifth, of the total expenditure. 

Besides the Rohtak civil hospital, the District possesses five outlying 
dispensaries. These in 1904 treated a total of 59,714 out-patients and 



ROHTAK TOWN 321 

1,0 1 6 in-patients, while 2,894 opeiations weie performed The income 
was Rs. 1 0,000, almost entirely derived from Local and municipal 
funds. 

The number of successful vaccinations in 1903-4 was 14,406, repre- 
senting 22 8 per 1,000 of population. The towns of Rohtak and Beii 
have adopted the Vaccination Act. 

[D. C. J. Ibbetson, District Gazetteer (1883-4); H. C. Fanshawe, 
Settlement Report (1880).] 

Rohtak Tahsil. Ta hsil of Rohtak Distnct, Punjab, lying between 
28 38' and 29 6' N. and 76 13' and 76 45" E , with an area of 592 
square miles. The population in 1901 was 197,727, compared with 
182,649 in 1891, It contains five towns ROHTAK (population, 20,323), 
the head-quarters, BERI (9,723), KALANAUR (7,640)? KAHNAUR (5,024), 
and MAHAM (7,824) and 102 villages, including SANGHI (5,126). The 
land revenue and cesses in 1903-4 amounted to 2-9 lakhs. The plain 
is broken by a chain of sandhills on the east and by scattered sandy 
eminences elsewhere, and is partially irngated by the Western Jumna 
Canal. Trees aie scaice, except lound the villages and along the older 
caiial-bianches. 

Rohtak Town. Head-quarteis of the District and tahsll of the 
bAme name, Punjab, situated in 28 54' N and 76 35' E., on the 
Southern Punjab Railway, 44 miles noith-west of Delhi, distant by 
rail from Calcutta 1,000 miles, from Bombay 1,026, and from Karachi 
863. Population (1901), 20,323, including 10,404 Hindus and 9,916 
Muhammadans. It is plausibly identified with the Rauhitaka or 
Rauhita of the Rajataranginl and of Albiruni; but tradition aveis 
that its ancient name was Rohtasgarh 01 'the fort of Rohtas,' a Ponwar 
Raja, and points to the mound called the Khokia Kot as the site of 
the old town It is also said that Muhammad of Ghor destroyed the 
town soon after it had been rebuilt by Prithw! Raj m 1160, but it is 
not mentioned by the earlier Muhammadan historians, A colony of 
Shaikhs from Yemen are said to have built a foit ; and the Afghans 
of Birahma, an ancient site close by, also settled in the town, which 
became the capital of a fief of the Delhi kingdom Kai Khusru, the 
grandson and heir of Balban, was enticed from Multan by Kaikubad 
and put to death here about 1286, and in 1410 Khizr Khan, the 
Saiyid, besieged Idrls Khan in Rohtak fort, and took it after a six 
months' siege. After the decline of the Mughal power Rohtak, situated 
on the border line between the Sikh and Maratha powers, passed 
through many vicissitudes, falling into the hands of one chieftain after 
another. It became the head-quarters of Rohtak District in 1824, and 
was plundered in the Mutiny of 1857. 

The municipality was created in 1867. The income during the 
ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs 24,900, and the expenditure 



322 ROHTAK TOWN 

Rs, 24,400 In 1903-4 the income was Rs. 25,000, chiefly duuved 
from octroi,, and the expenditure was Rs, 23,600. The town is an 
important trade centre ; and four factories for ginning cotton and one 
for ginning and pressing have recently been established, The nuinbei 
of factory hands in 1904 was 279. Muslin turbans mtei woven with 
gold and silver thread and a form of muslin known as tanzeb aie pro- 
duced. The Anglo-vernacular high school is managed by the Educa- 
tional department. 

Rohtang. Pass in the Kulu subdivision of Kangra District, Pun- 
jab, situated in 32 22' N, and 77 if E., across the Himalayan range 
which divides the Kulu valley fiom Lahul. The pass leads from 
Koksar in Lahul to Ralla in Kothi Manali of Kulu, The elevation 
is only 13,326 feet, a remarkably low level considering that the sides 
use to 15,000 and 16,000 feet, while within 12 miles are peaks over 
20,000 feet in height. The high road to Leh and Yaikand from Kulu 
and Kangra goes over this pass, which is practicable for laden mules 
and ponies The pass is dangerous, and generally impassable between 
November and the end of March or even later. Through it the 
monsoon rains reach the Chandra valley, and the Beas rises on its 
southern slope. 

Rohtas. Fortress in the District and tahsll of Jhelum, Punjab, 
situated in 32 55' N. and 73 48' E , 10 miles north-west of Jhelum 
town, in the gorge where the Kalian torrent breaks ihiough the low 
eastern spur of the Tilla range. The fortress was built by the empeior 
Sher Shah Sun, aftei his expulsion of Humayun in 1542, to hold in 
check the Gakhars, who were allies of the exiled emperor. The 
Gakhars endeavoured to prevent its construction, and labour was 
obtained with such difficulty that the cost exceeded 40 lakhs in modern 
currency. The circumference is about 2\ miles, and the walls are 
30 feet thick and from 30 to 50 feet high. There aie 68 towers and 
12 gateways, of which the most imposing is the Sohal Gate, a fine 
specimen of the Pathan style, o\ei 70 feet in height, with exquisite 
balconies on the outer walls. The foitiess was named after the fort 
of Rohtas m Bengal, the scene of a victory of Sher Shah The north- 
ern wall is now a rum, and within the foitifications lies the small but 
flourishing village of Rohtas. 

Rohtasgarh. Hill fort in the Sasaram subdivision of Shahabad 
District, Bengal, situated in 24 37' N. and 83 55' E., about 30 miles 
south of Sasaram town, overlooking the junction of the Koel with the 
Son river. Population (1901), 1,899. It- derives its name from the 
young prince Rohitaswa, son of Hans Chandra, king of the Solar race. 
Little or nothing is known concerning the persons who held the fort 
until 1 1 oo, when it is supposed to have belonged to Pratap Dhawala, 
fathei of the last Hindu king. Shei Shah captuied Rohtasgarh m 



JkOlf TALUK A 323 

1 539> an d immediately began to stiengthen the fortifications, but the 
woik had not piogiessed \eiy fai, when he selected a moie fa\ curable 
site in the neighbouihood at the place still known ab Shergarh Man 
Singh, Akbar's Hindu geneial, on being appointed viceroy of Bengal 
and Bihar, selected Rohtasgarh as his stronghold; and, according to 
two mscnptions in Sanskrit and Persian, erected many of the buildings 
now existing. When he died, the fortiess was attached to the office 
of Wa^ir of the emperor, by whom the governors weie appointed. The 
governor of the place in 1622-4 protected Shah Jahan's family when 
that prince >\as in lebelhon against his fathei Rohtasgarh was sunen- 
dered to the British soon after the battle of Buxar in 1764, 

The remains of the fortress now occupy a part of the table-land, 
about 4 miles from east to west, and 5 miles from north to south, with 
a cucumference of nearly 28 miles On the south-east corner of the 
plateau is an old temple called Rohtasan, where an image of Rohitas^a 
was worshipped until destroyed by Aurangzeb. It is situated on 
a steep peak, and is approached by a great stone staircase arranged 
in groups of steps with successive landings. Close by is the temple 
of Hans Chandra, a giaceful building consisting of a small pillaied 
hall coveied by five domes. Within the gate at Raj Ghat there must 
have been a veiy considerable building, which is thought to have 
formed the piivate lesidence of the commandant Othei lemains, 
some of which date back to the time of Sher Shah, are scattered over 
the plateau. The most interesting of these is the palace 01 Mahalsarai, 
which is attributed to Man JSmgh. It is urcgulaily built without any 
aichitecLuial pretensions, the most striking building being the mam 
gateway, a massive structuie consisting of a laigc Gothic aich, with the 
figure of an elephant on each side The palace is, howe\ei, of gieat 
mtciest as being the only specimen of Mughal civil architecture in 
Bengal, and as giving an insight into the conditions of mihtaiy life 
undez that empire, 

Rojhan. Village in the Rajanpui tajisll of Dera Ghazi Khan 
District, Punjab, situated in 28 41' N. and 69 58' E., on the west 
bank of the Indus, below Dera Ghazi Khan town, Population (1901), 
8,177. It is the capital of the Mazari Baloch, having been founded 
by Bahram Khan, tumandar or chief of that tribe, about 1825. The 
village contains a fine courthouse, built by the late chief for his use 
as honorary magistrate, and a mosque and tomb erected in memory 
of his father and nephew. Woollen rugs and nose-bags for horses 
are manufactured. A vernaculaz middle school is maintained by the 
District board. 

Ron Taluka. Noith- eastern taluka of Dharwar Distnct, Bombay, 
lying between 15 30' and 15 50' N. and 75 29' and 76 2' E., with 
an aiea of 432 square miles. There are two towns, RON (popula- 



324 JION TALUK A 

tion, 7,298), the head-quaiteis, and GAJENDRAGARH (8,853); and 84 
villages, including NAREGAL (8,327) and SAVDI (5,202). The popula- 
tion in 1901 was 103,298, compared with 92,370 in 1891. The 
density, 239 peisons per square mile, is slightly below the District 
average. The demand for land revenue in 1903-4 was i-S lakhb, 
and for cesses Rs. 14,000. Ron tdluka is a stretch of rich black soil, 
without a hill or upland. The people are skilful, hard-working husband- 
men, and well-to-do. The water-supply is poor, and the annual rainfall 
averages only about 23 inches 

Ron Town. Head-quarters of the tdluka of the same name in 
Dharwar District, Bombay, situated in 15 42' N. and 75 44' E, 55 
miles north-east of Dharwar town. Population (1901), 7,298. Ron 
has seven black stone temples, in one of which is an inscription dated 
1 1 So. The town contains two schools, one of which is for girls. 

Roorkee Tahsil. Eastern tahsll of Saharanpur District, United 
Provinces, lying between 29 38' and 30 8' N. and 77 43' and 
78 12' E., with an area of 796 square miles. It is bounded on the 
north by the Siwahks, on the east by the Ganges, and on the south 
by Muzaffarnagar District. It comprises the parganas of Roorkee, 
Jwalapur, Manglaur, and Bhagwanpur. The population fell from 
390,498 in 1891 to 286,903 in 1901. There are 426 villages and 
six towns, HARDWAR UNION (population, 25,597), ROORKEE (17,197), 
the tahsll head-quarters, and MANGLAUR (10,763) being the laigest 
In 1903-4 the demand for land revenue wab Rs. 3,86,000, and foi 
cesses Rs. 62,000. In the same }ear the area under cultivation was 
369 square miles, of which 38 were irrigated. Besides the forests on 
the slopes and at the foot of the Siwahks, the taMl contains 20 square 
miles of giazmg reserve south of Roorkee, known as the Pathrl forest, 
and a large area of low-lying land m the Ganges khddar The head- 
works of the UPPER GANGES CANAL aie near Hard war, but the area 
irrigated in this tahsll is small. The average rainfall is about 43 inches, 
being the highest in the District Successful drainage operations have 
been earned out near Pathrl The tahsll forms a regular subdivision 
of the District, with a Civilian Joint-Magistrate and a Deputy-Collector 
recmited in India, who reside at Roorkee. 

Roorkee Town (Rurki). Head-quarters of the tahsll^ the same 
name, and cantonment, in Saharanpui District, United Provinces, 
situated in 29 51' N. and 77 53' E., on the main line of the Oudh 
and Rohilkhand Railway, and connected by road with Saharanpur and 
Hardwar. The Upper Ganges Canal passes between the native town 
and the cantonment. Population (1901), 17,197, including 9,256 
Hindus and 6,197 Muhammadans. 

Roorkee was the head-quarteis of a mahal or pargana mentioned 
in the Atn-i-Akban , but about 1840, when the Ganges Canal works 



R'OORKEE TOWN 325 

commenced, it was a mere mud-built village on the banks of the Solam, 
It is now a fair-sued town, with broad metalled loadways meeting at 
right angles, and lined with excellent shops. It is also provided with 
good saucer drams, which aie flushed with water pumped from the canal. 
A short distance above the town the Ganges Canal is carried over the 
wide bed of the Solam by a magnificent brick aqueduct Roorkee 
first became important as the head-quarters of the canal workshops and 
iron foundry, which were established in 1845-6, and extended and 
improved in 1850. Foi thirty years the workshops weie conducted 
rather on the footing of a private business than as a Government 
concern. In 1886 they were brought under the ordinary rules for 
Government manufacturing departments. The annual out-turn is 
valued at about 2 to 3 lakhs, and 80 workmen were employed 
in 1903. Roorkee is the head-quarters of the Bengal Sappers and 
Miners, who have large workshops, employing 135 men in 1903. The 
most important institution is, however, the Thomason Engineering 
College, called aftei its founder, who was Lieutenant-Governor fiom 
1843 to 1853. This institution had Us origin in a class started in 1845 
to train native youths in engineering, to assist in the important public 
works then beginning. The decision ariived at in 1847 to cariy out 
the Ganges Canal project increased the necessity for a well-trained staff 
of engineers, and the college was opened in 1848. In 1851 there 
weie 50 students, and 42 had entered the service. Up to 1875 each 
student received a stipend ; but from that year the number of scholai- 
ships and the number of guaranteed appointments weie limited, though 
education remained practically free. Since 1896 all students except 
soldieis and mdustnal appi entices have paid fees, but the applications 
foi admission far exceed the accommodation. In the same year the 
methods of instruction weie greatly developed, and the college \\as 
practically lebuilt. Theie aie now chemical, physical, electrical, and 
mechanical laboratories, and technical workshops fitted with the latest 
tools and machinery. The press is supplied with power machines, and 
turns out all varieties of work besides ordinal y printing. There are also 
mechanical and industrial classes. The total number of students in 
1903-4 was 369; and in 1903 the press employed 125 workmen, and 
the workshops 52, besides 77 students. Roorkee is also the head- 
quarters of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and of the 
American Methodist Missions in this District. The Joint-Magistrate 
and the Deputy-Collector posted to the subdivision, and an Executive 
Engineer of the Upper Ganges Canal, reside here. 

The municipality was created m 1868. The income and expenditure 
from 1892 to 1901 averaged Rs. 17,000 and Rs. 16,000. In 1903-4 
the income was Rs. 27,000, chiefly from octioi (Rs. 16,000)^ and the 
expenditure was Rs. 28,000. 



326 ROORKEE TOWN 

Besides the Bengal Sappers and Mineis, t\\o heavy batteries of 
aitilleiy are ordinarily stationed here. The cantonment income and 
expenditure are about Rs. 6,000 annually, and the population of the 
cantonment in 1901 was 2,951. 

Rosera. Town in Darbhanga District, Bengal. See RUSERA 

Roshnabad. Estate in Tippera District, Eastern Bengal and 
Assam, See CHAKLA ROSHNABAD, 

Rotas. Place of archaeological interest m Jhelum District, Punjab. 
See ROHTAS. 

Ruby Mines District. District in the Mandalay Division of 
Upper Bui ma, lying between 22 42' and 24 i' N. and 95 58' and 96 
43 X E , with an area of 1,914 ! square miles. The Shan State of Mong- 
mit (Momeik) lies to the east, and is for the present administered as 
a subdivision of the District. The combined area is bounded on the 
north by Katha and Bhamo Districts , on the east by the North 
Hsenwi State ; on the south by the Tawngpeng and Hsipaw States, 
and Mandalay District 3 and on the west by Shwebo and Katha Dis- 
tricts. With the exception of a thin strip of land about 20 miles long 
by 2 miles wide, half-way down its western border, the whole area lies 
. east of the Irrawaddy. The District proper consists 

aspects. f two tracts, essentially different in configuration : 
a long plain running north and south bordering the 
iivei and extending back some dozen miles from its banks , and in 
the south a mass of rugged mountains, stretching eastwards from the 
level, in the centie of which lies the Mogok plateau. Noith of this 
mass the ground rises rapidly from the plains to a ndge bordering 
the District proper on the east and separating it from the basin of the 
!Sh \\eli, in which the \\hole of the Mongmit State is comprised. The 
highest peak in the District is Taungme, 7 miles north-west of Mogok 
and 7,555 feet above the sea; and elsewhere are several imposing hills, 
conspicuous among them being the Shweudaung (6,231 feet), a little 
to the west of the first-named eminence The Irrawaddy washes nearly 
the whole of the western border of the District from noith to south, the 
uppei part of its course being wide and dotted with islands, while 
the lower part, known as the first defile, lies confined between steep 
rocky banks which give a succession of picturesque views to the 
traveller on the river. The watercourses running acioss the plains into 
the Irrawaddy are for the most part short and of little importance. 
After the Irrawaddy the river most worthy of note is the Shweli (or 
Nam Mao), a considerable stream, which enteis the Mongmit State 
from China near the important trade centie of Namhkam, and runs in 
a rocky defile in a south-westerly direction through Mongmit as far as 
the village of Myitson. Here it abruptly takes a northerly course till 
1 Excluding Mongmit State. 



RUBY MINES DISTRICT 327 

it is close to the noithern boundary of the Distiicl, when it bends 
sharply south-west again to meet the Irrawaddy a few miles above 
Tigyaing in Katha District The valley below Myitson is wide and to 
a certain extent cultivated, in marked contrast to the country on the 
upper course. At Myitson the Shweli is joined on the left by a stream 
formed by the junction of the Kin, which rises near Shwenyaungbin in 
the Mogok subdivision, and the Nam Mit (Meik), watering the valley 
in which the capital of the Mongmit State is situated. Another stream 
deserving of mention is the Moybe or Nam Pe, which rises in the 
Tawngpeng State, and, after skirting the southern boundary of Mong- 
mit and of the District propei, turns south to separate the HsTpaw 
State from Mandalay District, finishing its couise as the Madaya 
chming 

The whole of the Ruby Mines District is occupied by crystalline 
rocks, mainly gneisses, and pyroxene granulites, traversed by grains of 
tourmaline-bearing granite. Between Thabeikkyin and Mogok bands 
of crystalline limestone are mterbedded with the gneiss, and from these 
the rubies of the District are derived The stones were formerly 
obtained from the limestone itself, but the principal sources now are 
the clays and other debris filling up fissures and caves in the limestone 
and the alluvial gravels and clays of the valleys of Mogok and 
Kyatpym Besides rubies, sapphires and spinels with tommaline are 
found in the alluvium Giaphite occurs in small flakes disseminated 
through the limestone, and m a few localities is concentrated m 
pockets of considerable size along the junction of the limestones with 
the gneiss. 

The vegetation is much the same as is descnbed in the article on 
the NORTHERN SHAN STATES. In the evergreen tracts it is very 
luxuriant. 

Tigers and leopards are common and are very destructive to cattle. 
Bears, hog, bison, sambar^ and gyi (barking-deer) are all numerous. 
Elephants are found in places, especially in Mongmit terutory, and 
here and there rhinoceros have been met with 

The Mogok plateau is situated at a high altitude and possesses 
a temperate climate well suited to Europeans, the maximum and 
minimum temperatures at Mogok averaging 70 and 37 in December 
and 80 and 59 in May. Bernardmyo, a small station 10 miles to the 
north-west of Mogok, and somewhat higher, enjoys a climate colder 
and more bracing. It used to be a military sanitarium, but the troops 
have now been withdrawn from it. The climate of the river-side town- 
ships resembles that of Mandalay, but the country farthei from the 
river at the foot of the hills is very malarious The Mongmit valley, 
too, is unhealthy, but, unlike that of Mogok, is excessively hot. The 
rainfall varies consideiably in the different subdivisions, During the 



328 RUBY MINES DISTRICT 

three years ending 1903 it averaged 44 inches at Thabeikkyin, 43 
inches at Mongmit, and 98 inches at Mogok. 

The Ruby Mines District was constituted in 1886 on the annexation 
of Upper Burma, but was practically left to itself, so far as any attempt 
at formal administration was concerned, until the end 
is ory, ^ t ^ e y eaTj wn en a column under General Stewart 
marched up to Mogok. Some opposition was encountered in the 
neighbourhood of Taungme, but it was slight and easily overcome, and 
the new District remained quiet for about two years after its first 
occupation. Then troubles fell on it from outside, the result of the 
vigorous operations m the neighbouring plains, which drove the insur- 
gents into the hills. Towards the end of the two years it was reported 
that the capital of Mongmit was being threatened by a large gathering 
under Saw Yan Naing, a rebel leader who had established his head- 
quarters at Manpon, a village situated three days' march noith-east 
of Mongmit. As a result of these reports a small detachment of troops 
was posted at Mongmit ; and after an unfortunate encountei in which, 
owing to insufficient information, a handful of troops suffered a reverse, 
a considerable body of dacoits which had advanced on Mongmit was 
attacked and severely defeated, The disturbances naturally affected 
the rest of the District Twinnge, an important village of 300 houses 
on the bank of the Irrawaddy, was taken and burnt by a band under 
one Nga Maung. Another man of the same name and other minor 
dacoits from the same part threatened the District, and a feeling 
of insecurity prevailed. On the Tawngpeng border also Nga Zeya, 
a noted desperado, who had been driven out of Mandalay, was reported 
to have a considerable following. Dacoities were numerous, and the 
mam road from Mogok to Thabeikkyin became very unsafe, especially 
during the rams, when it was haunted by the two Nga Maungs and 
other outlaws. The military garnson was therefore strengthened , an 
attack was made on Manpon and Saw Yan Naing's gathering was dis- 
persed , at the same time steps were taken to strike at the root of the 
evil by improving the administration of the neighbouring States of 
Monglong and Tawngpeng, and Gurkha troops were substituted for 
the existing garrison The net result of all these measures was that 
the disturbances were reduced to spoiadic dacoities of a petty nature, 
chiefly committed on traders on the road between Mogok and Tha- 
beikkyin, and these were finally checked by the maintenance of patrols 
on the road and the establishment of military police posts in the more 
important wayside villages The District is now perfectly quiet 

The oldest pagoda of which anything is known in the neighbourhood 
of Mogok is the Shwekugyi, built in Dhammathawka Min's time. It 
is said to have been elected on the precise spot where the elephant 
which brought some bones and hair and a tooth of Gautama from 



POPULATION 



329 



India knelt down with its piecious burden, At Kyatpyin there is 
a pagoda on the summit of a hill known as Pingutaung, remarkable 
chiefly foi the amount of labour that must have been involved in the 
carriage of the materials to such a height. Tagaung, a village on 
the Irrawaddy in the west of the District, is the site of the earliest 
of the known capitals of Burma. Traces of the old city walls are still 
to be seen; and among the ruins of the pagodas terra-cotta tablets 
of considerable antiquity, known generally as Tagaung bricks, have 
been found in the past. Of the Tagaung pagodas, the four of most 
note are the Shwezigon, the Shwezedi, the Shwebontha, and the 
Shwegugyi. The most frequented shrine in the District is the Shwe- 
myindin near Mongmit, which is the scene of a large gathering of 
many nationalities at the full moon of Tabaung (March) in every year. 
The population of the District, excluding the Mongmit State, was 
34,062 in 1891 and 42,986 in 1901, while that of the _ 
Mongmit State in the latter year was 44,708. The 
distribution of the population of the combined areas in 1901 is set forth 
below 





e 

rt 


Number of 




to 


c^ 





To\vnship 


L 
w 




o 


E 

*j jj 


|JH gro'S 


{all 


c 


B, 




i 


Ef 






1" 


# 


l^|- 


12 | " 


Mogok 


610 


I 


112 


24,590 


40 


+ 31 


5,462 


Thabeikkym 


688 




74 


9,7*7 


14 


+ 2O 


3^06 


Tagaung . 


616 




71 


8,609 


14 


+ 21 


2,44^ 


Mongmit 


2,802 




236 


22,581 


8 




3; 2 9I 


Kodanng 


760 




303 


22,127 


29 




158 


District total 


5,476 


I 


796 


87,694 


16 




14^58 



MOGOK is the only urban area of any size. There has been con- 
siderable immigration from the Shan States, and to a less extent from 
the adjoining Districts of Mandalay and Shwebo Buddhism is the 
religion of 79 per cent of the population and Animism that of most of 
the remainder. Less than half the people speak Burmese and Shan. 
Kachm and Palaung are both strongly represented. 

Burmans numbered 35,200 in 1901. They form almost the entire 
population of the river-side (Thabeikkym and Tagaung) townships, and 
about one-third of that of the Mogok township. There are 10,400 
Burmese-speakers, that is Burmans and mixed Burmans and Shans, in 
the Mongmit State, wheie they inhabit the larger villages in the valleys 
of the Shweli and its tubutanes. Shans numbered 16,800 in 1901, 
being widely distributed over the Mogok township and the entire 
Mongmit State except in the Kodaung tract, where they have to a large 
extent been ousted by Kachins, The PALAUNGS numbered 16,400. 



33 



RUBY MINES, DISTRICT 



They share the Kodaung township with the Kachins, and are found in 
considerable numbers in the Mongmit and Mogok townships. The 
KACHINS, numbering 13,300, form half the population of the Kodaung 
tract, and have spread into the Mongmit township Theie were 2,800 
natives of India in 1901 (of whom only 370 resided in the Mongmit 
State). About one-fourth are Musalmans and the rest Hindus, and 
two-thirds of the total reside in Mogok and its suburbs. The Census 
of 1901 showed that 50,900 persons, or 58 per cent, of the total popula- 
tion, were directly dependent upon agriculture, a low proportion for 
Burma. Excluding the Mogok township, the percentage becomes 72 
as compared with the Provincial average of 66 Of the agricultural 
population, 28,700 persons were returned as dependent upon taiwgya 
(shifting) cultivation. About 10 per cent of the total were dependent 
upon industries connected with precious stones. No Christian missions 
are maintained, 

Owing to the hilly nature of the District the area of taungya cultiva- 
tion is proportionately large, but nee is also grown on the low-lying 
levels. The soil in the valleys is usually rich and 
the rainfall is everywhere sufficient, eked out with the 
help of some small irrigation works, for the needs of the crops. Rice 
in the plains is as a rule first raised in nurseries, but the mayin (hot- 
season) crop is sown bioadcast in the tanks as they dry up Both the 
plough (te) and the harrow (tun) are employed, and for ploughing 
purposes the buffalo is in most general use The advantages of 
manure are not fully understood (except by the Chinese gardeners near 
Mogok), though the stubble is burnt for fertilizing purposes on the 
fields. An experimental orchard was started some little time ago at 
Bernardmyo, but was destroyed by fire before any good result had 
been attained. The garden was finally given up when it was proved 
that the rams broke before the fruit could ripen, 

The cultivated area of the District is very small. The mam agricul- 
tural statistics for 1903-4 aie shown in the following table, in squaie 
miles 



Agriculture. 



Township 


Total area 


Cultivated 


Irrigated 


Forests 


Mogok . 
Thabeikkym 
Tagaung . 
Mongmit 
Kodaung 

Total 


610 
688 
616 
2,802 
760 


^ 

5 
:> 


i '' 


[ 5,399 


5,476 


13 


4 


5,399 



Rice is the staple crop, the great bulk of the out-turn being harvested 
during the cold season. Mayin rice is grown chiefly m Mongmit and 
Thabeikkym. The 'wet ; rice land in the District proper in 1903-4 



FORESTS 331 

comprised about 7,000 acres. A very small aiea (400 acres) is under 
sesamum, and a still smaller area under maize All kinds of vege- 
tables are extensively grown , and, in paiticulai, the Lisaw colony near 
Bernard myo cultivates potatoes, which do very well on the highei 
lands. 

Experiments have lately been made in coffee-growing on the Mogok 
hills. The soil is said to be suitable, but the industry is impossible at 
present owing to the high rates that have to be paid for labour. The 
jungles in the valleys are being gradually cleaied, and cultivation is 
slowly extending over the face of the country , but the husbandmen 
are lamentably conservative and no improvements in the quality of 
seed can be recorded Experiments were made at one time with 
Havana tobacco, but they ended in complete failure owing to the 
inclement weather. A similar venture was recently started with Virginia 
tobacco seed. No advances have been made under the Land Improve- 
ment Loans Act, but advantage is taken of the Agriculturists' Loans 
Act, a sum of more than Rs, 20,000 having been advanced under it 
during the four years ending 1903-4. The loans are utilized chiefly 
for the purchase of buffaloes for ploughing. 

Little attention is paid to the breeding of live-stock, and nature is 
allowed free play The pomes are as a rule under-sized, good beasts 
being hard to get. A little attention paid to breeding would be of 
great advantage and help to rescue this useful type of animal from 
further deterioration, if not from total extinction. There are no recog- 
nized grazing grounds, except those reserved by the Forest depaitment, 
but uncultivated land and jungle are abundant. 

The District contains no Government irrigation works, but nearly 
2,300 acres of land are irrigated. The fisheries are confined to the 
Thabeikkyin subdivision. The number of recognized fishing areas is 
1 6, and these are divided between the Tagaung and Thabeikkyin 
townships, ii belonging to the former and 5 to the latter. The 
most important is the Ywahmwe fishery, which brought in Rs. 4,500 in 
1903-4. The total revenue from this source is about Rs. 20,000. 

The forests are greatly affected and modified by the physical 
geography, which must be briefly described to explain the character 
of its vegetation. The dry tract of Burma extends Forests 
fiom Shwebo into the Ruby Mines District in a band 
of about 10 to 12 miles broad from Thabeikkyin and Tagaung. This 
and stretch is bounded by latente hills, which in their turn give place 
to the high range of the Irrawaddy-Shweh watershed, with a large spur 
running eastwards to Mogok, and boasting of peaks of 6,000 feet and 
higher. On the eastern side of this watershed the ground slopes gently 
to an elevated plateau of latente drained by sandy streams, which 
usually disappear into plains of grass as the Shweli is approached. On 
VOL. xxi. Y 



33 2 RUBY MINES DISTRICT 

the faithcr side of that stream, i.e. on its cast bank, peienmal slieams 
dram a hilly country of metamorphic rocks. 

On the dry tract the vegetation partakes of the scrub-like chaiactei 

of the forest of the dry zone, the only bamboo being the my in (Dendro- 

calamus stnctus\ while the trees, except neai the nvei and jhih, aie 

for the most pait stunted cutch (Acacia Calechit). This is the only 

tree of any economic \alue. It glows bparsely now, but must have 

been plentiful in the past. \Vheiever the diy plain land uses up to 

meet the latente hills there aie stretches of indaw^ 01 forests in which 

the in (Dipterocarpus titberculatus) is the predominant tree. Where 

the latente is modified with clay the forest is mixed with bamboo 

(D. st rictus), and the characteristic tree is the than (Terminaha 

Oliver?). As the watershed of the Irrawaddy is reached, the latente 

gives way to metamorphic rocks, and the foiest changes to the mixed 

deciduous type. This consists of teak, pyingado^ and deciduous trees 

mixed with bamboos. As the elevation rises, the high evergieen forest 

of Burma is encountered, with various species of oaks and chestnuts, 

eugenias, Dipterocarpus laevis, and Fid forming the upper stratum, 

below which are found palms, screw-pines, canes, and bamboos, while 

the lowest stratum is composed of shrubs and ferns making a dense 

mass of vegetation. As the elevation increases to 6,000 feet, wild tea 

(Camellia tkeifera] and cinnamon are found, while on the topmost 

levels there is no vegetation except shoit grass which forms open 

plains, while the ridges are covered with pines (Pin us Khasya] This 

is the natural sequence where not modified by the action of man ; 

wheie, however, Azw/zgyrt-cuttmg has been prevalent, the evergreen 

foiests turn into huge savannahs of coarse grass, 8 to 10 feet high in 

the rains, which are burnt annually in the hot season. On the latente 

hills and plateaux to the east of the Ina^addy-Shweli \vatershed, the 

forests consist of puie indaing jungle, \\hich m Mongmit covers about 

i, 800 squaie miles. On the banks of the sti earns, where the soil is 

good alluvial loam, puie teak forests of fine quality are met with, 01 

padauk mixed with bamboo. West of the Shweli the oidmary 

deciduous mixed forests of Burma are the iule, till, as the elevation 

increases, they aie displaced by evergreen vegetation 

Owing to the extent of the natural teak forests, veiy little systematic 
planting has been undertaken, a small taungya of 25 acres being the 
only area under plantations in the District An attempt is being made 
to reafforest the grass savannahs caused by taungya-c\ittmg in the hills, 
by putting down pine seedlings. About 30 acres were so tieated ; but 
the pines were burnt and destroyed the first year, while in the second 
year the growth, though protected, was poor. In 1903-4 the area of 
the Forest division was 5,399 square miles, of which 994 square miles 
\\eie composed of 'reserved' and 4,405 of unclassed forests, The 



MINERALS 333 

leceipts of the Forest department in 1903-4 amounted to nearl> 
4^ lakhs. 

The main industry is the extraction of rubies, sapphires, and spinels, 
all three of which are found togethei in the same gravel-beds, The 
Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, works on 
a large scale at Mogok and elsewhere with modern mera s ' 

machinery under a special licence ; and a large but fluctuating nuni 
ber of natives take out ordinary licences, which do not permit the use 
of machinery. The company's workings take the form of large open 
excavations. At present these vary from 20 to 50 feet in depth and 
aie kept dry by powerful pumps; the ruby earth (locally known as 
by oti) is loaded by coolies into trucks and hauled up inclines to the 
washing machines, which are merely rotary cylinders discharging into 
large pans, where by the action of water and revolving teeth the mud 
is sepaiated fiom the gravel The latter is then treated in pulsating 
machines which still further reduce the bulk, and finally the residue is 
picked over by hand, For the year ending 1904 the following was the 
result of the company's operations . rubies, 199,238 carats, valued at 
13 lakhs; sapphires, 11,955 caiats, valued at Rs. 8,700, and spinels, 
16,020 carats, valued at Rs. 26,300. Of this total, stones worth 8 8 
lakhs were sent to London foi disposal there, and 4-5 lakhs' woith 
was sold locally. 

The staff m 1904 consisted of the following : 44 Europeans and 
Eurasians, earning from Rs. 150 to Rs. 600 a month each; 254 Bur- 
mans, at R. i each a day , 1,073 Chinese, Shans, and Maingthas, at 
R. i a day } and 248 natives of India, at from Rs. 20 to Rs. 100 
a month, making a total of 1,619 hands. The company derives its 
powei from an electric installation driven by water, which generates 
about 450 noise-power. During the dry season, steam is used to 
a limited extent, the fuel being cut locally. 

The number of native miners vanes very much, but the average for 
nine years ending 1904 was 1,220, paying to the company Rs. 60 a 
month per set of three men working each mine, It is quite impossible 
to estimate their gain ; but, as the working expenses are at least Rs. 20 
a month in addition to the sum paid to the company, the industry 
must produce Rs. 32,500 a month before any profit is made. The 
foui methods of native mining adopted are known as hmyaiv or hill-side 
workings, lu or cave workings, twinlon or pit workings, and se or 
damming a stieam and diving for the gravel behind the dam or weir. 
Most of the produce is sold locally, though fine stones frequently go 
direct to London. In addition to the mining described above, women are 
allowed to wash with small baskets in all perennial streams licence free. 
Their individual earnings are probably not often more than a few annas 
a day, but occasionally they pick up a valuable stone, and on the whole 

Y 2 



334 RUJSY MINES DISTRICT 

their takings must be not inconsiderable. They sell their finds, usually 
at the end of each day's work, to small ruby pedlars. 

Tourmaline occurs in the District, and is mined on an insignificant 
scale near Nyaungdauk, on the road to Monglong, and at Mongmit. 
The Burma Ruby Mines Company did a little work a few years ago on 
an outcrop of gold-bearing quartz about 5 miles from Thabeikkyin ; but 
the assays were not encouraging, and the place was abandoned. Plum- 
bago is found on the surface at many places, notably near Wapyudaung. 
The company sank several shafts at Onzon, but the vein ended and 
further mining was discontinued. Various other persons have from 
time to time obtained prospecting licences and staited a certain amount 
of work, but the results seem in all cases to have been unsatisfactory, 
Mica is distributed over apparently the whole District, but does not 
appear to be present in paying quantities. Limestone exists every- 
where, but is burnt only where it is wanted for pagodas and brick 
buildings, and in Mogok by the Ruby Mines Company for their 
foundations, &c. 

The only local industry that has attained to any dimensions is mining 
for and trading in precious stones. A certain amount of stone-cutting, 
polishing, and setting is carried on in Mogok town. 

The work is ' however > primitive; and most of the 
stones are sold m the rough, the best being sent to 
London and Pans, while the inferior qualities go to Mandalay, Calcutta, 
Bombay, and Madras. On the Shweli and Irrawaddy rivers the 
principal non-agricultuial occupations are fishing, bamboo-cutting, and 
timber-trading. Rafts of bamboos, teak, and other kinds of timber are 
made up on the banks and floated down to Mandalay. Mamgthas 
come into the District in large numbers every year for the dry season, 
chiefly from the Shan-Chinese States of Mongla, Mongda, and Mengtat. 
They are the iron-workers of the District and are welcome visitors, for, 
besides being the most expert blacksmiths in an otherwise non-indus- 
trial community, they are esteemed the best working coolies in Burma. 
Trade conditions vary in the different parts, but as a general rule the 
people depend on the outside world for most articles of consumption. 
Rice, sufficient for the lequirements of the District outside the Mogok 
township, is grown within its limits in the Thabeikkyin and Mongmit 
subdivisions, but is also imported from the Shan States of Tawngpeng 
and Monglong for Mogok and its environs. Other articles of import 
are opium brought from China via Lashio and Monglong, pickled tea 
from Tawngpeng and Hslpaw, cotton goods and articles of clothing. 
Weaving is carried on only in outlying villages, and the out-turn of the 
looms is intended solely for home consumption, while in the larger 
towns and villages foreign piece-goods are preferred as being both of 
better quality and cheaper than the local product. The same is true of 



ADMINTSTRA TION 3 3 5 

articles of hardware. In return for these imports Mogok offers precious 
stones, and Mongmit and Thabeikkyin nee, timber, and fish. The 
chief centre of trade is Mogok ; and in the bazar, which is held every 
fifth day, there are to be seen representatives of a laige and varied 
number of nationalities. 

The mam trade routes to Mogok are the Thabeikkyin cart-road, over 
which all goods from India and Europe travel, the Monglong road, 
which unites Mogok with HsTpaw and connects with the Lashio railway ; 
and the Mongmit road over which the rice from Mongmit and Tawng- 
peng enters Mogok. Generally it may be said that trade is in the 
hands of the Chinese and Indian merchants, the Burmans and Shans 
confining themselves to trading in rice and precious stones. The chiel 
means of transport are the mule and pack-bullock, the Chinese wooden 
saddle being used A good deal of transport is done by pakondans 
men carrying a bamboo pole on their shoulders, from each end of 
which hangs a pack. The time foi these hucksters is the rainy season, 
when the hill roads become very trying for animal transport. 

There are no railways in the District. The most important road is 
that from Thabeikkyin to Mogok (61 miles), metalled throughout. 
This highway and the partially metalled mule-track from Mogok to 
Konwet, half-way to Mongmit, are maintained from Provincial funds. 
The District fund is responsible for the upkeep of two partly metalled 
roads from Mogok, one to Monglong (17 miles), metalled for a portion 
of its length, and one to Bemardmyo (loj miles) ; also of two un- 
til etalled cart-roads, one from Twinnge to Thitkwebin (12 miles), and 
one from Wapyudaung to Chaunggyi (13 miles) ; and of three short 
cuts on the Mogok-Thabeikkyin road. The Mongmit State maintains 
an unmetalled cart-road from Thitkwebin to Mongmit (35^- miles), 
a continuation of the road from Twinnge, and mule-tracks from Mong- 
mit to Konwet (10 miles), and from Mongmit to Namhkam through 
Molo. The Irrawaddy is navigable by the largest river steamers at all 
seasons of the year, and the Irrawaddy Flotilla boats between Manda- 
lay and Bhamo touch at Thabeikkyin twice weekly up and down. In 
addition, a steamer plies twice a week between Mandalay and Thabeik- 
kyin. The Shweli is navigable by river boats up to the cataracts by 
which the river descends from Namhkam to Molo, and is nowhere 
fordable. 

The District proper is divided into two subdivisions the subdivision 
and township of MOGOK, and the Thabeikkyin subdivision, composed 

of the THABEIKKYIN and TAOAUNG townships. The . . . . A A . 

n i i. j ,. j ^ -i Administration. 

MONGMIT STATE, which is administered temporarily 

as a third subdivision of the District, is divided into the MONGMIT 
(Momeik) and KODAUNG townships The subdivisions are in charge 
of the executive officers, as also is the Tagaung township, but the town- 



336 RUBY MINES DISTRICT 

ships of Thabeikkym and Mogok are directly undei the subdivisional 
officers concerned. The Kodaung township is administered by a civil 
officer, generally a member of the Provincial Service, who is under the 
direct control of the Deputy-Commissioner, and exercises certain powers 
under the Kachin Hill Tribes Regulation, 1895. The District forms 
a subdivision of the Mandalay Public Works division (which includes 
the greater part of Mandalay District), and is nearly conterminous with 
the Ruby Mines Forest division There are 261 village headmen, of 
whom IT aie subordinate headmen, receiving no commission. A num- 
ber of them exercise special civil and criminal poweis. 

The civil courts are presided over by the executive officers, the 
treasury officer at Mogok acting as additional judge of the Mogok 
township court. As the District is situated on the borders of China 
and the Shan States, and peopled to a large extent by non-Burmans, 
a large traffic in smuggled opium is carried on, and offences against the 
Opium Act are consequently common. Similarly, breaches of the Uppei 
Burma Ruby Regulation, a special local law applicable to the stone 
tract, are numerous. 

The District is made up of various old Burmese jurisdictions, where 
in former days a variety of revenue methods were in force. What is 
now the Mogok subdivision consisted of three administrative areas 
known as sos, which sometimes were independent jurisdictions, each 
under its own sothugyi, and sometimes formed the combined charge of 
a Burmese official known as the thonsowim This area was treated 
practically as a royal demesne, and was to all intents and purposes 
farmed out to the wun. The rent, which m theory was fixed but in 
practice was fluctuating, was paid in kind 3 and to obtain the requisite 
supply of precious stones the wun levied a stone cess or kyaukdawg 
on those who mined and traded in rubies, and a mmdawg or royal cess 
on those who did not. The kyaukdaing was paid in rubies 3 and the 
stones, duly diminished by what the until thought might with safety be 
appropriated, were remitted to the court at Mandalay. The mindcung 
was designed to stimulate the production of stones; it was collected 
in cash, and was employed in making advances to the miners and in 
paying the wun's subordinates. There was no land tax in the District 
under Burmese rule, though a nominal assessment of one-third of the 
gross produce on nee land in the Mogok valley was used to gauge the 
capacity of the cultivators to pay the mmdaing After the annexation 
of Upper Burma thathameda was at first the only impost, and land 
revenue was not assessed till after it had become difficult to prove that 
the land (which in reality was nearly all state) had not in part been 
acquired by private individuals. 

Revenue rates have varied since land revenue was first demanded. 
At piesent state land in the Mogok subdivision pays 15 per cent., and 



ADMINISTRA TION 3 3 7 

non-state land ro per cent,, of its gioss out-tum, and Rs 2-8 per 
household is paid on taimgya cultivation. The same rates prevail in 
the Thabeikkyin subdivision, as well as in Mongmit (where in king 
Mindon's time land revenue was assessed at i-| per cent, of the gross 
out-turn on all lands) , but in Mongmit a sort of permanent settlement 
called yaza has been effected m the neighbourhood of the head-quarters, 
under which the cultivators pay a fixed sum on each plot of land, 
irrespective of the out-turn The District has not yet been cadastrally 
surveyed 01 settled The Ruby Mines Company pays an annual rent 
of 2 lakhs of rupees, plus 30 per cent, of the excess whereby the fees 
received from holders of ordinary licences exceed 2 lakhs, and 30 
pei cent on the net profits of the company. In 1903-4 the receipts 
of the Government from the company amounted to Rs. 2,11,500. 
The total collections of thathameda (at Rs. 10 per household) amounted 
in 1903-4 to Rs 7,300, those of land revenue to Rs. 17,000, and 
those of fishery revenue to Rs. 24,000, the aggregate revenue fiom all 
sources for the District propei (excluding Mongmit) being Rs. 3,90,000. 

The Distnct fund had in 1903-4 an income of Rs. 49,300, the 
chief item of expenditure being public works (Rs. 34,800). No muni- 
cipalities have been constituted. 

The District Supeimtendent is the immediate head of the civil police 
An Assistant Superintendent is in charge of the police in the Mongmit 
State. The sanctioned strength of the force is 3 inspectors, 5 head 
constables, 9 sergeants, and 173 constables. Two Kachin sergeants 
and 5 constables are also sanctioned for the Kodaung tiact, and are 
directly under the civil officer, Kodaung They form no part of the 
regulai Distnct police force There are six police stations in the Dis- 
trict proper, and three in the Mongmit State. The Ruby Mines Com- 
pany has three inspectors in its employ invested with police powers, 
whose duty it is to apprehend and prosecute persons engaged in illicit 
mining, or otherwise contravening the provisions of the Ruby Regula- 
tion. The Ruby Mines military police battalion has its head-quarters 
at Mogok. It is under a commandant and an assistant commandant, 
and consists of 24 native officers, 79 non-commissioned officers, and 
So i men, stationed at the several township head-quarters, and on the 
main road from Mogok to the Irrawaddy. 

A jail is undei construction at Mogok. At present convicted 
prisoners are kept in the lock-up at that station, and, if sentenced to 
more than two months' imprisonment, are sent under military police 
escort to Mandalay. The lock-up has accommodation for about 40 
prisoners 

Education is in a decidedly backward state. There are no Govern- 
ment schools, and none of the private institutions is at all advanced. 
In 1901 the propoition of persons leturned as able to read and write 



33 8 RUBY MIXES DISTRICT 

was 25-9 per cent. (40 males and 4-7 females), hut the standard of lite- 
racy must have been very low, In the Mongmit State (with a large 
non-Buddhist population) the corresponding figure was only 7-7 per 
cent. In 1904 the District contained 24 primary (public) and 107 
elementary (private) schools, with a roll of 1,409 pupils (including 
400 girls), as compared with 1,273 in T 9 OT - In I 9 O 3~4 the expenditure 
on education was Rs 1,600, met wholly from Government. 

The only hospital is at Mogok, which has accommodation for 36 in- 
patients. In 1903 the number of cases treated was 13,863, including 
494 in-patients, and 206 operations were performed The income was 
made up of Rs. 4,000 from Provincial funds and Rs. 600 from subscrip- 
tions Another hospital is about to be built at Thabeikkym. 

Vaccination is nowhere compulsory within the limits of the District 
In 1903-4 the number of persons successfully vaccinated was 2,451, 
representing 28 per 1,000 of population. 

Riidarpur. Town in the Hata tahsll of Gorakhpui District, 
United Provinces, situated in 26 45' N and 83 33' E., 27 miles south- 
east of Gorakhpur city. Population (1901), 8,860. Near the town are 
some ancient remains, and an old name of the place is said to have 
been Hansakshetra. The ruins cover a large area, but have not been 
regularly excavated. A celebrated temple of Dudhnath is also situ- 
ated close by Rudarpur is administered under Act XX of 1856, with 
an income of about Rs. 1,100. The diversion of commerce to the 
railway has injured its trade, but gram is exported and saltpetre is 
manufactured. The town contains a dispensary, and a school with 
139 pupils 

Rudauli. Town in the Ramsanehighat tahsll of Bara Bank! Dis- 
trict, United Provinces, situated in 26 4$' N. and 81 45' E., on the 
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway and close to the Lucknow-Fyzabad 
road. Population (1901), 11,708 The foundation of the town is 
ascribed to a Bhar chief, named Rudra Mai. It contains the shrines 
of two noted Muhammadan saints Shah Ahmad, who was entombed 
alive for six months , and Zohra Bibi, who recoveied her sight miracu- 
lously by a visit to the shrine of Saiyid Salar at Bahraich Large fairs 
are held at each of these. Rudauli is administered under Act XX 
of 1856, with an income of about Rs. 3,200. There is a flourish- 
ing trade in grain, and cotton cloth is manufactured. The town 
contains a dispensary, and a school with 106 pupils. 

Rudraprayag. Temple in Garhwal District, United Provinces, 
situated in 30 18' and 79 N., at the confluence of the Mandakini and 
Alaknanda, 2,300 feet above sea-level. It is one of the five sacred 
confluences (praydg] in the upper course of the Ganges head-waters, 
and is visited by pilgrims on their way to Kedarnath. 

Rumpa, Hill tract in Godavari District, Madras. See RAMPA, 



JRUPAR TOWN 33 g 

Rungamati. Outpost of the Mughals in Goalpaia District, East- 
ern Bengal and Assam. See RANGAMATI. 

Rungpore. District, subdivision, and town in Eastern Bengal and 
Assam. See RANGPUR. 

Rupal. Petty State in MAHI KANTHA, Bombay. 

Riipar Subdivision. Subdivision of Ambala District, Punjab, 
comprising the tahslls of RUPAR and KHARAR. Kharar contains the 
cantonment and sanitarium of KASAULI and the 'notified area ' of KALKA, 

Riipar Tahsil. Northern tahsil of Ambala District, Punjab, lying 
at the foot of the Himalayas, between 30 45' and 31 13' N. and 
76 19' and 76 44' E., with an area of 290 square miles It is 
bounded on the north by the Sutlej river, and forms part of the Rupar 
subdivision. On the north-east the tahsil runs up into the Lowei 
Siwaliks, and along the Sutlej is a narrow strip of low-lying country. 
The rest consists of a loam plateau rich in wells, and intersected by 
mountain torrent beds. The head-works of the Sirhind Canal are at 
Rupar. The population in 1901 was 139,327, compared with 146,816 
in 1891. The head-quarters are at the town of RUPAR (population, 
8,888). It also contains 358 villages The land revenue and cesses 
in 1903-4 amounted to 2-8 lakhs. 

Rupar Town. Head-quarters of the subdivision and tahsil of the 
same name in Ambala District, Punjab, situated m 30 58' N. and 
76 32' E., at the point where the Sutlej issues from the hills. Popula- 
tion (1901), 8,888. It is a town of considerable antiquity, originally 
called Rupnagar after its founder, Raja Rup Chand. It was occupied 
about 1763 by Hari Singh, a Sikh chieftain, who seized upon a wide 
tract south of the Sutlej, stretching along the foot of the Himalayas. 
In 1792 he divided his estates between his two sons, Charrat Singh 
and Dewa Singh, the former of whom obtained Rupar. The estates 
were confiscated in 1846, in consequence of the part taken by the 
family during the Sikh War of the preceding year. The head-works of 
the Sirhind Canal are situated here, and the town is an important mart 
of exchange between the hills and the plains Salt is imported from 
the Khewra mines and re-exported to the hills, in return for iron, 
ginger, potatoes, turmeric, opium, and charas. Cotton twill (siisi) is 
largely manufactured, and the smiths of Rupar have a reputation for 
locks and other small articles of iron. Rupar was the scene of the 
celebrated meeting between Lord William Bentmck and Ranjlt Singh 
in 1831, There are two important religious fairs, one Hindu, one 
Muhammadan. The municipality was created in 1867. The income 
during the ten years ending 19023 averaged Rs. 12,100, and the 
expenditure Rs. 11,400. In 1903-4 the income was Rs 14,500, 
chiefly from octroi; and the expenditure was Rs. 16,900. There are 
three Anglo-vernaculai middle schools and a dispensary. 



34 RUPBAS 

Rupbas. Head-quarteis of a tahsll tf the same name in the State 
of Bharatpur, Rajputana, situated in 26 59' N. and 77 39' E. 3 about 
19 miles south- by-south-east of Bharatpur city. Population (1901), 
2,981. The town contains a post office, a vernacular school attended 
by about 100 boys, and a dispensary. The place is mentioned by 
Jahanglr as having formeily been the jagtr of Rup and subsequently 
given to Aman-ullah, son of Mahabat Khan, and called after him 
Amanabad It was one of Jahanglr's regular hunting-grounds. In 
the vicinity of Rupbas are some enormous stone obelisks and images , 
the oldest is a sleeping figure of Baldeo cut m the rock, 22-| feet long, 
with a seven serpent-hooded canopy and an inscription dated A.D. 1609 
About 8 miles to the south-west are the famous sandstone quarries of 
Bansi Paharpur, which have supplied material for the beautiful palaces 
at Dig and for many of the buildings at Agra and Fatehpur Slkri 

[Archaeological Survey of Northern India^ vol. xx.] 

Rupnagar. Head-quaiters of a district of the same name m the 
north of the State of Kishangarh, Rajputana, situated in 26 $ N. 
and 74 52' E , about 16 miles due north of Kishangaih town. Popu- 
lation (1901), 3,676 The town, which takes its name from its founder, 
Rup Singh (chief of Kishangarh 1644-58), is walled and possesses 
a fort. The place was once a big market for salt and sugar, but the 
railway has diverted this trade elsewheie, Rupnagar contains a 
British post office; a small jail, with accommodation for 12 prisoners; 
a vernaculai middle and an elemental y school, attended, lespectively, 
by about 70 boys and 20 girls; and a dispensaiy. A municipal com- 
mittee attends to the lighting and conservancy of the town Sursara, 
5 miles to the south, was the original seat of the hero Tejaji, veneialed 
by the Jats } and a cattle fair is held there yearly in August 

Rupnarayan. River of Bengal, known m the early part of its 
course as the Dhalkisor. It rises in the Tilabani hill in Manbhum 
District, and follows a tortuous south-easterly couise through the 
south-west corner of Burdwan District. The Silai joins it on the border 
of Midnapore District; and from this point (22 40' N. and 87 47' 
E.) it takes the name of Rupnarayan, and after a farther course of 49 
miles, during which it separates Midnapoie District from Hooghly 
and Howrah, it joins the HOOGHLY RIVER in 22 13' N and 88 3' E 
The Rupnarayan proper is tidal throughout its entire course, and 
a heavy bore ascends as high as the mouth of the GAIGHATA BAKSHI 
KHAL, The Rupnarayan originally formed a western exit of the 
Ganges. It now enters the Hooghly at right angles opposite Hooghly 
Point, and when in flood it banks up the stream of the Hooghly and 
forces that river to deposit its silt upon the dangerous shoal known 
as the JAMES AND MARY. It thus constitutes the principal danger to 
the navigation of the Hooghly iivei, The n\er is protected on its 



RUSHIKULYA 341 

right bank, within Midnapoie District, by a continuous embankment 
29^ miles in length ; and it is also embanked all along its left 
bank from its junction with the Gaighata Bakshi Khal to its union 
with the Hooghly river. The bordering lands are more or less 
inundated by the spring-tides in April and May, which leave behind 
destructive impregnations of salt, rendeimg them unfit for cultivation 
unless small defensive woiks are thrown up round the fields every yeai 
to keep the water out. Grass and hogla leeds (Tyfka elephantine^} are 
the ordinal y produce, except m yeais when the rams set in and close 
early, \\hen a late rice crop can be planted in September. The Riip- 
narayan is navigable throughout the yeai by native boats of 4 tons 
burden as high as Ghatal village m Midnapore District. It is not 
fordable at any season of the year within the limits of Hooghly and 
Howrah Districts It has been spanned by a fine bridge at 
Kolaghat, where it is crossed by the Bengal-Nagpur Railway. 

Rurki". Subdivision, tahsil, and town in Saharanpur District, 
United Provinces. See ROORKEE 

Rusera. Town in the head-quaiters subdivision of Daibhanga 
District, Bengal, situated m 25 45' N. and 86 2' E., on the east bank 
of the Little Gandak, just below the former confluence of that nvei 
with the Baghmati Population (1901), 10,245. Owing to its position 
on the Little Gandak, Rusera was at one time the largest market in the 
south of the District ; but though it is still an important bazar, it has 
somewhat lost its importance since the opening of the lailway Rusera 
was constituted a municipality in 1869, The income during the 
decade ending 1901-2 averaged Rs, 5,700, and the expenditure 
Rs. 4,900 In 1903-4 the income, mainly derived from a tax on 
persons (or property tax), was Rs. 6,600 , and the expenditure was 
Rs. 6,000. 

Rushikulya. River in Ganjam District, Madras. It rises in the 
Rushimalo hill (from which it takes its name), near Danngabadi in 
the Chinnakimedi Maliahs, in 19 55' N. and 84 8' E., and runs 
south-east to Aska and thence south-east and east into the Bay of 
Bengal at Ganjam town, in 19 22' N and 85 4' E Its length is 
about 115 miles, and the towns on its banks are Surada, Aska, Puru- 
shottapur, and Ganjam It is spanned at Aska by a fine masonry 
bridge of nineteen arches It is joined by the Pathama near Surada, 
by the Bhaguva in Dharakota estate, by the Mahanadi at Aska, 
and by the Godahaddo in the Beihampui tahtk. The river dries up 
in the hot season 

At Aska and at Pratapuram near Purushottapur, where its channel 
turns northwards for a short distance, a large festival is held every year 
in Febiuary or March, when thousands of people bathe in its waters 
The river is utilized for irrigation by means of a series of works 



342 RUSHIKULYA 

known collectively as the Rushikulya Project, This was begun in 
1884, has already cost 48 lakhs, and is still being extended. It renders 
the water of the Rushikulya and its tributary, the Mahanadl, available 
for cultivation in the Berhampur taluk and one corner of Goomsur. 
The main dam across the Rushikulya is at Jannimilh, between Surada 
and Aska, above the junction with the Mahanadl. Its catchment at 
this point is 650 square miles To intercept flood-water which would 
otherwise run to waste, a tributary has been dammed higher up and 
a reservoir formed at Surada, from which a supply can be let down to 
the Jannimilh dam. The Mahanadl has been treated in the same way, 
there being a dam at Madhavaborida, 6 miles below Russellkonda. 
Its catchment at this point is 870 square miles. A subsidiary reservoir, 
fed by dams across two tributaries of the Mahanadl, has been formed 
just above Russellkonda. From the Madhavaborida dam a channel 
20 miles long, called the Mahanadl canal, runs through a comer of the 
Goomsur taluk (irrigating 6,500 acres) into the Rushikulya above the 
Jannimilh dam, and thus still further increases the supply available 
there. From the Jannimilli dam the main Rushikulya canal, 54 miles 
long, runs south through several zamlnddns and on into the Berhampur 
taluk. It has sixteen distributaries, with an aggregate length of 136 
miles. The cultivable area commanded by the project is 142,000 acres 
(of which 106,000 are in the Berhampur taluk\ and the extent at 
present irrigable is 102,000 acres In 1903-4, 90,000 acres of first 
crop were watered by it and 1,000 acres of second crop. There is 
seldom sufficient water /or much second crop. The gross and net 
revenue earned m 1903-4 was Rs. 97,000 and Rs. 35,000. The 
project is technically classed as protective and not productive (it is 
the only work so classed in the Presidency), and is not remunera- 
tive, the profits on the capital outlay being at present only 0-71 per 
cent. Neither the river nor the canals are used for navigation. It 
is under contemplation to construct another reservoir at Pattupilr, 
by damming the Godahaddo river, to supplement the supply avail- 
able. 

Russellkonda (' Russell's hill ') Town in the Goomsur taluk of 
Ganjam District, Madras, situated m 19 57' N. and 84 37' E , about 
50 miles north-west of Berhampur on the Loharakandi river. It is 
called after Mr George Russell, who was appointed Special Commis- 
sioner in 1835 t P ut down the disturbances in the country round 
about. Population (1901), 3,493. It is the head-quarters of the 
subdivision and taluk of Goomsur, and of the Special Assistant Agent, 
Balhguda subdivision. It contains a training school chiefly intended 
for teachers for the schools in the Agency tract, a tannery which m 
1903 employed an average of 45 persons daily and turned out 50 tons 
of leather valued at about Rs. 49,000, and a jail in charge of the 



343 

Special Assistant Agent. This last was built for convicts belonging to 
the hill countiy, to save them from the severe fever they become liable 
to if sent down to the coast. It contains accommodation for 158 
prisoners, who aie employed in stone-quarrying, oil-pressing, weaving, 
rice-pounding, and making elephant harness. Russellkonda was at 
one time a mihtaiy cantonment, but the troops were withdrawn in 
December, 1863. 

Rustak. Town in the Badakhshan province of Afghanistan, 
situated in 37 8' N. and 69 47' E., on the left bank of the Rustak 
river j 3,920 feet above the sea. Lying in a rich and feitile tract, and 
within easy reach of the Oxus, it is the most important commercial 
centre in Badakhshan, with 2,000 houses and 185 shops With the 
exception of a few Hindu shopkeepers, the inhabitants are all Tajiks 
and speak Persian. Bokhara silk is worn by the upper classes and 
cotton clothes by the rest some of the material for the latter is 
imported from the Russian markets and some from Peshawar, while 
a not inconsiderable quantity is woven from locally grown cotton 
Barley, rice, wheat, and other grains are produced, but not sufficiently 
for export ; and fruit trees abound. Arms, and practically all articles 
made of iron, are manufactured locally. Bajauri traders used to visit 
Rustak every year in large numbers, bringing merchandise from India 
through Chitral, and returning with horses. Owing to the prohibi- 
tion of the export of horses from Afghanistan, this trade has, howevei, 
fallen off in recent years. The town contains schools foi religious in- 
struction, supported chiefly by public charity. The fort, situated to 
the north of the town, is a square of about 100 yards, the Rustak 
Mirs still reside there, but they no longer have any power, the govern- 
ment being entirely carried on by Afghan officials. 

Rutlam. State and town in Central India. See RATLAM. 

Sabalgarh. Head-quarteis of the Sheopur district of Gwalior 
State, Central India, situated in 26 15' N. and 77 25' E, at the 
terminus of the Gwalior-Sabalgarh branch of the Gwalior Light 
Railway. Population (1901), 6,039. Sabalgarh was founded by a 
Gujai named Sabala ; but the present fort was built by Raja Gopal 
Singh of Karauli, and till 1795, when it was taken by Khande Rao 
Ingha, it remained in the hands of the Karauli chiefs. In 1809, owing 
to the contumacious conduct of its governor, the fort was taken by 
Jean Baptiste Filose on behalf of Sindhia. The town contains no 
buildings of any size , but the district offices, a hospital, a school, a 
State post office, a custom-house, a resthouse, and a jail are situated 
in it. Sabalgarh is noted for its wood-carving and lacquer and metal- 
work. Close to the town is a tract of forest carefully protected as 
a preserve for big game 

Sabargam. One of the principal peaks in the Smgalila spur of 



344 SABARGAM 

the Himalayas in the head-quarters subdivision of Darjeelmg District, 
Bengal, situated on the western frontier of the District m 27 10' N. 
and 88 i' E, The height above sea-level is 11,636 feet. 

Sabarmati (Sanskrit, Svabhravati). River of Western India, flow- 
ing from the hills of Mewar south-westwards into the Gulf of Cambay, 
with a course of about 200 miles and a drainage area of about 
9,500 square miles. The name is given to the combined streams of 
the Sabar, which runs through the Idar State, and of the Hathmati, 
which passes the town of Ahmadnagar (Mahi Kantha Agency). In the 
upper part of their course both rivers ha\e high rocky banks, but below 
their confluence the bed of the Sabarmati becomes broad and sandy 
The united river thence flows past Sadia and Ahmadabad, and receives 
on the left bank, at Vantha, about 30 miles below the latter city, the 
waters of the Vatrak, which, during its course of 150 miles, is fed by 
a number of smaller streams that bring down the drainage of the Mahi 
Kantha hills. The Sabarmati receives no notable tributaries on the 
right bank There are several holy places on its banks in and about 
Ahmadabad city, and the confluence at Vantha attracts many pilgrims 
to an annual fair in the month of Kartik (November). Luxuriant 
crops are grown on the silt deposited by the river, and many wells 
are sunk in its bed in the fair season. The lands of Parantlj are 
watered from the Hathmati by means of an embankment above 
Ahmadnagar. 

Sabathu (Subdthu). Hill cantonment in Simla District, Punjab, 
situated in 30 59' N. and 77 o' E., on a table-land at the extiemity of 
the Simla range, overlooking the Ghambar rrvei. It lies above the old 
load fiom Kalka to Simla, 9 miles from Kasauli and 23 from Simla 
station. Sabathu has been held as a mihtaiy post since the close of 
the Gurkha War in 1816, and a detachment of a British infantr} 
legiment is usually stationed here There is a small fort above the 
paiade-ground, formerly of mihtaiy importance, now used as a store- 
room. The American Presbyterian Mission maintains a school, and 
an asylum for lepers is supported by voluntary contributions Elevation 
above sea-level, 4,500 feet Population (1901), 2,177 

Sabhar. Village and ruins in the head-quarters subdivision of 
Dacca District, Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated in 23 51' N. and 
90 15' E., on the east bank of the Bansi river. Population (1901), 
1,904. It was formeily the capital of a Bhuiya or chief named Hans 
Chandra, but the only vestiges of it are rums of buildings and old 
tanks and the remains of what must have been a tower. Sabhar is 
now an important mart. 

Sachm State. State in the Surat Political Agency, Bombay. 
The villages constituting the State are much scattered, some of them 
being suiiounded by British territory, and others by portions of the 



S A CHIN STATE 345 

Baroda State, Sachm may, howevei, loughly speaking, be said to 
he within the limits of the British District of Surat. 

The Navvab of Sachin is by descent a Habshi or Abyssinian. When 
his ancestors first came to India is doubtful , but they were long 
known on the western coast as the Sidis of Danda-Rajpun and Janjlra. 
They were also the admirals of the fleets of the kings o